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Magnetic resonance alzheimer

Elizabeth Joe, Luis D Medina, John M Ringman, Joseph O'Neill
1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR < 1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
L Raposo Rodríguez, D J Tovar Salazar, N Fernández García, L Pastor Hernández, Ó Fernández Guinea
OBJECTIVE: To describe and illustrate the key findings on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the most common dementias of neurodegenerative origin: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, variants of frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, variants of multiple system atrophy, Parkinson dementia, and corticobasal degeneration. CONCLUSION: Today the role of MRI is no longer limited to ruling out underlying causes of cognitive deterioration...
June 11, 2018: Radiología
Peng Cao, Xiaoli Liu, Hezi Liu, Jinzhu Yang, Dazhe Zhao, Min Huang, Osmar Zaiane
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by gradual neurodegeneration and loss of brain function, especially for memory during early stages. Regression analysis has been widely applied to AD research to relate clinical and biomarker data such as predicting cognitive outcomes from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures. Recently, the multi-task feature learning (MTFL) methods have been widely studied to predict cognitive outcomes and select the discriminative feature subset from MRI features by incorporating inherent correlations among multiple clinical cognitive measures...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Peter Parbo, Rola Ismail, Michael Sommerauer, Morten G Stokholm, Allan K Hansen, Kim V Hansen, Ali Amidi, Jeppe L Schaldemose, Hanne Gottrup, Hans Brændgaard, Simon F Eskildsen, Per Borghammer, Rainer Hinz, Joel Aanerud, David J Brooks
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess with positron emission tomography (PET) the temporal and spatial inter-relationships between levels of cortical microglial activation and the aggregated amyloid-β and tau load in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Six clinically probable AD and 20 MCI subjects had inflammation (11 C-(R)-PK11195), amyloid (11 C-PiB) and tau (18 F-flortaucipir) PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a neuropsychological assessment...
June 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Christian Wachinger, Kwangsik Nho, Andrew J Saykin, Martin Reuter, Anna Rieckmann
BACKGROUND: Contralateral brain structures represent a unique, within-patient reference element for disease, and asymmetries can provide a personalized measure of the accumulation of past disease processes. Neuroanatomical shape asymmetries have recently been associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the biological basis of asymmetric brain changes in AD remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated genetic influences on brain asymmetry by identifying associations between magnetic resonance imaging-derived measures of asymmetry and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have previously been identified in genome-wide association studies for AD diagnosis and for brain subcortical volumes...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Anke Bletsch, Caroline Mann, Derek S Andrews, Eileen Daly, Giles M Y Tan, Declan G M Murphy, Christine Ecker
Increased cortical thickness (CT) has been reported in Down syndrome (DS) during childhood and adolescence, but it remains unclear, which components of the neural architecture underpin these increases and if CT remains altered in adults. Among other factors, differences in CT measures could be driven by reduced tissue contrast between grey and white matter (GWC), which has been reported in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging, we therefore examined differences in CT and GWC in 26 adults with DS, and 23 controls, to (1) examine between-group differences in CT in adulthood, (2) establish whether DS is associated with significant reductions in GWC, and (3) determine the influence of GWC variability on between-group differences in CT...
June 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Chun Chieh Fan, Andrew J Schork, Timothy T Brown, Barbara E Spencer, Natacha Akshoomoff, Chi-Hua Chen, Joshua M Kuperman, Donald J Hagler, Vidar M Steen, Stephanie Le Hellard, Asta Kristine Håberg, Thomas Espeseth, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Terry L Jernigan, Eric Halgren
Despite great interest in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for studying the effects of genes on brain structure in humans, current approaches have focused almost entirely on predefined regions of interest and had limited success. Here, we used multivariate methods to define a single neuroanatomical score of how William's Syndrome (WS) brains deviate structurally from controls. The score is trained and validated on measures of T1 structural brain imaging in two WS cohorts (training, n = 38; validating, n = 60)...
June 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Francis T Hane, Tao Li, Jennifer-Anne Plata, Ayman Hassan, Karl Granberg, Mitchell S Albert
Biomarkers have the potential to aid in the study of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD); unfortunately, AD biomarker values often have a high degree of overlap between healthy and AD individuals. This study investigates the potential utility of a series of novel AD biomarkers, the sixty second 129 Xe retention time, and the xenon washout parameter, based on the washout of hyperpolarized 129 Xe from the brain of AD participants following inhalation. The xenon washout parameter is influenced by cerebral perfusion, T1 relaxation of xenon, and the xenon partition coefficient, all factors influenced by AD...
June 6, 2018: Diagnostics
Yinhui Li, Di Xu, Hei-Nga Chan, Chung-Yan Poon, See-Lok Ho, Hung-Wing Li, Man Shing Wong
Senile plaques, the extracellular deposit of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the neuropathological hallmarks found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. The current method of brain imaging of amyloid plaques based on positron emission tomography (PET) is expensive and invasive with low spatial resolution. Thus, the development of sensitive and nonradiative amyloid-β (Aβ)-specific contrast agents is highly important and beneficial to achieve early AD detection, monitor the disease progression, and evaluate the effectiveness of potential AD drugs...
June 7, 2018: Small
Jyoti Islam, Yanqing Zhang
Alzheimer's disease is an incurable, progressive neurological brain disorder. Earlier detection of Alzheimer's disease can help with proper treatment and prevent brain tissue damage. Several statistical and machine learning models have been exploited by researchers for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Analyzing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a common practice for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis in clinical research. Detection of Alzheimer's disease is exacting due to the similarity in Alzheimer's disease MRI data and standard healthy MRI data of older people...
