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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719515/anaesthetic-management-of-patients-with-myopathies
#1
Mark Schieren, Jerome Defosse, Andreas Böhmer, Frank Wappler, Mark U Gerbershagen
: The anaesthetic management of patients with myopathies is challenging. Considering the low incidence and heterogeneity of these disorders, most anaesthetists are unfamiliar with key symptoms, associated co-morbidities and implications for anaesthesia. The pre-anaesthetic assessment aims at the detection of potentially undiagnosed myopathic patients and, in case of known or suspected muscular disease, on the quantification of disease progression. Ancillary testing (e.g. echocardiography, ECG, lung function testing etc...
July 15, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717105/ephedrine-induced-mitophagy-via-oxidative-stress-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#2
Ah Young Lee, Yoonjeong Jang, Seong-Ho Hong, Seung-Hee Chang, Sungjin Park, Sanghwa Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Ji-Eun Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
The herb Ephedra sinica (also known as Chinese ephedra or Ma Huang), used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains alkaloids identical to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents. Recent studies have reported that ephedrine has various side effects in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. In addition, herbal Ephedra, a plant containing many pharmacologically active alkaloids, principally ephedrine, has been reported to cause acute hepatitis. Many studies reported clinical cases, however, the cellular mechanism of liver toxicity by ephedrine remains unknown...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714395/five-decades-of-cuprizone-an-updated-model-to-replicate-demyelinating-diseases
#3
Jose M Vega-Riquer, Gerardo Mendez-Victoriano, Raul A Morales-Luckie, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral nerve polyneuropathy and others comprise a group of demyelinating diseases characterized by progressive (and eventually irreversible) loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in the white matter of the brain. To date, the etiology of these disorders is not well known and no effective treatments are currently available. Therefore, further research is needed to gain a better understand and treat these patients. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to have appropriate animal models that closely resemble the pathophysiology of these diseases...
July 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711683/anti-obesogenic-effects-of-wy14643-ppar-alpha-agonist-hepatic-mitochondrial-enhancement-and-suppressed-lipogenic-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#4
Flavia Maria Silva Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Aline Barcellos Barreto, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710503/rac1-mediated-cardiac-damage-causes-diastolic-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-subacute-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#5
Jan Ohlig, Christian Henninger, Simone Zander, Marc Merx, Malte Kelm, Gerhard Fritz
The anticancer efficacy of anthracyclines is limited by congestive heart failure. Clinically established markers of early onset of cardiotoxicity following anthracycline treatment and preventive measures are missing. Although statins are reported to alleviate anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. In vitro data point to Rac1 as major target of the cytoprotective statin effects. Here we investigated whether specific inhibition of Rac1 by NSC23766 is as effective as lovastatin in preventing subacute cardiotoxicity following doxorubicin treatment...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710464/analysis-of-mitochondrial-organization-and-function-in-the-drosophila-blastoderm-embryo
#6
Sayali Chowdhary, Darshika Tomer, Dnyanesh Dubal, Devashree Sambre, Richa Rikhy
Mitochondria are inherited maternally as globular and immature organelles in metazoan embryos. We have used the Drosophila blastoderm embryo to characterize their morphology, distribution and functions in embryogenesis. We find that mitochondria are relatively small, dispersed and distinctly distributed along the apico-basal axis in proximity to microtubules by motor protein transport. Live imaging, photobleaching and photoactivation analyses of mitochondrially targeted GFP show that they are mobile in the apico-basal axis along microtubules and are immobile in the lateral plane thereby associating with one syncytial cell...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707979/emerging-roles-for-sirt5-in-metabolism-and-cancer
#7
Lauren Rose Bringman-Rodenbarger, Angela H Guo, Costas A Lyssiotis, David B Lombard
SIGNIFICANCE: Developing evidence in the literature suggests that SIRT5 may be involved in metabolic reprogramming, an emerging hallmark of cancer by which neoplastic cells reconfigure their metabolism to support the anabolic demands of rapid cell division. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is one of the seven members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent sirtuin family of lysine deacylases. It removes succinyl, malonyl, and glutaryl groups from protein targets within the mitochondrial matrix and other subcellular compartments...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706451/protein-kinase-c-beta-ii-upregulates-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-via-mitochondrial-activation-in-cultured-endothelial-cells
#8
Hee Kyoung Joo, Yu Ran Lee, Sunga Choi, Myoung Soo Park, Gun Kang, Cuk-Seong Kim, Byeong Hwa Jeon
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is closely linked with endothelial dysfunction. However, the effect of PKCβII on endothelial dysfunction has not been characterized in cultured endothelial cells. Here, using adenoviral PKCβII gene transfer and pharmacological inhibitors, the role of PKCβII on endothelial dysfucntion was investigated in cultured endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), p66shc phosphorylation, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte adhesion, which were inhibited by PKCβi (10 nM), a selective inhibitor of PKCβII...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704444/maternal-inheritance-of-deltamethrin-resistance-in-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-is-associated-with-unique-mtdna-haplotypes
#9
Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas, Michaël Bekaert, Joseph L Humble, Sally Boyd, William Roy, David I Bassett, Ross D Houston, Karim Gharbi, James E Bron, Armin Sturm
