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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738187/presymptomatic-atrophy-in-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-s-disease-a%C3%A2-serial-mri-study
#1
Kirsi M Kinnunen, David M Cash, Teresa Poole, Chris Frost, Tammie L S Benzinger, R Laila Ahsan, Kelvin K Leung, M Jorge Cardoso, Marc Modat, Ian B Malone, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman, Daniel S Marcus, Alison Goate, Stephen Salloway, Stephen Correia, Reisa A Sperling, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman, Ralph N Martins, Martin R Farlow, Bernardino Ghetti, Andrew J Saykin, Clifford R Jack, Peter R Schofield, Eric McDade, Michael W Weiner, John M Ringman, Paul M Thompson, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Martin N Rossor, Sebastien Ourselin, Nick C Fox
INTRODUCTION: Identifying at what point atrophy rates first change in Alzheimer's disease is important for informing design of presymptomatic trials. METHODS: Serial T1-weighed magnetic resonance imaging scans of 94 participants (28 noncarriers, 66 carriers) from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network were used to measure brain, ventricular, and hippocampal atrophy rates. For each structure, nonlinear mixed-effects models estimated the change-points when atrophy rates deviate from normal and the rates of change before and after this point...
July 21, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737295/towards-a-unified-analysis-of-brain-maturation-and-aging-across-the-entire-lifespan-a-mri-analysis
#2
Pierrick Coupé, Gwenaelle Catheline, Enrique Lanuza, José Vicente Manjón
There is no consensus in literature about lifespan brain maturation and senescence, mainly because previous lifespan studies have been performed on restricted age periods and/or with a limited number of scans, making results instable and their comparison very difficult. Moreover, the use of nonharmonized tools and different volumetric measurements lead to a great discrepancy in reported results. Thanks to the new paradigm of BigData sharing in neuroimaging and the last advances in image processing enabling to process baby as well as elderly scans with the same tool, new insights on brain maturation and aging can be obtained...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736311/imaging-wide-association-study-integrating-imaging-endophenotypes-in-gwas
#3
Zhiyuan Xu, Chong Wu, Wei Pan
A new and powerful approach, called imaging-wide association study (IWAS), is proposed to integrate imaging endophenotypes with GWAS to boost statistical power and enhance biological interpretation for GWAS discoveries. IWAS extends the promising transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) from using gene expression endophenotypes to using imaging and other endophenotypes with a much wider range of possible applications. As illustration, we use gray-matter volumes of several brain regions of interest (ROIs) drawn from the ADNI-1 structural MRI data as imaging endophenotypes, which are then applied to the individual-level GWAS data of ADNI-GO/2 and a large meta-analyzed GWAS summary statistics dataset (based on about 74,000 individuals), uncovering some novel genes significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733959/increasing-precision-of-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-combined-algorithm-incorporating-clinical-and-novel-biomarker-data
#4
REVIEW
Marwan N Sabbagh, Lih-Fen Lue, Daniel Fayard, Jiong Shi
Establishing the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementias relies on clinical criteria; however, the accuracy of these criteria can be limited. The diagnostic accuracy is 77% for a clinical diagnosis of AD, even among experts. We performed a review through PubMed of articles related to specific diagnostic modalities, including APOE genotyping, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography (PET), amyloid PET, tau PET, computed tomography (CT), single-photon emission CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and B12 and thyroid-stimulating hormone screening, to determine the specificity and sensitivity of each test used in the clinical diagnosis of AD...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732595/probabilistic-modeling-of-anatomical-variability-using-a-low-dimensional-parameterization-of-diffeomorphisms
#5
Miaomiao Zhang, William M Wells, Polina Golland
We present an efficient probabilistic model of anatomical variability in a linear space of initial velocities of diffeomorphic transformations and demonstrate its benefits in clinical studies of brain anatomy. To overcome the computational challenges of the high dimensional deformation-based descriptors, we develop a latent variable model for principal geodesic analysis (PGA) based on a low dimensional shape descriptor that effectively captures the intrinsic variability in a population. We define a novel shape prior that explicitly represents principal modes as a multivariate complex Gaussian distribution on the initial velocities in a bandlimited space...
