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Cachexia and brown adipose tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589391/effects-of-serum-albumin-calcium-levels-cancer-stage-and-performance-status-on-weight-loss-in-parathyroid-hormone-related-peptide-positive-or-negative-patients-with-cancer
#1
Ji Yeon Lee, Namki Hong, Hye Ryun Kim, Byung Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Yong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: A recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL) in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS). METHODS: A cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW) changes...
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570397/the-tumor-secretory-factor-zag-promotes-white-adipose-tissue-browning-and-energy-wasting
#2
Sawsan Elattar, Manali Dimri, Ande Satyanarayana
This article includes supplemental data. Please visit http://www.fasebj.org to obtain this information.Cachexia is a complex tissue-wasting syndrome characterized by inflammation, hypermetabolism, increased energy expenditure, and anorexia. Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the significant factors that contribute to energy wasting in cachexia. By utilizing a cell implantation model, we demonstrate here that the lipid mobilizing factor zinc-α2 -glycoprotein (ZAG) induces WAT browning in mice...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567992/crotamine-induces-browning-of-adipose-tissue-and-increases-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#3
Marcelo P Marinovic, Joana D Campeiro, Sunamita C Lima, Andrea L Rocha, Marcela B Nering, Eduardo B Oliveira, Marcelo A Mori, Mirian A F Hayashi
Crotamine, originally isolated from rattlesnake venom, has been extensively studied due to its pleiotropic biological properties, and special attention has been paid to its antitumor activity. However, long-term treatment with crotamine was accompanied by a reduction in animal body weight gain and by increases in glucose tolerance. As cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, to preclude the possible cancer cachexia-like effect of crotamine, herein this polypeptide was administered in healthy wild-type C57/BL6 mice by the oral route daily, for 21 days...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338749/interleukin-6-induces-fat-loss-in-cancer-cachexia-by-promoting-white-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-browning
#4
Jun Han, Qingyang Meng, Lei Shen, Guohao Wu
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a progressive and multi-factorial metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. White adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and white-to-brown transdifferentiation of WAT (WAT browning) are proposed to contribute to WAT atrophy in cancer cachexia. Chronic inflammation, mediated by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been reported to promote cancer cachexia. However, whether chronic inflammation promotes cancer cachexia by regulating WAT metabolism and the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
January 16, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245988/alcohol-intake-aggravates-adipose-browning-and-muscle-atrophy-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#5
Bo Wang, Faya Zhang, Hui Zhang, Zhixiu Wang, Yan-Nan Ma, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting, adipose tissue atrophy and inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, and enhances cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. To test, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0% or 20% (w/v) alcohol for 3 months, then inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma cells subcutaneously in the right side of the hip and continued to feed with/without alcohol for 3 or 4 weeks...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119382/role-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-metabolic-syndrome-aging-and-cancer-cachexia
#6
REVIEW
Meng Dong, Jun Lin, Wonchung Lim, Wanzhu Jin, Hyuek Jong Lee
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining body temperature by producing heat. BAT that had been know to exist only in mammals and the human neonate has received great attention for the treatment of obesity and diabetes due to its important function in energy metabolism, ever since it is recently reported that human adults have functional BAT. In addition, beige adipocytes, brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), have also been shown to take part in whole body metabolism. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that transplantation or activation of BAT or/and beige adipocytes reversed obesity and improved insulin sensitivity...
November 8, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938469/taming-the-flames-targeting-white-adipose-tissue-browning-in-hypermetabolic-conditions
#7
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Marc G Jeschke
In this era of increased obesity and diabetes prevalence, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity in this population. The browning process entails a shift in the WAT from primarily storing excess energy to the dissipation of energy as heat. However, this idealistic view of WAT browning being the savior of the metabolic syndrome has been criticized by studies in burn and cancer patients that have shown browning to be detrimental rather than beneficial...
December 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817438/alternatively-activated-macrophages-drive-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-burns
#8
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Christopher Auger, Mile Stanojcic, David Patsouris, Alexandra Parousis, Slava Epelman, Marc G Jeschke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. BACKGROUND: In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741475/cachexia-and-brown-fat-a-burning-issue-in-cancer
#9
Serkan Kir, Bruce M Spiegelman
Cachexia, a progressive weight loss in cancer patients that results from tumor-induced energy wasting, is a serious problem that interferes with response to treatment and affects quality of life. Recent studies suggest that thermogenesis of adipose tissues is involved in energy wasting and also point to a link between the atrophy of fat and muscle. Tumor-derived PTHrP has emerged as a key molecule playing multiple roles in cachexia, from fat 'browning' factor to potential therapeutic target.
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730707/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-cachexia
#10
Katherine A Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Kevin G Burfeind, Stephanie M Krasnow, Peter R Levasseur, Terry K Morgan, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a complex metabolic and behavioural syndrome lacking effective therapies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most important conditions associated with cachexia, with >80% of PDAC patients suffering from the condition. To establish the cardinal features of a murine model of PDAC-associated cachexia, we characterized the effects of implanting a pancreatic tumour cell line from a syngeneic C57BL/6 KRASG12D P53R172H Pdx-Cre+/+ (KPC) mouse. METHODS: Male and female C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or orthotopically with KPC tumour cells...
