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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155947/dementia-after-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-coexistence-of-multiple-proteinopathies
#1
Kimbra Kenney, Diego Iacono, Brian L Edlow, Douglas I Katz, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Daniel H Daneshvar, Allison Stevens, Allison L Moreau, Lee S Tirrell, Ani Varjabedian, Anastasia Yendiki, Andre van der Kouwe, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Wayne A Gordon, Bruce Fischl, Ann C McKee, Daniel P Perl
We report the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic characteristics of 2 patients who developed early onset dementia after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropathological evaluation revealed abundant β-amyloid neuritic and cored plaques, diffuse β-amyloid plaques, and frequent hyperphosphorylated-tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) involving much of the cortex, including insula and mammillary bodies in both cases. Case 1 additionally showed NFTs in both the superficial and deep cortical layers, occasional perivascular and depth-of-sulci NFTs, and parietal white matter rarefaction, which corresponded with decreased parietal fiber tracts observed on ex vivo MRI...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154283/longitudinal-neuroimaging-analysis-in%C3%A2-mild-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-treated-with-plasma-exchange-with%C3%A2-5-human-albumin
#2
Gemma Cuberas-Borrós, Isabel Roca, Mercè Boada, Lluís Tárraga, Isabel Hernández, Mar Buendia, Lourdes Rubio, Gustavo Torres, Ángel Bittini, Juan A Guzmán-de-Villoria, Francesc Pujadas, Mireia Torres, Laura Núñez, Joan Castell, Antonio Páez
BACKGROUND: Recently, modifications of Aβ1-42 levels in CSF and plasma associated with improvement in memory and language functions have been observed in patients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement. OBJECTIVE: To detect structural and functional brain changes in PE-treated AD patients as part of a Phase II clinical trial. METHODS: Patients received between 3 and 18 PE with albumin (Albutein® 5%, Grifols) or sham-PE (controls) for 21 weeks (divided in one intensive and two maintenance periods) followed by 6-month follow-up...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154278/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#3
Kristian Steen Frederiksen, Le Gjerum, Gunhild Waldemar, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch
Physical exercise may be an important adjunct to pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies indicate that exercise may be disease modifying through several mechanisms including reduction of AD pathology. We carried out a systematic review of intervention studies of physical exercise with hippocampal volume (on MRI), amyloid-β, total tau, phosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 18F-FDG-PET or amyloid PET as outcome measures in healthy subjects, patients with subjective memory complaints, mild cognitive impairment, or AD...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154277/potential-of-low-dose-leuco-methylthioninium-bis-hydromethanesulphonate-lmtm-monotherapy-for-treatment-of-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-cohort-analysis-as-modified-primary-outcome-in-a-phase-iii-clinical-trial
#4
Gordon K Wilcock, Serge Gauthier, Giovanni B Frisoni, Jianping Jia, Jiri H Hardlund, Hans J Moebius, Peter Bentham, Karin A Kook, Bjoern O Schelter, Damon J Wischik, Charles S Davis, Roger T Staff, Vesna Vuksanovic, Trevor Ahearn, Luc Bracoud, Kohkan Shamsi, Ken Marek, John Seibyl, Gernot Riedel, John M D Storey, Charles R Harrington, Claude M Wischik
BACKGROUND: LMTM is being developed as a treatment for AD based on inhibition of tau aggregation. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of LMTM as monotherapy in non-randomized cohort analyses as modified primary outcomes in an 18-month Phase III trial in mild AD. METHODS: Mild AD patients (n = 800) were randomly assigned to 100 mg twice a day or 4 mg twice a day. Prior to unblinding, the Statistical Analysis Plan was revised to compare the 100 mg twice a day as monotherapy subgroup (n = 79) versus 4 mg twice a day as randomized (n = 396), and 4 mg twice a day as monotherapy (n = 76) versus 4 mg twice a day as add-on therapy (n = 297), with strong control of family-wise type I error...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154276/sparcl1-accelerates-symptom-onset-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-influences-brain-structure-and-function-during-aging
#5
Sahba Seddighi, Vijay R Varma, Yang An, Sudhir Varma, Lori L Beason-Held, Toshiko Tanaka, Melissa H Kitner-Triolo, Michael A Kraut, Christos Davatzikos, Madhav Thambisetty
We recently reported that alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) is a biomarker of neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and identified a network of nine genes co-expressed with A2M in the brain. This network includes the gene encoding SPARCL1, a protein implicated in synaptic maintenance. Here, we examine whether SPARCL1 is associated with longitudinal changes in brain structure and function in older individuals at risk for AD in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using data from the Gene-Tissue Expression Project, we first identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9998212 and rs7695558, associated with lower brain SPARCL1 gene expression...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142140/imaging-and-csf-analyses-effectively-distinguish-cjd-from-its-mimics
