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Mri alzheimer

R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, V S Lekha, Sunitha Justus, P Sankara Sarma, Ramshekhar Menon
Context: Annually 10-12% of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are likely to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The morphometric profile in stable non-converters has not been adequately characterized. Aims: To determine the structural differences between amnestic MCI and early AD using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with neuropsychological test performances. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case-control study...
March 2018: Neurology India
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Misato Yoshikawa, Yoshiyuki Soeda, Makoto Michikawa, Osborne F X Almeida, Akihiko Takashima
Hippocampal hyperactivity, ascribed to amyloid β (Aβ)-induced imbalances in neural excitation and inhibition, is found in patients with mild cognitive impairment, a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand the relationship between hippocampal hyperactivity and the molecular triggers of behavioral impairments in AD, we used Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to assess neuronal activity after subjecting mice to a task requiring spatial learning and memory. Depletion of endogenous tau in an amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic (J20) mouse line was shown to ameliorate hippocampal hyperactivity in J20 animals, tau depletion failed to reverse memory deficits associated with APP/Aβ overproduction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Melissa E Murray, David S Knopman, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Keith A Josephs, Christopher G Schwarz, Walter K Kremers, Bradley F Boeve, Ronald C Petersen, Mary M Machulda, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
Predicting underlying pathology based on clinical presentation has historically proven difficult, especially in older cohorts. Age-related hippocampal sclerosis may account for a significant proportion of elderly participants with amnestic dementia. Advances in molecular neuroimaging have allowed for detailed biomarker-based phenotyping, but in the absence of antemortem markers of hippocampal sclerosis, cases of mixed pathology remain problematic. We evaluated the utility of 18F-FDG-PET to differentiate flortaucipir tau PET negative from flortaucipir positive amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia and used an autopsy confirmed cohort to test the hypothesis that hippocampal sclerosis might account for the observed pattern...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Clifford R Jack, Heather J Wiste, Christopher G Schwarz, Val J Lowe, Matthew L Senjem, Prashanthi Vemuri, Stephen D Weigand, Terry M Therneau, Dave S Knopman, Jeffrey L Gunter, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Kejal Kantarci, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen
Our objective was to compare different whole-brain and region-specific measurements of within-person change on serial tau PET and evaluate its utility for clinical trials. We studied 126 individuals: 59 cognitively unimpaired with normal amyloid, 37 cognitively unimpaired with abnormal amyloid, and 30 cognitively impaired with an amnestic phenotype and abnormal amyloid. All had baseline amyloid PET and two tau PET, MRI, and clinical assessments. We compared the topography across all cortical regions of interest of tau PET accumulation rates and the rates of four different whole-brain or region-specific meta-regions of interest among the three clinical groups...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Alan H Nagahara, Bayard R Wilson, Iryna Ivasyk, Imre Kovacs, Saytam Rawalji, John R Bringas, Phillip J Pivirotto, Waldy San Sebastian, Lluis Samaranch, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Mark H Tuszynski
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene delivery to the entorhinal cortex is a candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to reduce neurodegeneration that is associated with memory loss. Accurate targeting of the entorhinal cortex in AD is complex due to the deep and atrophic state of this brain region. Using MRI-guided methods with convection-enhanced delivery, we were able to accurately and consistently target AAV2-BDNF delivery to the entorhinal cortex of non-human primates; 86 ± 3% of transduced cells in the targeted regions co-localized with the neuronal marker NeuN...
March 13, 2018: Gene Therapy
Marta Gómez-Sancho, Jussi Tohka, Vanessa Gómez-Verdejo
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. The identification of at-risk subjects yet showing no dementia symptoms but who will later convert to AD can be crucial for the effective treatment of AD. For this, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is expected to play a crucial role. During recent years, several Machine Learning (ML) approaches to AD-conversion prediction have been proposed using different types of MRI features...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Lea M Gerischer, Andreas Fehlner, Theresa Köbe, Kristin Prehn, Daria Antonenko, Ulrike Grittner, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Agnes Flöel
Dementia due to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which treatment strategies at an early stage are of great clinical importance. So far, there is still a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools to sensitively detect AD in early stages and to predict individual disease progression. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) of the brain may be a promising novel tool. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated whether multifrequency-MRE (MMRE) can detect differences in hippocampal stiffness between patients with clinical diagnosis of dementia due to AD and healthy controls (HC)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Katelyn L Arnemann, Franziska Stöber, Sharada Narayan, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
Metabolic brain networks can provide insight into the network processes underlying progression from healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease. We explore the effect of two Alzheimer's disease risk factors, amyloid-β and ApoE ε4 genotype, on metabolic brain networks in cognitively normal older adults (N = 64, ages 69-89) compared to young adults (N = 17, ages 20-30) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (N = 22, ages 69-89). Subjects underwent MRI and PET imaging of metabolism (FDG) and amyloid-β (PIB). Normal older adults were divided into four subgroups based on amyloid-β and ApoE genotype...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lirong Yan, Collin Y Liu, Koon-Pong Wong, Sung-Cheng Huang, Wendy J Mack, Kay Jann, Giovanni Coppola, John M Ringman, Danny J J Wang
Autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is a small subset of Alzheimer's disease that is genetically determined with 100% penetrance. It provides a valuable window into studying the course of pathologic processes that leads to dementia. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI is a potential AD imaging marker that non-invasively measures cerebral perfusion. In this study, we investigated the relationship of cerebral blood flow measured by pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) MRI with measures of cerebral metabolism (FDG PET) and amyloid deposition (Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kathy Y Liu, Aisling E Stringer, Suzanne J Reeves, Robert J Howard
OBJECTIVE: To provide an up-to-date systematic review of the characteristics, methodology and findings of studies that have investigated the neurochemistry of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for published peer-reviewed articles which provided data on any neurotransmitter system in relation to agitation in AD. Screening of titles and abstracts and data extraction from full texts were conducted in duplicate. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were included...
