keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Mitochondrial pharmacology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922794/genome-wide-variation-patterns-uncover-the-origin-and-selection-in-cultivated-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#1
Ming-Rui Li, Feng-Xue Shi, Ya-Ling Li, Peng Jiang, Lili Jiao, Bao Liu, Lin-Feng Li
Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915535/isoquercetin-ameliorated-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-h9c2-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-a-mitochondrial-dependent-pathway
#2
Heng Cao, Hao Xu, Guoqing Zhu, Shaowen Liu
Isoquercetin exerts multiple pharmacological effects against various diseases. The present research sought to further investigate the role of isoquercetin in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-treated cardiomyocytes and its potential mechanism involved. The H/R model in H9C2 cells was established to mimic myocardial I/R injury in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested using MTT assay and Annexin V FITC-PI staining assay, respectively. We found that isoquercetin protected H9C2 cells from H/R-induced injury as the evidences that isoquercetin administration attenuated the effects of H/R treatment on H9C2 cell viability, cell apoptosis and ROS generation after H/R treatment...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914376/cubic-membrane-formation-supports-cell-survival-of-amoeba-chaos-under-starvation-induced-stress
#3
Ketpin Chong, Zakaria A Almsherqi, Han-Ming Shen, Yuru Deng
Cubic membranes (CM) are highly organized membrane structures found in biological systems. They are mathematically well defined and reveal a three-dimensional nano-periodic structure with cubic symmetry. These membrane arrangements are frequently induced in cells under stress, disease conditions, or upon viral infection. In this study, we investigated CM formation in the mitochondria of amoeba Chaos carolinense and observed a striking correlation between the organism's ability to generate CM and the cell survival under starvation...
September 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912885/brusatol-mediated-inhibition-of-c-myc-increases-hif-1%C3%AE-degradation-and-causes-cell-death-in-colorectal-cancer-under-hypoxia
#4
Eun-Taex Oh, Chan Woo Kim, Ha Gyeong Kim, Jae-Seon Lee, Heon Joo Park
HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) regulates the expression of ~100 genes involved in angiogenesis, metastasis, tumor growth, chemoresistance and radioresistance, underscoring the growing interest in targeting HIF-1 for cancer control. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying brusatol-induced HIF-1α degradation and cell death in colorectal cancer under hypoxia (0.5% O2). Under hypoxia, pretreatment of cancer cells with brusatol increased HIF-1α degradation and cancer cell death in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912677/reversible-axonal-dystrophy-by-calcium-modulation-in-frataxin-deficient-sensory-neurons-of-yg8r-mice
#5
Belén Mollá, Diana C Muñoz-Lasso, Fátima Riveiro, Arantxa Bolinches-Amorós, Federico V Pallardó, Angel Fernandez-Vilata, María de la Iglesia-Vaya, Francesc Palau, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a peripheral neuropathy involving a loss of proprioceptive sensory neurons. Studies of biopsies from patients suggest that axonal dysfunction precedes the death of proprioceptive neurons in a dying-back process. We observed that the deficiency of frataxin in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the YG8R mouse model causes the formation of axonal spheroids which retain dysfunctional mitochondria, shows alterations in the cytoskeleton and it produces impairment of axonal transport and autophagic flux...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901459/effect-of-hyperoside-on-the-apoptosis-of-a549-human-non%C3%A2-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-and-the-underlying-mechanism
#6
Yu Yang, Jicheng Tantai, Yifeng Sun, Chenxi Zhong, Zhigang Li
Hyperoside (HY) is a major pharmacologically active component from Prunella vulgaris L. and Hypericum perforatum. The present study aimed to determine the anticancer effect of HY and determine the underlying mechanisms involved. Human A549 cells were treated with HY (10, 50 and 100 µM), and cell viability was detected by an MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to identify the expression of apoptosis‑associated proteins and phosphorylation of MAPK...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898759/cuprous-oxide-nanoparticles-trigger-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-by-regulating-copper-trafficking-and-overcoming-resistance-to-sunitinib-therapy-in-renal-cancer
#7
Qiwei Yang, Ye Wang, Qing Yang, Yi Gao, Xiaopeng Duan, Qingcheng Fu, Chuanmin Chu, Xiuwu Pan, Xingang Cui, Yinghao Sun
While the current standard first-line treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is sunitinib, patients inevitably develop resistance to this drug. However, the rapid development of nanotechnology has provided emerging techniques for the treatment of advanced tumours, including RCC. In our previous research, cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) showed ideal anti-tumour effects and low systemic toxicity. While many inorganic nanomedicines, including CONPs, have similar pharmacological effects, their detailed mechanisms remain unknown...