Parasitic infections by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), cause huge economic damage in salmon farming in the northern hemisphere, with combined treatment costs and production losses in 2014 having been estimated at US$ 350 million for Norway (annual production 1.25 million tonnes). The control of L. salmonis relies significantly on medicinal treatments, supplemented by non-pharmacological approaches. However, efficacy losses have been reported for several delousing agents, including the pyrethroid deltamethrin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701928/the-hyperpolarization-activated-current-determines-synaptic-excitability-calcium-activity-and-specific-viability-of-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-neurons
#10
Carmen Carbone, Alessia Costa, Gustavo Provensi, Guido Mannaioni, Alessio Masi
Differential vulnerability between Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Understanding the molecular bases of this key histopathological aspect would foster the development of much-needed disease-modifying therapies. Non-heterogeneous DAergic degeneration is present in both toxin-based and genetic animal models, suggesting that cellular specificity, rather than causing factors, constitutes the background for differential vulnerability...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698540/epigallocatechin-gallate-attenuates-hip-fracture-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-limiting-mitochondrial-dna-mtdna-release
#11
Xiao-Dan Zhao, Hao Liu, Tao Li, Quan Gong, Wen-Li Zhang
BACKGROUND To study the protective effects and explore the mechanism of epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) on the hip fracture-induced acute lung injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the control group, hip fracture group, and hip fracture + EGCG (10 mg/Kg) group. After 24 h, blood samples, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue were collected. Serum mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was measured by RT-PCR and BALF was used to perform cytological analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay...
July 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698529/naturally-occurring-compounds-new-potential-weapons-against-oxidative-stress-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Lorenzo Signorini, Simona Granata, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Oxidative stress is a well-described imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defense system of cells and tissues. The overproduction of free radicals damages all components of the cell (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids) and modifies their physiological functions. As widely described, this condition is a biochemical hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may dramatically influence the progression of renal impairment and the onset/development of major systemic comorbidities including cardiovascular diseases...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698403/identifying-mitotane-induced-mitochondria-associated-membranes-dysfunctions-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-approaches
#13
Ségolène Hescot, Larbi Amazit, Marie Lhomme, Simon Travers, Anais DuBow, Stéphanie Battini, Geoffrey Boulate, Izzie Jacques Namer, Anne Lombès, Anatol Kontush, Alessio Imperiale, Eric Baudin, Marc Lombès
Mitotane (o,p'DDD), the most effective drug in adrenocortical carcinoma, concentrates into the mitochondria and impacts mitochondrial functions. To address the molecular mechanisms of mitotane action and to identify its potential target, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches as well as imaging analyses were employed in human adrenocortical H295R cells allowing identification of Mitochondria-Associated Membranes dysfunction as a critical impact of mitotane. Study of intracellular energetic metabolites by NMR spectroscopy showed that mitotane significantly decreased aspartate while concomitantly increased glutamate content in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694756/electro-pharmacological-profiles-of-two-brain-mitoplast-anion-channels-inferences-from-single-channel-recording
#14
Javad Fahanik-Babaei, Farzad Shayanfar, Naser Khodaee, Reza Saghiri, Afsaneh Eliassi
We have characterized the conduction and blocking properties of two different chloride channels from brain mitochondrial inner membranes after incorporation into planar lipid bilayers. Our experiments revealed the existence of channels with a mean conductance of 158 ± 7 and 301 ± 8 pS in asymmetrical 200 mM cis/50 mM trans KCl solutions. We determined that the channels were ten times more permeable for Cl(-) than for K(+), calculated from the reversal potential using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. The channels were bell-shaped voltage dependent, with maximum open probability 0...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690189/efavirenz-what-is-known-about-the-cellular-mechanisms-responsible-for-its-adverse-effects
#15
REVIEW
Nadezda Apostolova, Ana Blas-Garcia, Maria J Galindo, Juan V Esplugues
The HIV infection remains an important health problem worldwide. However, due to the efficacy of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), it has ceased to be a mortal condition, becoming a chronic disease instead. Efavirenz, the most prescribed non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been a key component of cART since its commercialization in 1998. Though still a drug of choice in many countries, its primacy has been challenged by the arrival of newer antiretroviral agents with better toxicity profiles and treatment adherence...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690148/betulinic-acid-induces-cell-death-by-necrosis-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#16
Paloma Leão Sousa, Racquel Oliveira da Silva Souza, Louise Donadello Tessarolo, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Jader Almeida Canuto, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Chagas' disease is a neglected disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and constitutes a serious health problem worldwide. The treatment is limited, with variable efficacy of benznidazole and nifurtimox. Betulinic Acid (BA), a triterpene, can be found in medicinal herbs and has a wide variety of biological and pharmacological activities. The objective was to evaluate betulinic acid effects on the cell death mechanism in Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y. BA inhibited the growth of epimastigotes in periods of 24h (IC50=73...