#6
Peter Rudge, Harpreet Hyare, Alison Green, John Collinge, Simon Mead
OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and investigation findings in patients referred to a specialist prion clinic who were suspected to have sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and yet were found to have an alternative final diagnosis. METHODS: Review the clinical findings and investigations in 214 patients enrolled into the UK National Prion Monitoring Cohort Study between October 2008 and November 2015 who had postmortem confirmed sCJD and compare these features with 50 patients referred over the same period who had an alternative final diagnosis (CJD mimics)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141366/-in-vitro-early-detection-of-amyloid-plaques-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-pittsburgh-compound-b-modified-magnetic-nanoparticles
#7
J Q Zeng, J Q Wu, M H Li, P J Wang
Objective: To construct magnetic nanoparticles targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, the pathological biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to study their binding capability in vitro. Methods: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles Mn(0.6)Zn(0.4)Fe(2)O(4) (MZF) were coated with amphiphilic star-block copolymeric micelles and modified with Aβ-specific probe Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to construct a novel magnetic nanoparticle MZF-PiB, which specifically targeted amyloid plaques. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the morphological features of MZF-PiB...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136110/meta-connectomic-analysis-reveals-commonly-disrupted-functional-architectures-in-network-modules-and-connectors-across-brain-disorders
#8
Zhiqiang Sha, Mingrui Xia, Qixiang Lin, Miao Cao, Yanqing Tang, Ke Xu, Haiqing Song, Zhiqun Wang, Fei Wang, Peter T Fox, Alan C Evans, Yong He
Neuropsychiatric disorders are increasingly conceptualized as disconnection syndromes that are associated with abnormal network integrity in the brain. However, whether different neuropsychiatric disorders show commonly dysfunctional connectivity architectures in large-scale brain networks remains largely unknown. Here, we performed a meta-connectomic study to identify disorder-related functional modules and brain regions by combining meta-analyses of 182 published resting-state functional MRI studies in 11 neuropsychiatric disorders and graph-theoretical analyses of 3 independent resting-state functional MRI datasets with healthy and diseased populations (Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder [MDD])...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135998/multivariate-regression-analysis-of-structural-mri-connectivity-matrices-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Javier Rasero, Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Sabina Tangaro, Roberto Bellotti, Sebastiano Stramaglia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people and increasing longevity ensures its prevalence will rise even further. Whether AD originates by disconnecting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. An important related challenge is to predict whether a given subject, with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), will convert or not to AD. Here, our aim is to characterize the structural connectivity pattern of MCI and AD subjects using the multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) analysis, and to compare it to those of healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134771/detection-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-by-sialic-acid-coated-bovine-serum-albumin-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Seyedmehdi Hossaini Nasr, Hovig Kouyoumdjian, Christiane Mallett, Sherif Ramadan, David C Zhu, Erik M Shapiro, Xuefei Huang
The accumulation and formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain are distinctive pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Designing nanoparticle (NP) contrast agents capable of binding with Aβ highly selectively can potentially facilitate early detection of AD. However, a significant obstacle is the blood brain barrier (BBB), which can preclude the entrance of NPs into the brain for Aβ binding. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated NPs are decorated with sialic acid (NP-BSAx -Sia) to overcome the challenges in Aβ imaging in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134465/current-role-for-biomarkers-in-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Aimee L Pierce
Purpose of review Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia can often be diagnosed accurately with careful clinical history, cognitive testing, neurological examination, and structural brain MRI. However, there are certain circumstances wherein detection of specific biomarkers of neurodegeneration or underlying AD pathology will impact the clinical diagnosis or treatment plan. We will review the currently available biomarkers for AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and discuss their clinical importance...
