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Magnetic resonance alzheimer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232251/are-the-brain-s-vascular-and-alzheimer-pathologies-additive-or-interactive
#1
Rebecca Koncz, Perminder Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) commonly co-occur. Whether CVD promotes the progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology remains a source of great interest. Recent technological developments have enabled us to examine their inter-relationship using quantifiable, biomarker-based approaches. We provide an overview of advances in understanding the relationship between vascular and Alzheimer's disease pathologies, with particular emphasis on β-amyloid and tau as measured by positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration, and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (SVD)...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228071/associations-between-tau-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#3
Joseph R Winer, Anne Maass, Peter Pressman, Jordan Stiver, Daniel R Schonhaut, Suzanne L Baker, Joel Kramer, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
Importance: Multiple disease processes are associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD), including Lewy bodies, cerebrovascular disease, and Alzheimer disease. It remains unknown whether tau pathology relates to cognition in patients with PD without dementia. Objective: To compare tau aggregation in patients with PD who are cognitively normal (PD-CN), patients with PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and healthy control participants, and evaluate the relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ), tau, and cognition in patients with PD who did not have dementia...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225556/an-optimal-transportation-based-univariate-neuroimaging-index
#4
Liang Mi, Wen Zhang, Junwei Zhang, Yonghui Fan, Dhruman Goradia, Kewei Chen, Eric M Reiman, Xianfeng Gu, Yalin Wang
The alterations of brain structures and functions have been considered closely correlated to the change of cognitive performance due to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we introduce a variational framework to compute the optimal transformation (OT) in 3D space and propose a univariate neuroimaging index based on OT to measure such alterations. We compute the OT from each image to a template and measure the Wasserstein distance between them. By comparing the distances from all the images to the common template, we obtain a concise and informative index for each image...
2017: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223682/neocortical-origin-and-progression-of-gray-matter-atrophy-in-nonamnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Jeffrey S Phillips, Fulvio Da Re, Laynie Dratch, Sharon X Xie, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sanjeev N Vaishnavi, Carlo Ferrarese, Edward B Lee, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, David A Wolk, Murray Grossman
Amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early atrophy of the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes before spreading to the neocortex. In contrast, nonamnestic Alzheimer's patients have relative sparing of the hippocampus, but the pattern in which the disease spreads is unclear. We examined spreading disease in nonamnestic AD using a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis adapted from pathologic staging studies, applied here to cross-sectional imaging data. We selected 240 T1-weighted scans from 129 patients with pathology confirmed by autopsy or cerebrospinal fluid, and atrophy maps were computed relative to 238 scans from 115 elderly controls...
November 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220823/patterns-of-progressive-atrophy-vary-with-age-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#6
Cassidy M Fiford, Gerard R Ridgway, David M Cash, Marc Modat, Jennifer Nicholas, Emily N Manning, Ian B Malone, Geert Jan Biessels, Sebastien Ourselin, Owen T Carmichael, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
Age is not only the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but also a key modifier of disease presentation and progression. Here, we investigate how longitudinal atrophy patterns vary with age in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Data comprised serial longitudinal 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 153 AD, 339 MCI, and 191 control subjects. Voxel-wise maps of longitudinal volume change were obtained and aligned across subjects. Local volume change was then modeled in terms of diagnostic group and an interaction between group and age, adjusted for total intracranial volume, white-matter hyperintensity volume, and apolipoprotein E genotype...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217819/association-between-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-age-overweight-and-structural-mri-patterns-in-901-subjects
#7
Johanna Hoffmann, Deborah Janowitz, Sandra Van der Auwera, Katharina Wittfeld, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich, Mohamad Habes, Christos Davatzikos, Jan Terock, Martin Bahls, Annemarie Goltz, Angela Kuhla, Henry Völzke, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Serum neuron-specific enolase (sNSE) is considered a marker for neuronal damage, related to gray matter structures. Previous studies indicated its potential as marker for structural and functional damage in conditions with adverse effects to the brain like obesity and dementia. In the present study, we investigated the putative association between sNSE levels, body mass index (BMI), total gray matter volume (GMV), and magnetic resonance imaging-based indices of aging as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like patterns...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217736/generation-of-structural-mr-images-from-amyloid-pet-application-to-mr-less-quantification
