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Colistimethate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961916/structural-modification-of-lps-in-colistin-resistant-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#1
Lisa M Leung, Vaughn S Cooper, David A Rasko, Qinglan Guo, Marissa P Pacey, Christi L McElheny, Roberta T Mettus, Sung Hwan Yoon, David R Goodlett, Robert K Ernst, Yohei Doi
Background: Colistin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae typically involves inactivation or mutations of chromosomal genes mgrB, pmrAB or phoPQ, but data regarding consequent modifications of LPS are limited. Objectives: To examine the sequences of chromosomal loci implicated in colistin resistance and the respective LPS-derived lipid A profiles using 11 pairs of colistin-susceptible and -resistant KPC-producing K. pneumoniae clinical strains. Methods: The strains were subjected to high-throughput sequencing with Illumina HiSeq...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846777/efficacy-of-a-fixed-combination-of-tetracycline-chloramphenicol-and-colistimethate-sodium-for-treatment-of-candida-albicans-keratitis
#2
Anna R Blanco, Antonia Nostro, Valeria D'Angelo, Manuela D'Arrigo, Maria G Mazzone, Andreana Marino
Purpose: To evaluate the antifungal activity of a fixed antibiotic combination (AC) containing tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol (CAF), and colistimethate sodium (CS). Methods: In vitro: Candida ATCC and clinical strains were used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AC and of each antibiotic were determined. Fluconazole (FLC) was tested for comparison. Time-killing curves of selected strains were performed. Ex vivo keratitis: corneas were injected intrastromally with the selected strains...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699114/reversible-hypokalemia-and-bartter-like-syndrome-during-prolonged-systemic-therapy-with-colistimethate-sodium-in-an-adult-patient
#3
Tarek Kamal Eldin, Grazia Tosone, Alfredo Capuano, Raffaele Orlando
We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who developed hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis 2 weeks after therapy with colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic lower limb ulcer infection by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic changes observed resembled Bartter syndrome, a group of congenital disorders affecting the distal segments of the renal tubules. The metabolic abnormalities reversed spontaneously 6 days after drug discontinuation. Acquired forms of Bartter syndrome have been reported during courses of antibiotic therapy; however, to our knowledge, this is the first documented case associated with colistimethate therapy in an adult...
December 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683697/assessment-of-off-label-prescribing-profile-evidence-and-evolution
#4
Encarnación Blanco-Reina, Azucena Muñoz-García, Manuel Jesús Cárdenas-Aranzana, Ricardo Ocaña-Riola, José Ramón Del Prado-Llergo
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to describe the extent and profile of off-label prescriptions, to evaluate the level of evidence supporting these indications, to assess the research activity in these conditions, and to determine to what extent these were authorized as new indications five years after the application. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including all applications conducted in the Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía in Córdoba during 2010...
July 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614995/ease-of-use-of-tobramycin-inhalation-powder-compared-with-nebulized-tobramycin-and-colistimethate-sodium-a-crossover-study-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-pulmonary-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#5
James Greenwood, Carsten Schwarz, Urte Sommerwerck, Edward F Nash, Michael Tamm, Weihua Cao, Paul Mastoridis, Laurie Debonnett, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the ease of use of tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP) administered via T-326 inhaler versus tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) and colistimethate sodium (COLI), both administered via nebulizers, for the treatment of chronic pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: A real-world, open-label, crossover, interventional phase IV study was conducted in CF patients aged ⩾6 years with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ⩾25% to ⩽90% predicted...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559275/urinary-concentrations-of-colistimethate-and-formed-colistin-after-intravenous-administration-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#6
Sonia Luque, Carol Escaño, Luisa Sorli, Jian Li, Nuria Campillo, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Esther Salas, Santiago Grau
