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Magnetic resonance alzheimer

Robert S C Amaral, Min Tae M Park, Gabriel A Devenyi, Vivian Lynn, Jon Pipitone, Julie Winterburn, Sofia Chavez, Mark Schira, Nancy Lobaugh, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at
October 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Shuenn-Jyi Sheu, Chung-Hsin Wu
In this study, we have reported the herbal formula B401 that has neuroprotective effects via multifunction, multitarget characteristics. It is possible that the herbal formula B401 may also provide new insights for AD. Here, we studied protective effects in the Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cell model and the APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic mouse model by the herbal formula B401. In in vitro experiments, we showed that the herbal formula B401 treatment effectively reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity in Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
J D Huntley, A Hampshire, D Bor, A Owen, R J Howard
BACKGROUND: Interventions that improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease are urgently required. AIMS: To assess whether a novel cognitive training paradigm based on 'chunking' improves working memory and general cognitive function, and is associated with reorganisation of functional activity in prefrontal and parietal cortices (trial registration: ISRCTN43007027). METHOD: Thirty patients with mild Alzheimer's disease were randomly allocated to receive 18 sessions of 30 min of either adaptive chunking training or an active control intervention over approximately 8 weeks...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Na Kyung Lee, Hyeong Seop Kim, Dongkyeom Yoo, Jung Won Hwang, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Jong Wook Chang, Duk L Na
The success of stem cell therapy is highly dependent on accurate delivery of stem cells to the target site of interest. Possible ways to track the distribution of MSCs in vivo include the use of reporter genes or nanoparticles. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ferumoxytol (Feraheme® [USA], Rienso® [UK]) as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) that has recently been used to track the fate of transplanted cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Horrolein Arab, Soleiman Mahjoub, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Mehdi Moghadasi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent degenerative disorder of the brain among elderly individuals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor which involves oxidizing macromolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins in AD. Green tea is a rich source of antioxidant compounds that can remove radical oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of green tea consumption on markers of oxidative stress in AD...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Liangyan Gui, Xiaoying Tang, José M F Moura
We propose a geodesic distance on a Grassmannian manifold that can be used to quantify the shape progression patterns of the bilateral hippocampi, amygdalas, and lateral ventricles in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 754 subjects (3092 scans in total) were used in this study. Longitudinally, the geodesic distance was found to be proportional to the elapsed time separating the two scans in question. Cross-sectionally, utilizing a linear mixed-effects statistical model, we found that each structure's annualized rate of change in the geodesic distance followed the order of AD > MCI > HC, with statistical significance being reached in every case...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Robert W Newberry, Ronald T Raines
Current limitations in de novo protein structure prediction and design suggest an incomplete understanding of the interactions that govern protein folding. Here we demonstrate that previously unappreciated hydrogen bonds occur within proteins between the amide proton and carbonyl oxygen of the same residue. Quantum calculations, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show that these interactions share hallmark features of canonical hydrogen bonds. Biophysical analyses demonstrate that selective attenuation or enhancement of these C5 hydrogen bonds affects the stability of synthetic β-sheets...
October 17, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Scott E Counts, Milos D Ikonomovic, Natosha Mercado, Irving E Vega, Elliott J Mufson
The recent failures of potential disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may reflect the fact that the enrolled participants in clinical trials are already too advanced to derive a clinical benefit. Thus, well-validated biomarkers for the early detection and accurate diagnosis of the preclinical stages of AD will be crucial for therapeutic advancement. The combinatorial use of biomarkers derived from biological fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with advanced molecular imaging and neuropsychological testing may eventually achieve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity necessary to identify people in the earliest stages of the disease when drug modification is most likely possible...
October 13, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Martín Carballo-Pacheco, Birgit Strodel
Intrinsically disordered proteins are essential for biological processes such as cell signalling, but are also associated to devastating diseases including Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease or type II diabetes. Because of their lack of a stable threedimensional structure, molecular dynamics simulations are often used to obtain atomistic details that cannot be observed experimentally. The applicability of molecular dynamics simulations depends on the accuracy of the force field chosen to represent the underlying free energy surface of the system...
October 11, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Annalena Venneri, Micaela Mitolo, Matteo De Marco
Confabulatory phenomena are rare in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are often provoked and are triggered by questions or in response to neuropsychological testing. In this retrospective study functional connectivity alterations were investigated for the first time in a group of patients with early AD who had shown evidence of verbal and non-verbal confabulatory tendencies. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of 18 confabulating patients were compared with those of 18 non confabulators...
September 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Gennady V Roshchupkin, Hieab H Adams, Sven J van der Lee, Meike W Vernooij, Cornelia M van Duijn, Andre G Uitterlinden, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Wiro J Niessen, Mohammad A Ikram
The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions...