#8
Hongyoon Choi, Dong Soo Lee
Structural magnetic resonance (MR) images concomitantly acquired with PET images can provide crucial anatomical information for precise quantitative analysis. However, in the clinical setting, not all the subjects have corresponding MR. Here, we developed a model to generate structural MR images from amyloid PET using deep generative networks. We applied our model to quantification of cortical amyloid load without structural MR. Methods: We used florbetapir PET and structural MR data of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214153/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-discrepancy-between-clinical-neuroimaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-criteria-in-an-italian-cohort-of-geriatric-outpatients-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#9
Giulia A M Dolci, Sarah Damanti, Valeria Scortichini, Alessandro Galli, Paolo D Rossi, Carlo Abbate, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari, Andrea Arighi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Elio Scarpini, Silvia Inglese, Maura Marcucci
Background: The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, and neuroimaging in the diagnostic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not clear, in particular in the older patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical diagnosis of AD with CSF biomarkers and with cerebrovascular damage at neuroimaging in a cohort of geriatric patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of ≥65-year-old patients with cognitive impairment referred to an Italian geriatric outpatient clinic, for whom the CSF concentration of amyloid-β (Aβ), total Tau (Tau), and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) was available...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#10
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209391/korean-brain-aging-study-for-the-early-diagnosis-and-prediction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-methodology-and-baseline-sample-characteristics
#11
Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun-Young Lee, Hyo Jung Choi, Hyewon Baek, Yu Kyeong Kim, Yun-Sang Lee, Chul-Ho Sohn, Inhee Mook-Jung, Murim Choi, Yu Jin Lee, Dong Woo Lee, Seung-Ho Ryu, Shin Gyeom Kim, Jee Wook Kim, Jong Inn Woo, Dong Young Lee
Objective: The Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (KBASE) aimed to recruit 650 individuals, aged from 20 to 90 years, to search for new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate how multi-faceted lifetime experiences and bodily changes contribute to the brain changes or brain pathologies related to the AD process. Methods: All participants received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, multi-modal brain imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, [11C]Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography (PET), and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, blood and genetic marker analyses at baseline, and a subset of participants underwent actigraph monitoring and completed a sleep diary...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209199/decreased-complexity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-resting-state-fmri-evidence-of-brain-entropy-mapping
#12
Bin Wang, Yan Niu, Liwen Miao, Rui Cao, Pengfei Yan, Hao Guo, Dandan Li, Yuxiang Guo, Tianyi Yan, Jinglong Wu, Jie Xiang, Hui Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequently observed, irreversible brain function disorder among elderly individuals. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been introduced as an alternative approach to assessing brain functional abnormalities in AD patients. However, alterations in the brain rs-fMRI signal complexities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients remain unclear. Here, we described the novel application of permutation entropy (PE) to investigate the abnormal complexity of rs-fMRI signals in MCI and AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209156/machine-learning-classification-combining-multiple-features-of-a-hyper-network-of-fmri-data-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Hao Guo, Fan Zhang, Junjie Chen, Yong Xu, Jie Xiang
Exploring functional interactions among various brain regions is helpful for understanding the pathological underpinnings of neurological disorders. Brain networks provide an important representation of those functional interactions, and thus are widely applied in the diagnosis and classification of neurodegenerative diseases. Many mental disorders involve a sharp decline in cognitive ability as a major symptom, which can be caused by abnormal connectivity patterns among several brain regions. However, conventional functional connectivity networks are usually constructed based on pairwise correlations among different brain regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203452/a-spatio-temporal-reference-model-of-the-aging-brain
#14
W Huizinga, D H J Poot, M W Vernooij, G V Roshchupkin, E E Bron, M A Ikram, D Rueckert, W J Niessen, S Klein
Both normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) cause morphological changes of the brain. It is generally difficult to distinguish these two causes of morphological change by visual inspection of magnetic resonance (MR) images. To facilitate making this distinction and thus aid the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, we propose a method for developing a spatio-temporal model of morphological differences in the brain due to normal aging. The method utilizes groupwise image registration to characterize morphological variation across brain scans of people with different ages...