March 7, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi, Maria Del C Valdés-Hernández, Maria Leonora Fatimah Agan, Carol Di Perri, Taku Komura
We propose an adaptation of a convolutional neural network (CNN) scheme proposed for segmenting brain lesions with considerable mass-effect, to segment white matter hyperintensities (WMH) characteristic of brains with none or mild vascular pathology in routine clinical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). This is a rather difficult segmentation problem because of the small area (i.e., volume) of the WMH and their similarity to non-pathological brain tissue. We investigate the effectiveness of the 2D CNN scheme by comparing its performance against those obtained from another deep learning approach: Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM), two conventional machine learning approaches: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), and a public toolbox: Lesion Segmentation Tool (LST), all reported to be useful for segmenting WMH in MRI...
February 17, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Trey Hedden, Sehily Jaimes, Tammie L S Benzinger, Clifford Jack, Beau M Ances, John M Ringman, Daniel S Marcus, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin, Igor Yakushev, Christoph Laske, Robert A Koeppe, Douglas R Galasko, Chengjie Xiong, Colin L Masters, Peter R Schofield, Kirsi M Kinnunen, Stephen Salloway, Ralph N Martins, Eric McDade, Nigel J Cairns, Virginia D Buckles, John C Morris, Randall Bateman, Reisa A Sperling
Converging evidence from structural, metabolic and functional connectivity MRI suggests that neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, target specific neural networks. However, age-related network changes commonly co-occur with neuropathological cascades, limiting efforts to disentangle disease-specific alterations in network function from those associated with normal ageing. Here we elucidate the differential effects of ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology through simultaneous analyses of two functional connectivity MRI datasets: (i) young participants harbouring highly-penetrant mutations leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an Alzheimer's disease cohort in which age-related comorbidities are minimal and likelihood of progression along an Alzheimer's disease trajectory is extremely high; and (ii) young and elderly participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort in which imaging biomarkers of amyloid burden and neurodegeneration can be used to disambiguate ageing alone from preclinical Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Akinori Nakamura, Pablo Cuesta, Alberto Fernández, Yutaka Arahata, Kaori Iwata, Izumi Kuratsubo, Masahiko Bundo, Hideyuki Hattori, Takashi Sakurai, Koji Fukuda, Yukihiko Washimi, Hidetoshi Endo, Akinori Takeda, Kersten Diers, Ricardo Bajo, Fernando Maestú, Kengo Ito, Takashi Kato
Biomarkers useful for the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease are needed. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are expected to provide potential biomarker candidates for evaluating the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. However, the physiological relevance of EEG/MEG signal changes and their role in pathophysiological processes such as amyloid-β deposition and neurodegeneration need to be elucidated. We evaluated 28 individuals with mild cognitive impairment and 38 cognitively normal individuals, all of whom were further classified into amyloid-β-positive mild cognitive impairment (n = 17, mean age 74...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ling-Yun Fan, Ya-Mei Lai, Ta-Fu Chen, Yung-Chin Hsu, Pin-Yu Chen, Kuo-Zhou Huang, Ting-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yi Isaac Tseng, Mau-Sun Hua, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses insidiously from the preclinical stage to dementia. While people with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have normal cognitive performance, some may be in the preclinical stage of AD. Neurofibrillary tangles appear first in the transentorhinal cortex, followed by the entorhinal cortex in the clinically silent stage of AD. We expected the earliest changes in subjects with SCD to occur in medial temporal subfields other than the hippocampal proper. These selective structural changes would affect specific memory subcomponents...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ines Mahjoub, Mohamed Ali Mahjoub, Islem Rekik
Accurate diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is invaluable for patient treatment. Many works showed that MCI and AD affect functional and structural connections between brain regions as well as the shape of cortical regions. However, 'shape connections' between brain regions are rarely investigated -e.g., how morphological attributes such as cortical thickness and sulcal depth of a specific brain region change in relation to morphological attributes in other regions...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jin San Lee, Changsoo Kim, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Hanna Cho, Dae-Seock Shin, Nakyoung Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Yeshin Kim, Samuel N Lockhart, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong
To develop a new method for measuring Alzheimer's disease (AD)-specific similarity of cortical atrophy patterns at the individual-level, we employed an individual-level machine learning algorithm. A total of 869 cognitively normal (CN) individuals and 473 patients with probable AD dementia who underwent high-resolution 3T brain MRI were included. We propose a machine learning-based method for measuring the similarity of an individual subject's cortical atrophy pattern with that of a representative AD patient cohort...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ismini C Mainta, Maria I Vargas, Sara Trombella, Giovanni B Frisoni, Paul G Unschuld, Valentina Garibotto
Multiple factors, namely amyloid, tau, inflammation, metabolic, and perfusion changes, contribute to the cascade of neurodegeneration and functional decline occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These molecular and cellular processes and related functional and morphological changes can be visualized in vivo by two imaging modalities, namely positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imaging biomarkers are now part of the diagnostic algorithm and of particular interest for patient stratification and targeted drug development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carles Falcon, Grégory Operto, José Luis Molinuevo, Juan Domingo Gispert
Among others, the existence of pathophysiological biomarkers such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ-42, t-tau, and p-tau preceding the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptomatology have shifted the conceptualization of AD as a continuum. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the study of structural and functional cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal changes in vivo and, therefore, the combination of CSF data and imaging analyses emerges as a synergistic approach to understand the structural correlates related with specific AD-related biomarkers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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