May 31, 2018: Brain Informatics
Brian Hart, Ivor Cribben, Mark Fiecas
Many neuroimaging studies collect functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in a longitudinal manner. However, the current fMRI literature lacks a general framework for analyzing functional connectivity (FC) networks in fMRI data obtained from a longitudinal study. In this work, we build a novel longitudinal FC model using a variance components approach. First, for all subjects' visits, we account for the autocorrelation inherent in the fMRI time series data using a non-parametric technique. Second, we use a generalized least squares approach to estimate 1) the within-subject variance component shared across the population, 2) the baseline FC strength, and 3) the FC's longitudinal trend...
June 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Ghazal Aarabi, Götz Thomalla, Guido Heydecke, Udo Seedorf
Chronic oral infections (gingivitis/periodontitis) have been associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke. In addition, imaging surrogates of cerebrovascular ischemia beyond acute ischemic stroke (i.e. silent strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities) may also be associated with chronic oral infections. The pathology underlying lacunar strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities relates to small vessel disease in the brain. In this review, we highlight recent progress in exploring potential associations of oral infections with cerebral small vessel disease and its surrogates (silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities) and clinical sequelae (i...
June 7, 2018: Oral Diseases
Christian Hohenfeld, Cornelius J Werner, Kathrin Reetz
Biomarkers in whichever modality are tremendously important in diagnosing of disease, tracking disease progression and clinical trials. This applies in particular for disorders with a long disease course including pre-symptomatic stages, in which only subtle signs of clinical progression can be observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers hold particular promise due to their relative ease of use, cost-effectiveness and non-invasivity. Studies measuring resting-state functional MR connectivity have become increasingly common during recent years and are well established in neuroscience and related fields...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Haifeng Chen, Fan Su, Qing Ye, Zan Wang, Hao Shu, Feng Bai
Background/Objectives: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been associated with risk for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Previous investigations have suggested that vascular risk factors (VRFs) were associated with cognitive decline and AD pathogenesis, and the intervention of VRFs may be a possible way to prevent dementia. However, in MCI, little is known about the potential impacts of VRFs on neural networks and their neural substrates, which may be a neuroimaging biomarker of the disease progression. Methods: 128 elderly Han Chinese participants (67 MCI subjects and 61 matched normal elderly) with or without VRFs (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and alcohol drinking) underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological tests...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Manuela Tondelli, Anna M Barbarulo, Giulia Vinceti, Chiara Vincenzi, Annalisa Chiari, Paolo F Nichelli, Giovanna Zamboni
Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) may present anosognosia for their cognitive deficits. Three different methods have been usually used to measure anosognosia in patients with AD and MCI, but no studies have established if they share similar neuroanatomical correlates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if anosognosia scores obtained with the three most commonly used methods to assess anosognosia relate to focal atrophy in AD and MCI patients, in order to improve understanding of the neural basis of anosognosia in dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Atsuro Uchida, Jagan A Pillai, Robert Bermel, Aaron Bonner-Jackson, Alexander Rae-Grant, Hubert Fernandez, James Bena, Stephen E Jones, James B Leverenz, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers
Purpose: To investigate outer retinal parameters among patients with various chronic neurodegenerative disorders by using spectral-domain coherence tomography (OCT) in a prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Methods: A total of 132 participants were enrolled following a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation with neurologic, neuropsychology, and magnetic resonance imaging volumetric evaluations. Participants were 50 years or older, either diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), non-AD dementia, Parkinson's disease (PD), or age- and sex-matched controls...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Afsaneh Arefi Oskouie, Reyhaneh Farrokhi Yekta, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Masoud Soheili Kashani, Fatemeh Goshadrou
Background: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of memory impairment in the elderly population, but the diagnosis and treatment of the disease is still challenging. Lavender aqueous extract has recently been shown to have the potential in clearing Amyloid-beta plaques from AD rat hippocampus. To elucidate the therapeutic mechanisms of lavender, serum metabolic fingerprint of Aβ-induced rat Alzheimer's models was investigated through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry...
April 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
César A Ortiz Toro, Consuelo Gonzalo Martín, Angel García-Pedrero, Ernestina Menasalvas Ruiz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the prevalent type of dementia in the elderly, and is characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques that eventually leads to the loss of neurons, resulting in atrophy in specific brain areas. Although the process of degeneration can be visualized through various modalities of medical imaging and has proved to be a valuable biomarker, the accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease remains a challenge, especially in its early stages. In this paper, we propose a novel classification method for Alzheimer's disease/cognitive normal discrimination in structural magnetic resonance images (MRI), based on the extension of the concept of histons to volumetric images...
May 29, 2018: Sensors
Michael L Alosco, Michael A Sugarman, Lilah M Besser, Yorghos Tripodis, Martin Brett, Joseph N Palmisano, Neil W Kowall, Rhoda Au, Jesse Mez, Charles DeCarli, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Ronald J Killiany, Robert A Stern
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been postulated to be a core feature of Alzheimer's disease. Clinicopathological studies are needed to elucidate and confirm this possibility. OBJECTIVE: This study examined: 1) the association between antemortem WMH and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease neuropathology (ADNP), 2) the relationship between WMH and dementia in participants with ADNP, and 3) the relationships among cerebrovascular disease, WMH, and ADNP...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Alfonso Monaco, Roberto Bellotti, Sabina Tangaro
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurological disorder, after Alzheimer's disease, and is characterized by a long prodromal stage lasting up to 20 years. As age is a prominent factor risk for the disease, next years will see a continuous increment of PD patients, making urgent the development of efficient strategies for early diagnosis and treatments. We propose here a novel approach based on complex networks for accurate early diagnoses using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data; our approach also allows us to investigate which are the brain regions mostly affected by the disease...
May 17, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
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