December 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203090/regional-patterns-of-gray-matter-volume-hypometabolism-and-beta-amyloid-in-groups-at-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Miranka Wirth, Alexandre Bejanin, Renaud La Joie, Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Julie Gonneaud, Brigitte Landeau, Audrey Perrotin, Florence Mézenge, Vincent de La Sayette, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration. To seek for signs of such pathologies, we compared regional biomarker degrees and patterns of Aβ deposition, glucose hypometabolism, and gray matter volume (GMV) reduction in 3 groups at risk of AD. In elderly carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4, n = 17), patients with subjective cognitive decline (n = 16), and patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 30), head-to-head intermodality comparisons were performed on cross-sectional structural magnetic resonance images as well as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography scans...
November 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201996/a-randomized-exploratory-molecular-imaging-study-targeting-amyloid-%C3%AE-with-a-novel-8-oh-quinoline-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-pbt2-204-imagine-study
#16
Victor L Villemagne, Christopher C Rowe, Kevin J Barnham, Robert Cherny, Michael Woodward, Svetlana Bozinosvski, Olivier Salvado, Pierrick Bourgeat, Keyla Perez, Christopher Fowler, Alan Rembach, Paul Maruff, Craig Ritchie, Rudy Tanzi, Colin L Masters
Introduction: We are developing a second generation 8-OH quinoline (2-(dimethylamino) methyl-5, 7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline [PBT2, Prana Biotechnology]) for targeting amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In an earlier phase IIa, 3 month trial, PBT2 lowered cerebrospinal fluid Aβ by 13% and improved cognition (executive function) in a dose-related fashion in early AD. We, therefore, sought to learn whether PBT2 could alter the Aβ-PET signal in subjects with prodromal or mild AD, in an exploratory randomized study over a 12-month phase in a double-blind and a 12-month open label extension phase trial design...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201990/retinal-thickness-correlates-with-parietal-cortical-atrophy-in-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-and-controls
#17
Jurre den Haan, Sarah F Janssen, Jacoba A van de Kreeke, Philip Scheltens, Frank D Verbraak, Femke H Bouwman
Introduction: The retina may reflect Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological changes and is easily visualized with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Retinal thickness decrease has been correlated to AD, however, without information on amyloid status. We correlated retinal (layer) thickness to AD biomarkers in amyloid-positive early-onset AD (EOAD) patients and amyloid-negative controls. Methods: We measured macular thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with OCT in 15 EOAD patients and 15 controls and correlated retinal thickness to visual rating scores for atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201645/promoter-haplotypes-of-interleukin-10-gene-linked-to-cortex-plasticity-in-subjects-with-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Feng Bai, Chunming Xie, Yonggui Yuan, Yongmei Shi, Zhijun Zhang
The Alzheimer's disease (AD) aetiologic event is associated with brain inflammatory processes. In this study, we consider a haplotype of the IL-10 gene promoter region, - 1082A/- 819 T/- 592A (ATA haplotype), which is an additive and independent genetic risk factor for AD. Episodic memory change is the most striking cognitive alteration in AD. It remains unclear whether episodic memory networks can be affected by the ATA haplotype variant in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and if so, how this occurs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197559/disruption-of-semantic-network-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-revealed-by-resting-state-fmri
#19
Daniele Mascali, Mauro DiNuzzo, Laura Serra, Silvia Mangia, Bruno Maraviglia, Marco Bozzali, Federico Giove
Subtle semantic deficits can be observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients even in the early stages of the illness. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the semantic control network is deregulated in mild AD patients. We assessed the integrity of the semantic control system using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of patients with mild AD (n = 38; mean Mini-Mental State Examination=20.5) and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (n = 19). Voxel-wise analysis spatially constrained in the left fronto-temporal semantic control network identified two regions with altered functional connectivity in AD patients, specifically in the pars opercularis (POp, BA44) and in the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG, BA21)...
November 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186360/longitudinal-functional-brain-mapping-in-supernormals
#20
Xixi Wang, Ping Ren, Timothy M Baran, Rajeev D S Raizada, Mark Mapstone, Feng Lin
Prevention of age-related cognitive decline is an increasingly important topic. Recently, increased attention is being directed at understanding biological models of successful cognitive aging. Here, we examined resting-state brain regional low-frequency oscillations using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 19 older adults with excellent cognitive abilities (Supernormals), 28 older adults with normative cognition, 57 older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with Alzheimer's disease...
November 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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