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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775083/comparing-efficacy-of-enteral-nutrition-plus-ranitidine-and-enteral-nutrition-alone-as-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis
#1
Anahid Nourian, Mostafa Mohammadi, Mohammad-Taghi Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taher, Zohreh Dadvar, Masoume Malekolkottab, Masoud Ramezani, Hossein Khalili
AIM: Adequacy of enteral nutrition (EN) alone as stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of EN alone and ranitidine plus EN as SUP. METHOD: Critically ill adults with indications to receive SUP were randomized to ranitidine 50 mg IV every 8 h plus EN (SUP) or EN alone (non-SUP) group for 7 days. Besides, endoscopy was performed at the time of recruitment and on day 7. RESULTS: During the study period, only one patient in each group of SUP and non-SUP experienced gastrointestinal bleeding...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772486/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-of-microbial-source-tracking-markers-in-recreational-water-contaminated-with-fresh-untreated-and-secondary-treated-sewage
#2
Warish Ahmed, Kerry A Hamilton, Aldo Lobos, Bridie Hughes, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Valerie J Harwood
Microbial source tracking (MST) methods have provided the means to identify sewage contamination in recreational waters, but the risk associated with elevated levels of MST targets such as sewage-associated Bacteroides HF183 and other markers is uncertain. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) modeling allows interpretation of MST data in the context of the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness caused by exposure to known reference pathogens. In this study, five sewage-associated, quantitative PCR (qPCR) MST markers [Bacteroides HF183 (HF183), Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH (nifH), human adenovirus (HAdV), human polyomavirus (HPyV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)] were evaluated to determine at what concentration these nucleic acid markers reflected a significant health risk from exposure to fresh untreated or secondary treated sewage in beach water...
May 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771872/outbreaks-associated-with-treated-recreational-water-united-states-2000-2014
#3
Michele C Hlavsa, Bryanna L Cikesh, Virginia A Roberts, Amy M Kahler, Marissa Vigar, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Dawn M Roellig, Jennifer L Murphy, Lihua Xiao, Kirsten M Yates, Jasen M Kunz, Matthew J Arduino, Sujan C Reddy, Kathleen E Fullerton, Laura A Cooley, Michael J Beach, Vincent R Hill, Jonathan S Yoder
Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Among the 363 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, 212 (58%) were caused by Cryptosporidium (which causes predominantly gastrointestinal illness), 57 (16%) by Legionella (which causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness with flu-like symptoms), and 47 (13%) by Pseudomonas (which causes folliculitis ["hot tub rash"] and otitis externa ["swimmers' ear"])...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770080/public-health-surveillance-for-the-toronto-2015-pan-parapan-american-games
#4
E Chan, K Hohenadel, B Lee, M Helferty, J R Harris, L Macdonald, T Badiani
Background: Public health surveillance for previous Olympic and Paralympic Games have been described in the literature, but surveillance for regional, multisport events on a smaller scale have rarely been explored. Objective: To describe the public health surveillance planning, implementation, results, and lessons learned from the 2015 Pan/Parapan American Games in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Intervention: Public health surveillance planning for the Games began two years in advance and involved local, provincial and federal partners, primarily focusing on infectious disease...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769017/a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-the-health-needs-of-asylum-seekers-in-a-refugee-clinic-in-germany
#5
Laura F Goodman, Guy W Jensen, Joseph M Galante, Diana L Farmer, Stephanie Taché
BACKGROUND: Over one million asylum seekers were registered in Germany in 2016, most from Syria and Afghanistan. The Refugee Convention guarantees access to healthcare, however delivery mechanisms remain heterogeneous. There is an urgent need for more data describing the health conditions of asylum seekers to guide best practices for healthcare delivery. In this study, we describe the state of health of asylum seekers presenting to a multi-specialty primary care refugee clinic. METHODS: Demographic and medical diagnosis data were extracted from the electronic medical records of patients seen at the ambulatory refugee clinic in Dresden, Germany between 15 September 2015 and 31 December 2016...