September 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894505/increased-mitochondrial-mass-and-cytosolic-redox-imbalance-in-hippocampal-astrocytes-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-subcellular-changes-revealed-by-ratiometric-imaging-of-jc-1-and-rogfp1-fluorescence
#8
Dörthe F Bebensee, Karolina Can, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Mostly girls are affected, and an apparently normal development is followed by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, epilepsy, and irregular breathing. Various indications suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In Rett mice, brain ATP levels are reduced, mitochondria are leaking protons, and respiratory complexes are dysregulated. Furthermore, we found in MeCP2-deficient mouse (Mecp2(-/y) ) hippocampus an intensified mitochondrial metabolism and ROS generation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883393/fas-cell-surface-death-receptor-controls-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-by-regulating-mitochondrial-function
#9
Flurin Item, Stephan Wueest, Vera Lemos, Sokrates Stein, Fabrizio C Lucchini, Rémy Denzler, Muriel C Fisser, Tenagne D Challa, Eija Pirinen, Youngsoo Kim, Silvio Hemmi, Erich Gulbins, Atan Gross, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Markus Stoffel, Johan Auwerx, Daniel Konrad
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders and it tightly associates with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Reduced mitochondrial lipid oxidation contributes to hepatic fatty acid accumulation. Here, we show that the Fas cell surface death receptor (Fas/CD95/Apo-1) regulates hepatic mitochondrial metabolism. Hepatic Fas overexpression in chow-fed mice compromises fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and the abundance of mitochondrial respiratory complexes promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883016/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-role-for-%C3%AE-synuclein
#10
REVIEW
Victorio M Pozo Devoto, Tomas L Falzone
The distinctive pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease are the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons and the intracellular accumulation of Lewy bodies enriched in α-synuclein protein. Several lines of evidence from the study of sporadic, familial and pharmacologically induced forms of human Parkinson's disease also suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in disease progression. Although many functions have been proposed for α-synuclein, emerging data from human and animal models of Parkinson's disease highlight a role for α-synuclein in the control of neuronal mitochondrial dynamics...
September 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878624/cell-death-in-the-developing-brain-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#11
REVIEW
Claire Thornton, Bryan Leaw, Carina Mallard, Syam Nair, Masako Jinnai, Henrik Hagberg
Perinatal insults such as hypoxia-ischemia induces secondary brain injury. In order to develop the next generation of neuroprotective therapies, we urgently need to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to cell death. The cell death mechanisms have been shown to be quite different in the developing brain compared to that in the adult. The aim of this review is update on what cell death mechanisms that are operating particularly in the setting of the developing CNS. In response to mild stress stimuli a number of compensatory mechanisms will be activated, most often leading to cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875237/uncoupling-protein-2-inhibition-exacerbates-glucose-fluctuation-mediated-neuronal-effects
#12
Susana Cardoso, Raquel M Seiça, Paula I Moreira
Though glucose fluctuations have been considered as an adverse factor for the development of several diabetes-related complications, their impact in the central nervous system is still not fully elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of neuronal cells to different glycemic exposures alongside to elucidate the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in regulating such responses. To achieve our goals, primary cortical neurons were submitted to constant high (HG)/low (LG) or glucose level variations (GVs), and the pharmacological inhibition of UCP2 activity was performed using genipin...
September 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874749/structural-and-pharmacological-basis-for-the-induction-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-formoterol-but-not-clenbuterol
#13
Robert B Cameron, Craig C Beeson, Rick G Schnellmann
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with numerous acute and chronic degenerative diseases. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist formoterol induces mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), but other β2AR agonists, such as clenbuterol, do not. We sought to identify the MB signaling pathway of formoterol and the differences in signaling between these two ligands that result in the differential induction of MB. While formoterol and clenbuterol increased cAMP, only formoterol increased the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream target eNOS...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871145/reversible-keap1-inhibitors-are-preferential-pharmacological-tools-to-modulate-cellular-mitophagy
#14
Nikolaos D Georgakopoulos, Michele Frison, Maria Soledad Alvarez, Hélène Bertrand, Geoff Wells, Michelangelo Campanella
Mitophagy orchestrates the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria preventing their pathological accumulation and contributing to cellular homeostasis. We previously identified a novel chemical tool (hereafter referred to as PMI), which drives mitochondria into autophagy without collapsing their membrane potential (ΔΨm). PMI is an inhibitor of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the transcription factor Nrf2 and its negative regulator, Keap1 and is able to up-regulate the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including p62/SQSTM1...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867301/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-nexus-of-metabolic-and-hepatic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Varman T Samuel, Gerald I Shulman
NAFLD is closely linked with hepatic insulin resistance. Accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerol activates PKC-ε, impairing insulin receptor activation and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. Peripheral insulin resistance indirectly influences hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing flux of substrates that promote lipogenesis (glucose and fatty acids) and gluconeogenesis (glycerol and fatty acid-derived acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator of pyruvate carboxylase). Weight loss with diet or bariatric surgery effectively treats NAFLD, but drugs specifically approved for NAFLD are not available...