July 8, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731439/antihypertensive-treatment-is-associated-with-mri-derived-markers-of-neurodegeneration-and-impaired-cognition-a-propensity-weighted-cohort-study
#6
Jodi D Edwards, Joel Ramirez, Brandy L Callahan, Sheldon W Tobe, Paul Oh, Courtney Berezuk, Krista Lanctôt, Walter Swardfager, Sean Nestor, Alexander Kiss, Stephen Strother, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral small vessel disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are common anti-hypertensive treatments, but have differential effects on cortical amyloid. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between anti-hypertensive treatment, brain volume, and cognition, using a propensity-weighted analysis to account for confounding by indication...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729939/feature-selective-temporal-prediction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-using-hippocampus-surface-morphometry
#7
Sinchai Tsao, Niharika Gajawelli, Jiayu Zhou, Jie Shi, Jieping Ye, Yalin Wang, Natasha Leporé
INTRODUCTION: Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression based on baseline measures allows us to understand disease progression and has implications in decisions concerning treatment strategy. To this end, we combine a predictive multi-task machine learning method (cFSGL) with a novel MR-based multivariate morphometric surface map of the hippocampus (mTBM) to predict future cognitive scores of patients. METHODS: Previous work has shown that a multi-task learning framework that performs prediction of all future time points simultaneously (cFSGL) can be used to encode both sparsity as well as temporal smoothness...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721928/strategic-roadmap-for-an-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-biomarkers
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni B Frisoni, Marina Boccardi, Frederik Barkhof, Kaj Blennow, Stefano Cappa, Konstantinos Chiotis, Jean-Francois Démonet, Valentina Garibotto, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Anton Gietl, Oskar Hansson, Karl Herholz, Clifford R Jack, Flavio Nobili, Agneta Nordberg, Heather M Snyder, Mara Ten Kate, Andrea Varrone, Emiliano Albanese, Stefanie Becker, Patrick Bossuyt, Maria C Carrillo, Chiara Cerami, Bruno Dubois, Valentina Gallo, Ezio Giacobini, Gabriel Gold, Samia Hurst, Anders Lönneborg, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Niklas Mattsson, José-Luis Molinuevo, Andreas U Monsch, Urs Mosimann, Alessandro Padovani, Agnese Picco, Corinna Porteri, Osman Ratib, Laure Saint-Aubert, Charles Scerri, Philip Scheltens, Jonathan M Schott, Ida Sonni, Stefan Teipel, Paolo Vineis, Pieter Jelle Visser, Yutaka Yasui, Bengt Winblad
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be improved by the use of biological measures. Biomarkers of functional impairment, neuronal loss, and protein deposition that can be assessed by neuroimaging (ie, MRI and PET) or CSF analysis are increasingly being used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease in research studies and specialist clinical settings. However, the validation of the clinical usefulness of these biomarkers is incomplete, and that is hampering reimbursement for these tests by health insurance providers, their widespread clinical implementation, and improvements in quality of health care...
August 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721741/the-relevance-of-hippocampal-subfield-integrity-and-clock-drawing-test-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Dusan Hirjak, Fabio Sambataro, Barbara Remmele, Katharina M Kubera, Johannes Schröder, Ulrich Seidl, Anne K Thomann, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Robert C Wolf, Philipp A Thomann
OBJECTIVES: The clock drawing test (CDT) is one of the worldwide most used screening tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD). MRI studies have identified temporo-parietal regions being involved in CDT impairment. However, the contributions of the hippocampal formation to CDT performance in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have not been investigated so far. It is unclear whether morphological alterations or CDT score, or a combination of both, are able to predict AD. METHODS: 38 AD patients, 38 MCI individuals and 31 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at 3 Tesla...