Limited information is available on the urinary excretion of colistin in infected patients. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of colistimethate sodium (CMS) and formed colistin in urine in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted on 12 patients diagnosed with an infection caused by an extremely drug-resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa strain and treated with intravenous CMS. Fresh urine samples were collected at 2-h intervals, and blood samples were collected predose (Cmin ss) and at the end of the CMS infusion (Cmax ss) for measurement of concentrations of CMS and formed colistin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524024/-efficacy-and-safety-of-colistimethate-sodium-in-critical-patients-an-in-vitro-study-by-using-of-monte-carlo-simulation
#7
Aijun Pan, Qing Mei, Tianjun Yang, Xiaolan Gao, Huaiwei Lu, Ying Ye, Jiabin Li, Bao Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of colistimethate sodium (CMS) for the treatment of critical patients infected by pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (PDR-AB) or pan-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDR-PA). METHODS: 321 isolates of PDR-AB and 204 isolates of PDR-PA from critical patients admitted to 35 intensive care units (ICUs) of grade two or above were collected from the Anhui Antimicrobial Resistance Investigation Net (AHARIN) program from September 2012 to September 2015, while the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of colistin were determined by the E-test...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416543/potential-toxicity-of-polymyxins-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#8
Maizbha U Ahmed, Tony Velkov, Yu-Wei Lin, Bo Yun, Cameron J Nowell, Fanfan Zhou, Qi Tony Zhou, Kim Chan, Mohammad A K Azad, Jian Li
Inhaled polymyxins are of considerable utility in achieving optimal exposure in the respiratory tract for the treatment of lung infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Current inhaled polymyxin therapy is empirical, and often large doses are used that may lead to potential pulmonary adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polymyxins on human lung epithelial (A549) cells. The viability of A549 cells was examined after treatment with polymyxins by flow cytometry...
June 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410932/outcome-analysis-of-colistin-treated-burn-center-patients
#9
Rachel E Wilkinson, David M Hill, William L Hickerson
OBJECTIVES: Intravenous colistimethate sodium (CMS) use in burn center patients is increasing due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. However, optimal dosing strategies and factors that may contribute to treatment failure are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that may contribute to treatment failure in colistin-treated burn center patients. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included burn center patients that received ≥48h of intravenous CMS between June 1, 2009 and June 30, 2014...
September 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389539/microbiota-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-and-the-lung
#10
Laura Glendinning, Steven Wright, Peter Tennant, Andrew C Gill, David Collie, Gerry McLachlan
The lung microbiota is commonly sampled using relatively invasive bronchoscopic procedures. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection potentially offers a less invasive alternative for lung microbiota sampling. We compared lung microbiota samples retrieved by protected specimen brushings (PSB) and exhaled breath condensate collection. We also sought to assess whether aerosolized antibiotic treatment would influence the lung microbiota and whether this change could be detected in EBC. EBC was collected from 6 conscious sheep and then from the same anesthetized sheep during mechanical ventilation...
June 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172481/low-doses-of-colistimethate-don-t-rush-in
#11
Alexandre P Zavascki, Roger L Nation
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065254/pulmonary-eosinophilia-from-inhaled-colistin
#12
Pierre-Alexis Lépine, Alain Dumas, Louis-Philippe Boulet
We report the case of a patient with a history of chronic bronchiectasis that presented with new onset fatigue, shortness of breath, peripheral blood eosinophilia and infiltrates on chest radiograph. Eight days previously, she was prescribed inhaled colistimethate sodium 75 mg bid to prevent exacerbations of her respiratory condition. To our knowledge, our case is the first to show the clinical and radiologic features of inhaled-colistimethate-induced pulmonary eosinophilia. It also shows the rapid resolution of its features following treatment with oral corticosteroids...