August 29, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866380/mitochondrial-transition-ros-spike-mtrs-results-from-coordinated-activities-of-complex-i-and-nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase
#16
Mahmoud S Sharaf, Don Stevens, Collins Kamunde
Mitochondria exhibit suppressed ATP production, membrane potential (∆Ψmt) polarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) bursts during some cellular metabolic transitions. Although mitochondrial ROS release is influenced by ∆Ψmt and respiratory state, the relationship between these properties remains controversial primarily because they have not been measured simultaneously. We developed a multiparametric method for probing mitochondrial function that allowed precise characterization of the temporal relationship between ROS, ∆Ψmt and respiration...
August 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860994/pioglitazone-improves-mitochondrial-function-in-the-remnant-kidney-and-protects-against-renal-fibrosis-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#17
Li Sun, Quan Yuan, Tianhua Xu, Li Yao, Jiangmin Feng, Jianfei Ma, Lining Wang, Changlong Lu, Danan Wang
Pioglitazone is a type of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist and has been demonstrated to be effective in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) treatment. However, the underlying mechanism involved in the renoprotection of pioglitazone has not been fully revealed. In the present study, the renoprotective mechanism of pioglitazone was investigated in 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats and TGF-β1-exposed HK-2 cells. Pioglitazone attenuated renal injury and improved renal function, as examined by 24 h urinary protein, blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine in Nx rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855870/leaf-and-root-extracts-from-campomanesia-adamantium-myrtaceae-promote-apoptotic-death-of-leukemic-cells-via-activation-of-intracellular-calcium-and-caspase-3
#18
Jaqueline F Campos, Priscilla P de Toledo Espindola, Heron F V Torquato, Wagner D Vital, Giselle Z Justo, Denise B Silva, Carlos A Carollo, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edgar J Paredes-Gamero, Edson L Dos Santos
Phytochemical studies are seeking new alternatives to prevent or treat cancer, including different types of leukemias. Campomanesia adamantium, commonly known as guavira or guabiroba, exhibits pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Considering the anticancer potential of this plant species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic activity and the chemical composition of aqueous extracts from the leaves (AECL) and roots (AECR) of C. adamantium and their possible mechanisms of action...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855578/hur-targeted-small-molecule-inhibitor-exhibits-cytotoxicity-towards-human-lung-cancer-cells
#19
Ranganayaki Muralidharan, Meghna Mehta, Rebaz Ahmed, Sudeshna Roy, Liang Xu, Jeffrey Aubé, Allshine Chen, Yan Daniel Zhao, Terence Herman, Rajagopal Ramesh, Anupama Munshi
Human antigen (Hu) R is an RNA-binding protein whose overexpression in human cancer correlates with aggressive disease, drug resistance, and poor prognosis. HuR inhibition has profound anticancer activity. Pharmacologic inhibitors can overcome the limitations of genetic inhibition. In this study, we examined the antitumor activity of CMLD-2, a small-molecule inhibitor directed against HuR, using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a model. CMLD-2 efficacy was tested in vitro using H1299, A549, HCC827, and H1975 NSCLC cells and MRC-9 and CCD-16 normal human fibroblasts...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853863/nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-methylation-patterns-induced-by-valproic-acid-in-human-hepatocytes
#20
Jarno E J Wolters, Simone G J van Breda, Florian Caiment, Sandra M Claessen, Theo M C M de Kok, Jos C S Kleinjans
Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs in the world. Despite its pharmacological importance, it may cause liver toxicity and steatosis through mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study is to further investigate VPA-induced mechanisms of steatosis by analyzing changes in patterns of methylation in nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) were exposed to an incubation concentration of VPA that was shown to cause steatosis without inducing overt cytotoxicity...
September 13, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
keyword
keyword
44358
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"