July 19, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716371/detection-risk-factors-and-functional-consequences-of-cerebral-microinfarcts
#10
REVIEW
Susanne J van Veluw, Andy Y Shih, Eric E Smith, Christopher Chen, Julie A Schneider, Joanna M Wardlaw, Steven M Greenberg, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral microinfarcts are small lesions that are presumed to be ischaemic. Despite the small size of these lesions, affected individuals can have hundreds to thousands of cerebral microinfarcts, which cause measurable disruption to structural brain connections, and are associated with dementia that is independent of Alzheimer's disease pathology or larger infarcts (ie, lacunar infarcts, and large cortical and non-lacunar subcortical infarcts). Substantial progress has been made with regard to understanding risk factors and functional consequences of cerebral microinfarcts, partly driven by new in-vivo detection methods and the development of animal models that closely mimic multiple aspects of cerebral microinfarcts in human beings...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709938/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-brain-glucose-and-ketone-metabolism-in-cognitively-healthy-older-adults-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
E Croteau, C A Castellano, M Fortier, C Bocti, T Fulop, N Paquet, S C Cunnane
INTRODUCTION: Deteriorating brain glucose metabolism precedes the clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and appears to contribute to its etiology. Ketone bodies, mainly β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the primary alternative brain fuel to glucose. Some reports suggest that brain ketone metabolism is unchanged in AD but, to our knowledge, no such data are available for MCI. OBJECTIVE: To compare brain energy metabolism (glucose and acetoacetate) and some brain morphological characteristics in cognitively healthy older adult controls (CTL), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709123/subclinical-white-matter-lesions-and-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-are-associated-with-eeg-slowing-in-a-memory-clinic-cohort
#12
Milica G Kramberger, Katarina Giske, Lena Cavallin, Ingemar Kåreholt, Thomas Andersson, Bengt Winblad, Vesna Jelic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) findings obtained by standardized visual analysis, subclinical white matter lesions (WML) and brain atrophy in a large memory clinic population. METHODS: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=58), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=141), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI, n=194) had clinical, MRI based WML severity and regional atrophy assessments, and routine resting EEG recording...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705819/mri-of-the-swallow-tail-sign-a-useful-marker-in-the-diagnosis-of-lewy-body-dementia
#13
S Shams, D Fällmar, S Schwarz, L-O Wahlund, D van Westen, O Hansson, E-M Larsson, S Haller
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are, to date, no MR imaging diagnostic markers for Lewy body dementia. Nigrosome 1, containing dopaminergic cells, in the substantia nigra pars compacta is hyperintense on SWI and has been called the swallow tail sign, disappearing with Parkinson disease. We aimed to study the swallow tail sign and its clinical applicability in Lewy body dementia and hypothesized that the sign would be likewise applicable in Lewy body dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study including 97 patients (mean age, 65 ± 10 years; 46% women), consisting of the following: controls (n = 21) and those with Lewy body dementia (n = 19), Alzheimer disease (n = 20), frontotemporal lobe dementia (n = 20), and mild cognitive impairment (n = 17)...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704802/trajectories-of-depressive-symptoms-and-their-relationship-to-the-progression-of-dementia
#14
Maria Lage Barca, Karin Persson, Rannveig Eldholm, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Hege Kersten, Anne-Brita Knapskog, Ingvild Saltvedt, Geir Selbaek, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND: The relationship between progression of Alzheimer's disease and depression and its underlying mechanisms has scarcely been studied. METHODS: A sample of 282 outpatients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; 105 with amnestic AD and 177 with Alzheimer's dementia) from Norway were followed up for an average of two years. Assessment included Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) at baseline and follow-up to examine the relationship between AD and depression...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697560/relationship-between-body-mass-index-apoe4-status-and-pet-based-amyloid-and-neurodegeneration-markers-in-amyloid-positive-subjects-with-normal-cognition-or-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Janusch Blautzik, Sebastian Kotz, Matthias Brendel, Julia Sauerbeck, Franziska Vettermann, Yaroslav Winter, Peter Bartenstein, Kazunari Ishii, Axel Rominger