January 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056821/impact-of-colistin-plasma-levels-on-the-clinical-outcome-of-patients-with-infections-caused-by-extremely-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Luisa Sorlí, Sonia Luque, Concepción Segura, Nuria Campillo, Milagro Montero, Erika Esteve, Sabina Herrera, Natividad Benito, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Santiago Grau, Juan Pablo Horcajada
BACKGROUND: Colistin has a narrow therapeutic window with nephrotoxicity being the major dose-limiting adverse effect. Currently, the optimal doses and therapeutic plasma levels are unknown. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study, including patients infected by colistin-susceptible P. aeruginosa treated with intravenous colistimethate sodium (CMS). Clinical data and colistin plasma levels at steady-state (Css) were recorded. The primary and secondary end points were clinical cure and 30-day all-cause mortality...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011614/dosing-guidance-for-intravenous-colistin-in-critically-ill-patients
#14
Roger L Nation, Samira M Garonzik, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Alan Forrest, David L Paterson, Jian Li, Fernanda P Silveira
Background: Intravenous colistin is difficult to use because plasma concentrations for antibacterial effect overlap those causing nephrotoxicity, and there is large inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics. The aim was to develop dosing algorithms for achievement of a clinically desirable average steady-state plasma colistin concentration (Css,avg) of 2mg/L. Methods: Plasma concentration-time data from 214 adult critically-ill patients (creatinine clearance 0-236mL/min; 29 receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT)) were subjected to population pharmacokinetic analysis...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007722/physical-compatibility-of-isavuconazonium-sulfate-with-select-i-v-drugs-during-simulated-y-site-administration
#15
Wonhee So, Liz Kim, Abrar K Thabit, David P Nicolau, Joseph L Kuti
PURPOSE: The physical compatibility of isavuconazonium sulfate with 95 i.v. drugs during simulated Y-site administration was studied. METHODS: Isavuconazonium sulfate for injection and all other drugs were reconstituted according to the manufacturer's recommendation and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection to a final concentration (1.5 mg/mL for isavuconazonium sulfate and standard concentrations used clinically for other drugs)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007716/optimizing-colistin-dosing-is-a-loading-dose-necessary
#16
Lama H Nazer, Nadine Anabtawi
PURPOSE: Published literature on the pharmacokinetics and effectiveness of colistin loading doses is reviewed. SUMMARY: Colistin is increasingly used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB). A literature search identified seven reports on studies of colistin loading doses. All reviewed studies involved small samples of critically ill patients, with considerable variation in the colistin products and loading doses used...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993859/nephrotoxicity-of-polymyxins-is-there-any-difference-between-colistimethate-and-polymyxin-b
#17
REVIEW
Alexandre P Zavascki, Roger L Nation
Nephrotoxicity is a common adverse effect of the clinically used polymyxins, colistin and polymyxin B. This adverse effect is dose limiting for both polymyxins, as the plasma polymyxin concentrations associated with renal damage overlap those required for antibacterial effect. Since development of acute kidney injury (AKI) during therapy is highly undesirable, it is extremely important to know whether there is any difference between the nephrotoxic potential of colistin (administered as its inefficient prodrug, colistimethate) and polymyxin B (administered as the active form)...
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986687/low-doses-of-colistimethate-don-t-rush-in
#18
Alexandre P Zavascki, Roger L Nation
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743779/colistin-loading-dose-evaluation-of-the-published-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-data
#19
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Konstantinos Rellos, Nikolaos A Triarides, Matthew E Falagas
Colistin (polymyxin E) has been widely used since the beginning of the century as a last-option antibiotic for the treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively-drug resistant bacterial infections. However, colistin dosing is troublesome because each batch of the drug contains a mixture of components and because it is administered as the inactive pro-drug colistimethate sodium (CMS), which has different pharmacokinetic (PK) properties from the active drug. Significant inter-individual and intra-individual variability in colistin plasma concentrations have been observed in all available studies...
November 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692977/comparison-of-inhaled-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-systematic-literature-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
J Stuart Elborn, Anne-Lise Vataire, Ayako Fukushima, Samuel Aballea, Amine Khemiri, Curtis Moore, Goran Medic, Michiel E H Hemels
PURPOSE: In Europe, 4 inhaled antibiotics (tobramycin, colistimethate sodium, aztreonam, and levofloxacin) are currently approved for the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Levofloxacin inhalation solution (LIS) is the most recently approved inhaled antibiotic for adult patients with CF. A systematic literature review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the relative short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (24 weeks) outcomes of these inhaled antibiotics versus LIS...
October 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
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