July 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688941/sodium-thiosulfate-post-conditioning-protects-rat-hearts-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-reduction-of-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#17
Sriram Ravindran, Shanofer Jahir Hussain, Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Pharmacological agents given at the time of reperfusion can protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury (IR). Being a calcium chelator, antioxidant and mitochondrial potassium channel modulator, sodium thiosulfate (STS) was chosen to treat myocardial IR injury. Isolated rat heart model was used to induce IR injury and the hemodynamic changes were monitored using PowerLab (AD Instruments, Australia). STS at a dose of 1 mM given at the early stage of reperfusion significantly reduced the infarct size and recovered the failing heart from reperfusion injury...
July 6, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684529/targeting-histone-demethylases-in-myc-driven-neuroblastomas-with-ciclopirox
#18
Jun Yang, Sandra Milasta, Dongli Hu, Alaa AlTahan, Rodrigo Interiano, Junfang Zhou, Jesse Davidson, Jonathan Low, Wenwei Lin, Ju Bao, Pollyanna Goh, Amit Nathwani, Ruoning Wang, Yingdi Wang, Su Sien Ong, Vincent Boyd, Brandon Young, Sourav Das, Anang A Shelat, Yinan Wu, Zhenmei Li, Jie Zheng, Ashutosh Mishra, Yong Cheng, Chunxu Qu, Junmin Peng, Douglas R Green, Stephen White, R Kip Guy, Taosheng Chen, Andrew Davidoff
Histone lysine demethylases facilitate the activity of oncogenic transcription factors including possibly MYC. Here we show that multiple histone demethylases influence the viability and poor prognosis of neuroblastoma cells where MYC is often overexpressed. We also identified the approved small molecule antifungal agent ciclopirox as a novel pan-histone demethylase inhibitor. Ciclopirox targeted several histone demethylases including KDM4B implicated in MYC function. Accordingly, ciclopirox inhibited Myc signaling in parallel with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in suppression of neuroblastoma cell viability and inhibition of tumor growth associated with an induction of differentiation...
July 6, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683296/inflammasomes-on-the-crossroads-of-innate-immune-recognition-and-metabolic-control
#19
REVIEW
Tomasz Próchnicki, Eicke Latz
Inflammasomes are protein complexes formed upon encounter of microbial or damage-associated stimuli. The main output of inflammasome assembly is activation of caspase-1, a protease involved in both pro-inflammatory and host-protective responses. Defined bacterial or viral ligands have been identified for the inflammasome-forming receptors AIM2, NLRP1, and NLRC4. The signals activating other inflammasomes, NLRP3, NLRP6, and pyrin, are less well understood. Recent studies implicated several low-molecular-weight compounds traditionally linked to metabolism, not immunity, in modulation of inflammasome signaling...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678794/ammonium-tetrathiomolybdate-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-chemistry-pharmacology-and-impact-of-a-new-class-of-sulfide-donor-in-preclinical-injury-models
#20
Alex Dyson, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Giovanni Sabbatini, Anna B Lach, Federica Galfo, Juliano Dos Santos Cardoso, Bruna Pescador Mendonça, Iain Hargreaves, Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Daniel I Bromage, John F Martin, Kevin P Moore, Martin Feelisch, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Early revascularization of ischemic organs is key to improving outcomes, yet consequent reperfusion injury may be harmful. Reperfusion injury is largely attributed to excess mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulfide inhibits mitochondria and reduces ROS production. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM), a copper chelator, releases sulfide in a controlled and novel manner, and may offer potential therapeutic utility. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro, ATTM releases sulfide in a time-, pH-, temperature-, and thiol-dependent manner...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
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