Body weight loss in late-life is known to occur at a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) represents a major genetic risk factor for AD and is linked to an increased cortical amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. Since the relationship between body weight, ApoE4, and AD pathology is poorly investigated, we aimed to evaluate whether ApoE4 allelic status modifies the association of body mass index (BMI) with markers of AD pathology. A total of 368 Aβ-positive cognitively healthy or mild cognitive impaired subjects had undergone [18F]-AV45-PET, [18F]-FDG-PET, and T1w-MRI examinations...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697558/comparative-analysis-of-cortical-microinfarcts-and-microbleeds-using-3-0-tesla-postmortem-magnetic-resonance-images-and-histopathology
#16
Atsushi Niwa, Yuichiro Ii, Akihiro Shindo, Ko Matsuo, Hidehiro Ishikawa, Akira Taniguchi, Shinichi Takase, Masayuki Maeda, Hajime Sakuma, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Microvascular lesions including cortical microinfarctions (CMIs) and cerebral lobar microbleeds (CMBs) are usually caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the elderly and are correlated with cognitive decline. However, their radiological-histopathological coincidence has not been revealed systematically with widely used 3-Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the present study is to delineate the histopathological background corresponding to MR images of these lesions. We examined formalin-fixed 10-mm thick coronal brain blocks from 10 CAA patients (five were also diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, three with dementia with Lewy bodies, and two with CAA only) with dementia and six non CAA patients with neurodegenerative disease...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697557/comparison-of-different-hypotheses-regarding-the-spread-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-markov-random-fields-and-multimodal-imaging
#17
Martin Dyrba, Michel J Grothe, Abdolreza Mohammadi, Harald Binder, Thomas Kirste, Stefan J Teipel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a cascade of pathological processes that can be assessed in vivo using different neuroimaging methods. Recent research suggests a systematic sequence of pathogenic events on a global biomarker level, but little is known about the associations and dependencies of distinct lesion patterns on a regional level. Markov random fields are a probabilistic graphical modeling approach that represent the interaction between individual random variables by an undirected graph...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694463/contrast-enhanced-mr-microscopy-of-amyloid-plaques-in-five-mouse-models-of-amyloidosis-and-in-human-alzheimer-s-disease-brains
#18
Clémence Dudeffant, Matthias Vandesquille, Kelly Herbert, Clément M Garin, Sandro Alves, Véronique Blanchard, Emmanuel E Comoy, Fanny Petit, Marc Dhenain
Gadolinium (Gd)-stained MRI is based on Gd contrast agent (CA) administration into the brain parenchyma. The strong signal increase induced by Gd CA can be converted into resolution enhancement to record microscopic MR images. Moreover, inhomogeneous distribution of the Gd CA in the brain improves the contrast between different tissues and provides new contrasts in MR images. Gd-stained MRI detects amyloid plaques, one of the microscopic lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in APPSL/PS1M146L mice or in primates...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689050/self-reported-traumatic-brain-injury-and-in-vivo-measure-of-ad-vulnerable-cortical-thickness-and-ad-related-biomarkers-in-the-adni-cohort
#19
Ming-Liang Wang, Xiao-Er Wei, Meng-Meng Yu, Peng-Yang Li, Wen-Bin Li
In this study, we aimed to investigate whether self-reported mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) was associated with decreased AD-vulnerable cortical thickness, and to assess the relationship between AD-vulnerable cortical thickness and AD-related biomarker in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative subjects. We identified 45 self-reported mTBI subjects, who had structural MRI, 18F-AV45 PET, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data. Of them, eight subjects were normal; ten were preclinical AD; seventeen were MCI due to AD; ten were AD...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685430/influence-of-free-radicals-on-the-intrinsic-mri-relaxation-properties
#20
Rong-Wen Tain, Alessandro M Scotti, Weiguo Li, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Kejia Cai
Free radicals are critical contributors in various conditions including normal aging, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and diabetes. Currently there is no non-invasive approach to image tissue free radicals based on endogenous contrast due to their extremely short lifetimes and low in vivo concentrations. In this study we aim at characterizing the influence of free radicals on the MRI relaxation properties. Phantoms containing free radicals were created by treating egg white with various H 2 O 2 concentrations and scanned on a 9...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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