September 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Simon J Schreiner, Thomas Kirchner, Michael Wyss, Jiri M G Van Bergen, Frances C Quevenco, Stefanie C Steininger, Erica Y Griffith, Irene Meier, Lars Michels, Anton F Gietl, Sandra E Leh, Adam M Brickman, Christoph Hock, Roger M Nitsch, Klaas P Pruessmann, Anke Henning, Paul G Unschuld
Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Marta Spodzieja, Katarzyna Kalejta, Aleksandra S Kołodziejczyk, Martyna Maszota-Zieleniak, Sylwia Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Wioletta Żmudzińska, Paulina Czaplewska
Cystatin C originally identified as a cysteine proteases inhibitor has a broad spectrum of biological roles ranging from inhibition of extracellular cysteine protease activities, bone resorption, and modulation of inflammatory responses to stimulation of fibroblasts proliferation. There is an increasing number of evidence to suggest that human cystatin C (hCC) might play a protective role in the pathophysiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In vivo and in vitro results well documented the association of hCC with Aβ and the hCC-induced inhibition of Aβ fibril formation...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Ruiz, Anette Hall, Jussi Mattila, Juha Koikkalainen, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Minna Husso, Tuomo Hänninen, Ritva Vanninen, Yawu Liu, Merja Hallikainen, Jyrki Lötjönen, Anne M Remes, Irina Alafuzoff, Hilkka Soininen, Päivi Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: Disease State Index (DSI) and its visualization, Disease State Fingerprint (DSF), form a computer-assisted clinical decision making tool that combines patient data and compares them with cases with known outcomes. AIMS: To investigate the ability of the DSI to diagnose frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 38 patients with FTD, 57 with AD and 22 controls. Autopsy verification of FTD with TDP-43 positive pathology was available for 14 and AD pathology for 12 cases...
May 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Julia Neitzel, Marion Ortner, Marleen Haupt, Petra Redel, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Bublak, Christoph Preul, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Posterior cortical atrophy is dominated by progressive degradation of parieto-occipital grey and white matter, and represents in most cases a variant of Alzheimer's disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy are characterized by increasing higher visual and visuo-spatial impairments. In particular, a key symptom of posterior cortical atrophy is simultanagnosia i.e. the inability to perceive multiple visual objects at the same time. Two neuro-cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to underlie simultanagnosia, either reduced visual short-term memory capacity or decreased visual processing speed possibly resulting from white matter impairments over and above damage to cortical brain areas...
October 3, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Johanna Baumgaertel, Robert Haussmann, Antonia Gruschwitz, Annett Werner, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Genetic and environmental protective factors and risks modulate brain structure and function in neurodegenerative diseases and their preclinical stages. We wanted to investigate whether the years of formal education, a proxy measure for cognitive reserve, would influence hippocampal structure in Alzheimer's disease patients, and whether apolipoprotein Eε4 (APOE4) carrier status and a first-degree family history of the disease would change a possible association. Fifty-eight Alzheimer's disease patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Karin Persson, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Mona Beyer, Maria Barca, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND: The dementia syndrome has been regarded a clinical diagnosis but the focus on supplemental biomarkers is increasing. An automatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry method, NeuroQuant® (NQ), has been developed for use in clinical settings. PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NQ in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from non-dementia and non-AD dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NQ was performed in 275 patients diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10 for AD, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); the Winblad criteria for mild cognitive impairment; the Lund-Manchester criteria for frontotemporal dementia; and the revised consensus criteria for Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
September 28, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Kristien Peeters, Paulius Palaima, Ana L Pelayo-Negro, Antonio García, Elena Gallardo, Rosario García-Barredo, Ligia Mateiu, Jonathan Baets, Björn Menten, Els De Vriendt, Peter De Jonghe, Vincent Timmerman, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Albena Jordanova
OBJECTIVE: To identify the unknown genetic cause in a large pedigree previously classified with a distinct form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2G (CMT2G) and to explore its transcriptional consequences. METHODS: Clinical reevaluation of the pedigree was performed, followed by linkage analysis with the redefined disease statuses, and whole genome and exome sequencing. The impact of the mutation was investigated by immunoblotting and transcriptome sequencing...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Margherita Melloni, Pablo Billeke, Sandra Baez, Eugenia Hesse, Laura de la Fuente, Gonzalo Forno, Agustina Birba, Indira García-Cordero, Cecilia Serrano, Angelo Plastino, Andrea Slachevsky, David Huepe, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez
Recursive social decision-making requires the use of flexible, context-sensitive long-term strategies for negotiation. To succeed in social bargaining, participants' own perspectives must be dynamically integrated with those of interactors to maximize self-benefits and adapt to the other's preferences, respectively. This is a prerequisite to develop a successful long-term self-other integration strategy. While such form of strategic interaction is critical to social decision-making, little is known about its neurocognitive correlates...
September 27, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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