November 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126669/what-can-dti-tell-about-early-cognitive-impairment-differentiation-between-mci-subtypes-and-healthy-controls-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115990/dhcr24-exerts-neuroprotection-upon-inflammation-induced-neuronal-death
#13
Henna Martiskainen, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Teemu Natunen, Mari Takalo, Mikael Marttinen, Stina Leskelä, Nadine Huber, Petra Mäkinen, Enni Bertling, Hiramani Dhungana, Mikko Huuskonen, Paavo Honkakoski, Pirta Hotulainen, Kirsi Rilla, Jari Koistinaho, Hilkka Soininen, Tarja Malm, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Mikko Hiltunen
BACKGROUND: DHCR24, involved in the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and protection of neuronal cells against different stress conditions, has been shown to be selectively downregulated in neurons of the affected brain areas in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Here, we investigated whether the overexpression of DHCR24 protects neurons against inflammation-induced neuronal death using co-cultures of mouse embryonic primary cortical neurons and BV2 microglial cells upon acute neuroinflammation...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114370/taming-alzheimer-s-disease-new-perspectives-newer-horizons
#14
REVIEW
Debraj Sen, Anusree Majumder, Vijinder Arora, Neha Yadu, Ritwik Chakrabarti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia. However, current therapies do not prevent progression of the disease. New research into the pathogenesis of the disease has brought about a greater understanding of the "amyloid cascade" and associated receptor abnormalities, the role of genetic factors, and revealed that the disease process commences 10 to 20 years prior to the appearance of clinical signs. This greater understanding of the disease has prompted development of novel disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) which may prevent onset or delay progression of the disease...
July 6, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107830/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-human-locus-coeruleus-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Kathy Y Liu, Freya Marijatta, Dorothea Hämmerer, Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Emrah Düzel, Robert J Howard
The locus coeruleus (LC), the major origin of noradrenergic modulation of the central nervous system, innervates extensive areas throughout the brain and is implicated in a variety of autonomic and cognitive functions. Alterations in the LC-noradrenergic system have been associated with healthy ageing and neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The last decade has seen advances in imaging the structure and function of the LC, and this paper systematically reviews the methodology and outcomes of sixty-nine structural and functional MRI studies of the LC in humans...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107626/mri-measurements-of-blood-brain-barrier-function-in-dementia-a-review-of-recent-studies
#16
REVIEW
Rajikha Raja, Gary A Rosenberg, Arvind Caprihan
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) separates the systemic circulation and the brain, regulating transport of most molecules to protect the brain microenvironment. Multiple structural and functional components preserve the integrity of the BBB. Several imaging modalities are available to study disruption of the BBB. However, the subtle changes in BBB leakage that occurs in vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease have been less well studied. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is the most widely adopted non-invasive imaging technique for evaluating BBB breakdown...
October 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106439/increased-diastolic-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-mri-biomarkers-of-dementia-related-brain-pathology-in-normative-ageing
#17
Christopher J McNeil, Phyo Kyaw Myint, Anca-Larisa Sandu, John F Potter, Roger Staff, Lawrence J Whalley, Alison D Murray
Background: hypertension is a risk for brain ageing, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected biomarkers of brain ageing include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a marker of cerebrovascular disease, and hippocampal volume, a marker of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Objective: to examine relationships between blood pressure (BP) components and brain pathology in older adults. Subjects: two hundred and twenty-seven members of the Aberdeen 1936 Birth Cohort between ages 64 and 68 years...
July 4, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104740/cerebellum-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-beyond-conventional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
REVIEW
Enricomaria Mormina, Maria Petracca, Giulia Bommarito, Niccolò Piaggio, Sirio Cocozza, Matilde Inglese
The cerebellum plays a key role in movement control and in cognition and cerebellar involvement is described in several neurodegenerative diseases. While conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used for brain and cerebellar morphologic evaluation, advanced MRI techniques allow the investigation of cerebellar microstructural and functional characteristics. Volumetry, voxel-based morphometry, diffusion MRI based fiber tractography, resting state and task related functional MRI, perfusion, and proton MR spectroscopy are among the most common techniques applied to the study of cerebellum...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104527/brain-mri-pattern-recognition-translated-to-clinical-scenarios
#19
Andreia V Faria, Zifei Liang, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori
We explored the performance of structure-based computational analysis in four neurodegenerative conditions [Ataxia (AT, n = 16), Huntington's Disease (HD, n = 52), Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n = 66), and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA, n = 50)], all characterized by brain atrophy. The independent variables were the volumes of 283 anatomical areas, derived from automated segmentation of T1-high resolution brain MRIs. The segmentation based volumetric quantification reduces image dimensionality from the voxel level [on the order of [Formula: see text](10(6))] to anatomical structures [[Formula: see text](10(2))] for subsequent statistical analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104000/ensemble-based-on-static-classifier-selection-for-automated-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Loris Nanni, Alessandra Lumini, Nicolò Zaffonato
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia in the elderly population. Scientific research is very active in the challenge of designing automated approaches to achieve an early and certain diagnosis. Recently an international competition among AD predictors has been organized: "A Machine learning neuroimaging challenge for automated diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment" (MLNeCh). This competition is based on pre-processed sets of T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) to be classified in four categories: stable AD, individuals with MCI who converted to AD, individuals with MCI who did not convert to AD and healthy controls...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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