May 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768684/practical-approach-to-the-gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-cystic-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Rishi Bolia, Chee Y Ooi, Peter Lewindon, Jonathan Bishop, Sarath Ranganathan, Jo Harrison, Kristyn Ford, Natalie van der Haak, Mark R Oliver
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, life-shortening, genetic illness affecting children in Australia and New Zealand. The genetic abnormality results in abnormal anion transport across the apical membrane of epithelial cells in a number of organs, including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver and genito-urinary tract. Thus, CF is a multi-system disorder that requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Respiratory disease is the predominant cause of both morbidity and mortality in patients with CF. However, there are significant and clinically relevant gastrointestinal, liver, pancreatic and nutritional manifestations that must be detected and managed in a timely and structured manner...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768456/the-hidden-costs-identification-of-indirect-costs-associated-with-acute-gastrointestinal-illness-in-an-inuit-community
#7
Nia King, Rachael Vriezen, Victoria L Edge, James Ford, Michele Wood, Sherilee Harper
BACKGROUND: Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence and per-capita healthcare expenditures are higher in some Inuit communities as compared to elsewhere in Canada. Consequently, there is a demand for strategies that will reduce the individual-level costs of AGI; this will require a comprehensive understanding of the economic costs of AGI. However, given Inuit communities' unique cultural, economic, and geographic contexts, there is a knowledge gap regarding the context-specific indirect costs of AGI borne by Inuit community members...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765579/antagonistic-effect-of-isolated-probiotic-bacteria-from-natural-sources-against-intestinal-escherichia-coli-pathotypes
#8
Sahar Karimi, Ehsan Rashidian, Mehdi Birjandi, Leila Mahmoodnia
Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which are beneficial bacteria that are normal flora of the digestive system which, in determined amounts, show beneficial effects on host health, and can balance gastrointestinal microflora. Digestive tract diseases such as diarrhea are one of the major causes of child mortality in developing countries. Different pathotypes of Escherichia coli cause diarrhea that affects children, therefore reduction of these colonization strains in humans or animals can decline gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764431/cyclooxygenase-2-immunoexpression-in-intestinal-epithelium-and-lamina-propria-of-cats-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-low-grade-alimentary-lymphoma
#9
Jorge Castro-López, Antonio Ramis, Marta Planellas, Mariana Teles, Josep Pastor
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inducible isoform by cellular activation, proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate COX-2 immunoexpression in epithelial and lamina propria (LP) of cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and low grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL), as well as to correlate them with clinical signs and histopathological scoring. Cats diagnosed with IBD and LGAL (2007-2013) were included in the current study. Feline chronic enteropathy activity index (FCEAI) was calculated for all cases...
May 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761482/timing-of-onset-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-the-icu-protocol-for-a-preplanned-observational-study
#10
A Granholm, T Lange, C T Anthon, S Marker, M Krag, T S Meyhoff, M P Wise, M Borthwick, S Bendel, F Keus, A B Guttormsen, J C Schefold, J Wetterslev, A Perner, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, but clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. The majority of intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP), despite uncertainty concerning the balance between benefit and harm. For approximately half of ICU patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, onset is early, ie within the first two days of the ICU stay. The aetiology of gastrointestinal bleeding and consequently the balance between benefit and harm of SUP may differ between patients with early vs late gastrointestinal bleeding...
May 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751049/increased-butyrate-priming-in-the-gut-stalls-microbiome-associated-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-hepatic-metabolic-reprogramming-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#11
Ratanesh Kumar Seth, Diana Kimono, Firas Alhasson, Sutapa Sarkar, Muayad Albadrani, Stephen K Lasley, Ronnie Horner, Patricia Janulecewicz, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Kimberly Sullivan, Saurabh Chatterjee
Most of the associated pathologies in Gulf War Illness (GWI) have been ascribed to chemical and pharmaceutical exposures during the war. Since an increased number of veterans complain of gastrointestinal (GI), neuroinflammatory and metabolic complications as they age and there are limited options for a cure, the present study was focused to assess the role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid for attenuating GWI-associated GI and metabolic complications. Results in a GWI-mouse model of permethrin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) exposure showed that oral butyrate restored gut homeostasis and increased GPR109A receptor copies in the small intestine (SI)...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750964/review-apelin-in-disease
#12
REVIEW
Hanna Antushevich, Maciej Wójcik
Apelin, a regulatory peptide, is a ligand of the APJ receptor that belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family. Apelin and APJ are widely distributed in the body and play potential physiological roles in the cytoprotection of many internal organs. This review article summarizes information about the roles of the apelin/APJ system in neurological, metabolic, hypertension, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, kidney and cancerous diseases. It is suggested that apelin positively affects the treatment of non-cancerous diseases and may be considered as a therapeutic drug in many illnesses...