October 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459108/cachexia-brown-fat-a-burning-issue-in-cancer
#11
Serkan Kir, Bruce M Spiegelman
Cachexia, a progressive weight loss in cancer patients that results from tumor-induced energy wasting, is a serious problem that interferes with response to treatment and affects quality of life. Recent studies suggest that thermogenesis of adipose tissues is involved in energy wasting and also point to a link between the atrophy of fat and muscle. Tumor-derived PTHrP has emerged as a key molecule playing multiple roles in cachexia, from fat "browning" factor to potential therapeutic target.
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257332/parathyroid-hormone-stimulates-adipose-tissue-browning-a-pathway-to-muscle-wasting
#12
Sandhya S Thomas, William E Mitch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studying organ-to-organ communications (i.e. crosstalk) uncovers mechanisms regulating metabolism in several tissues. What is missing is identification of mediators of different catabolic conditions contributing to losses of adipose and muscle tissues. Identifying mediators involved in organ-to-organ crosstalk could lead to innovative therapeutic strategies because several disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer cachexia, and other catabolic conditions share signals of worsening metabolism and increased risk of mortality...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932592/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#13
REVIEW
Janina A Vaitkus, Francesco S Celi
Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning...
March 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531474/-cancer-cachexia-and-white-adipose-tissue-browning
#14
S T Zhang, H M Yang
Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia...
August 2016: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256459/investigation-of-the-expression-of-irisin-and-some-cachectic-factors-in-mice-with-experimentally-induced-gastric-cancer
#15
Diler Us Altay, E Edip Keha, Serap Ozer Yaman, Imran Ince, Ahmet Alver, Bahattin Erdogan, Sinan Canpolat, Umit Cobanoglu, Ahmet Mentese
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether irisin is secreted by gastric tumor cells experimentally induced in mice, and also if it has any effect on cancer cachexia. DESIGN AND METHODS: 12 out of 60 BALB/c mice were used as a control group, while N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) was administered orally to the remaining 48. After 150 days, the surviving mice were sacrificed by decapitation, blood and stomach, skeletal muscle, brown and white adipose tissue specimens were collected...
December 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254081/fn14-a-new-player-in-cancer-induced-cachexia
#16
REVIEW
Amelia J Johnston, Nicholas J Hoogenraad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although cancer cachexia is a very significant condition that is present in up to 80% of cancer cases, the cause of the condition has remained a puzzle. Cancer cachexia is a condition which is mainly characterised by muscle wasting, mobilization of fat reserves, and overall metabolic disturbance. This review aims to highlight some of the recent findings in cancer cachexia research. RECENT RESEARCH: It has been recently demonstrated that the expression of a single receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14, on a tumour can initiate cachexia and that this can be completely ablated by treatment with an antibody against this receptor...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26529279/lipolytic-and-thermogenic-depletion-of-adipose-tissue-in-cancer-cachexia
#17
REVIEW
Maria Tsoli, Michael M Swarbrick, Graham R Robertson
Although muscle wasting is the obvious manifestation of cancer cachexia that impacts on patient quality of life, the loss of lipid reserves and metabolic imbalance in adipose tissue also contribute to the devastating impact of cachexia. Depletion of fat depots in cancer patients is more pronounced than loss of muscle and often precedes, or even occurs in the absence of, reduced lean body mass. Rapid mobilisation of triglycerides stored within adipocytes to supply the body with fatty acids in periods of high-energy demand is normally mediated through a well-defined process of lipolysis involving the lipases ATGL, HSL and MGL...
June 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26523094/nonmuscle-tissues-contribution-to-cancer-cachexia
#18
REVIEW
Josep M Argilés, Britta Stemmler, Francisco J López-Soriano, Silvia Busquets
Cachexia is a syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by body weight loss, muscle and adipose tissue wasting, and inflammation, being often associated with anorexia. In spite of the fact that muscle tissue represents more than 40% of body weight and seems to be the main tissue involved in the wasting that occurs during cachexia, recent developments suggest that tissues/organs such as adipose (both brown and white), brain, liver, gut, and heart are directly involved in the cachectic process and may be responsible for muscle wasting...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25457061/adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-energy-metabolism-in-early-cancer-cachexia-in-mice
#19
Kara L Kliewer, Jia-Yu Ke, Min Tian, Rachel M Cole, Rebecca R Andridge, Martha A Belury
Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia - before severe fat loss - in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia...
2015: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25144457/two-point-magnitude-mri-for-rapid-mapping-of-brown-adipose-tissue-and-its-application-to-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-disease
#20
Katrin S Lindenberg, Patrick Weydt, Hans-Peter Müller, Axel Bornstedt, Albert C Ludolph, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Jan Kassubek, Volker Rasche
The recent discovery of active brown fat in human adults has led to renewed interest in the role of this key metabolic tissue. This is particularly true for neurodegenerative conditions like Huntington disease (HD), an adult-onset heritable disorder with a prominent energy deficit phenotype. Current methods for imaging brown adipose tissue (BAT) are in limited use because they are equipment-wise demanding and often prohibitively expensive. This prompted us to explore how a standard MRI set-up can be modified to visualize BAT in situ by taking advantage of its characteristic fat/water content ratio to differentiate it from surrounding white fat...
2014: PloS One
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