May 8, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746945/activation-of-coagulation-and-endothelium-with-concurrent-impairment-of-anticoagulant-mechanisms-in-patients-with-typhoid-fever
#13
Hanna K de Jong, Chris M Parry, Thomas W van der Vaart, Liesbeth M Kager, Stannie J van den Ende, Rapeephan R Maude, Lalith Wijedoru, Aniruddha Ghose, Mohammed U Hasan, Mohammed A Hossain, Arjan M Dondorp, Steve Baker, M Abul Faiz, Joost C M Meijers, W Joost Wiersinga
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi remains a major burden worldwide. Gastrointestinal bleeding can be seen in up to 10 percent of patients and may be fatal. The coagulopathy, which may be the driver of this severe complication in patients with typhoid fever, however is ill defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis in patients with acute typhoid fever. METHODS: . Parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis were measured in 28 hospitalized patients with culture-confirmed or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever and compared to 38 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739652/prolonged-length-of-stay-for-acute-hospital-admissions-as-the-increasing-of-age-a-nationwide-population-study-for-taiwan-s-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#14
Kuo-Liang Chiang, Chin-Yin Huang, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Fang-Chuan Kuo
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating reasons for the admission and the associated lengths of stay (LOSs) among cerebral palsy (CP) patients are limited. This study determined common reasons for acute hospitalizations and the LOSs among children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data. CP patients aged 4-32.9 years were identified by CP registry in the catastrophic illness patient registry of the 2010 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
April 12, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722333/effect-of-rhubarb-on-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-patients-a-retrospective-study-based-on-propensity-score-matching
#15
Xian Zhang, Lyu Wang, De-Chang Chen
Background: Gastrointestinal dysfunction plays a critical role in the prognosis of critically ill patients. Previous studies showed rhubarb, a traditional Chinese herb, can protect the intestinal barrier function, prevent intestinal bacterial translocation, and promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, but the clinical studies are less. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rhubarb on gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients. Methods: From June 2015 to May 2017, a total of 368 critically ill patients with Grade I-III acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) were enrolled in this study...
May 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721346/hsct-gave-as-a-manifestation-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-existing-literature
#16
Michael J Grant, Mitchell E Horwitz
Gastric antral vascular ectasia or "watermelon stomach" is a significant cause of nonvariceal upper GI bleeding and is characterized by red, tortuous ectatic vessels along longitudinal folds in the gastric antrum. The existing literature links GAVE to patients with cirrhosis, scleroderma, bone marrow transplantation, and chronic renal failure among other associations, but its pathophysiology remains ill-defined. Over 30 cases of hematopoietic stem cell transplant-related GAVE (HSCT-GAVE) have been reported in the literature to date and there are likely many more that go undiagnosed or are attributed to another cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding...
2018: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720852/gastrointestinal-dysmotility-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
REVIEW
Theodoros Ladopoulos, Maria Giannaki, Christina Alexopoulou, Athanasia Proklou, Emmanuel Pediaditis, Eumorfia Kondili
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are commonly present in critical illness. Up to 60% of critically ill patients have been reported to experience GI dysmotility of some form necessitating therapeutic intervention. It has been attributed to various factors, related to both the underlying disease and the therapeutic interventions undertaken. The assessment of motility disturbances can be challenging in critically ill patients, as the available tests used to detect abnormal motility have major limitations in the setting of an Intensive Care Unit...
May 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718228/revealing-the-puzzle-of-nonadherence-in-ibd-assembling-the-pieces
#18
Adi Eindor-Abarbanel, Timna Naftali, Nahum Ruhimovich, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit, Fabiana Sklerovsky-Benjaminov, Fred Konikoff, Shai Matalon, Haim Shirin, Yael Milgrom, Efrat Broide
Background: Adherence is generally associated with improved treatment outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Different components of the patient profile have an impact on patient adherence. Capturing nonadherent patients by identifying modifiable risk factors in daily practice still remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for nonadherence in IBD patients. Methods: Patients filled out questionnaires including demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic information and accessibility to gastrointestinal services...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706904/illness-perception-of-patients-with-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#19
Na-Na Xiong, Jing Wei, Mei-Yun Ke, Xia Hong, Tao Li, Li-Ming Zhu, Yue Sha, Jing Jiang, Felix Fischer
Objective: To investigate the illness perception characteristics of Chinese patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), and the mediating role between symptoms, psychopathology, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Six illness groups from four outpatient departments of a general hospital in China were recruited, including the FGID patient group. The modified and validated Chinese version of the illness perception questionnaire-revised was utilized, which contained three sections: symptom identity, illness representation, and causes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704618/themes-addressed-by-couples-with-advanced-cancer-during-a-communication-skills-training-intervention
#20
Laura S Porter, Laura Fish, Karen Steinhauser
CONTEXT: Couple-based communication interventions have beneficial effects for patients with cancer and their partners. However, few studies have targeted patients with advanced stages of disease and little is known about how best to assist couples in discussing issues related to life-limiting illness. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to identify themes couples addressed during a couple communication skills intervention, and the frequency with which they discussed issues related to end-of-life...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
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