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Neurovascular coupling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729926/coherence-of-bold-signal-and-electrical-activity-in-the-human-brain-during-deep-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#1
Daniel Golkowski, Andreas Ranft, Tobias Kiel, Valentin Riedl, Philipp Kohl, Guido Rohrer, Joachim Pientka, Sebastian Berger, Christine Preibisch, Claus Zimmer, George A Mashour, Gerhard Schneider, Eberhard F Kochs, Rüdiger Ilg, Denis Jordan
INTRODUCTION: Changes in neural activity induce changes in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Commonly, increases in BOLD signal are ascribed to cellular excitation. OBJECTIVE: The relationship between electrical activity and BOLD signal in the human brain was probed on the basis of burst suppression EEG. This condition includes two distinct states of high and low electrical activity. METHODS: Resting-state simultaneous EEG and BOLD measurements were acquired during deep sevoflurane anesthesia with burst suppression EEG in nineteen healthy volunteers...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729163/computational-analysis-of-interactions-of-oxidative-stress-and-tetrahydrobiopterin-reveals-instability-in-enos-coupling
#2
Sheetal Joshi, Saptarshi Kar, Mahendra Kavdia
In cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases, an increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction has been reported. There is a reduction in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is a cofactor for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), resulting in eNOS uncoupling. Studies of the enhancement of BH4 availability have reported mixed results for improvement in endothelial dysfunction. Our understanding of the complex interactions of eNOS uncoupling, oxidative stress and BH4 availability is not complete and a quantitative understanding of these interactions is required...
July 17, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714074/altered-metabolomic-genomic-signature-a-potential-noninvasive-biomarker-of-epilepsy
#3
Helen C Wu, Fabien Dachet, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Shruti Bagla, Darren Fuerst, Jeffrey A Stanley, Matthew P Galloway, Jeffrey A Loeb
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712093/neurobiological-effect-of-selective-brain-cooling-after-concussive-injury
#4
Alexa Walter, Katie Finelli, Xiaoxiao Bai, Brian Johnson, Thomas Neuberger, Peter Seidenberg, Timothy Bream, Mark Hallett, Semyon Slobounov
The search for effective treatment facilitating recovery from concussive injury, as well as reducing risk for recurrent concussion is an ongoing challenge. This study aimed to determine: a) feasibility of selective brain cooling to facilitate clinical symptoms resolution, and b) biological functions of the brain within athletes in acute phase of sports-related concussion. Selective brain cooling for 30 minutes using WElkins sideline cooling system was administered to student-athletes suffering concussive injury (n=12; tested within 5±3 days) and those without history of concussion (n=12)...
July 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687518/neural-inhibition-can-explain-negative-bold-responses-a-mechanistic-modelling-and-fmri-study
#5
S Sten, K Lundengård, S T Witt, G Cedersund, F Elinder, M Engström
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of hemodynamic changes captured in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response contains information of brain activity. The BOLD response is the result of a complex neurovascular coupling and comes in at least two fundamentally different forms: a positive and a negative deflection. Because of the complexity of the signaling, mathematical modelling can provide vital help in the data analysis. For the positive BOLD response, there are plenty of mathematical models, both physiological and phenomenological...
July 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649158/implementation-of-material-decomposition-using-an-emccd-and-cmos-based-micro-ct-system
#6
Alexander R Podgorsak, Sv Setlur Nagesh, Daniel R Bednarek, Stephen Rudin, Ciprian N Ionita
This project assessed the effectiveness of using two different detectors to obtain dual-energy (DE) micro-CT data for the carrying out of material decomposition. A micro-CT coupled to either a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) or an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector was used to acquire image data of a 3D-printed phantom with channels filled with different materials. At any instance, materials such as iohexol contrast agent, water, and platinum were selected to make up the scanned object...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646017/ror%C3%AE-modulates-semaphorin-3e-transcription-and-neurovascular-interaction-in-pathological-retinal-angiogenesis
#7
Ye Sun, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Zhongxiao Wang, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, John Paul SanGiovanni, Theodore M Kamenecka, Laura A Solt, Jing Chen
Pathological proliferation of retinal blood vessels commonly causes vision impairment in proliferative retinopathies, including retinopathy of prematurity. Dysregulated crosstalk between the vasculature and retinal neurons is increasingly recognized as a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3s), a group of neuron-secreted axonal and vascular guidance factors, suppress pathological vascular growth in retinopathy. However, the upstream transcriptional regulators that mediate the function of SEMA3s in vascular growth are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643877/cerebral-haemodynamic-response-to-somatosensory-stimulation-in-neonatal-lambs
#8
Shinji Nakamura, David W Walker, Flora Y Wong
The neurovascular coupling response has been defined for the adult brain but in the neonate non-invasive measurement of local cerebral perfusion using NIRS or BOLD fMRI have yielded variable and inconsistent results, including negative responses suggesting decreased perfusion and localised tissue tissue hypoxia. Also, the impact of permissive hypercapnia (Pa CO2  > 50 mmHg) in the management of neonates on cerebrovascular responses to somatosensory input is unknown. Using NIRS to measure changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin (ΔoxyHb, ΔdeoxyHb) in 8 anaesthetised newborn lambs, we studied the cerebral haemodynamic functional response to left median nerve stimulation using stimulus trains of 1...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627298/a-prospective-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-based-evaluation-of-the-acute-and-cumulative-effects-of-sport-related-concussion-on-neurovascular-coupling-response-dynamics
#9
Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Kelsey Bryk, Paul van Donkelaar
Sport-related concussion has been shown to alter cerebral blood flow (CBF) both acutely and chronically, and may exert cumulative effects across multiple injuries. Such dysfunction may be mediated by trauma-induced deficits to CBF control mechanisms, though our understanding of these effects is limited, including dynamics of neurovascular coupling (NVC) responses (i.e. CBF responses to neurologic demand). 179 junior-level contact sport athletes completed preseason testing - 42 reported never having experienced a concussion (Hx-) while 31 had endured three or more (Hx3+)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580292/non-invasive-multimodal-analysis-of-cortical-activity-blood-volume-and-neurovascular-coupling-in-infantile-spasms-using-eeg-fnirs-monitoring
#10
Emilie Bourel-Ponchel, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Aline Delignières, Patrick Berquin, Fabrice Wallois
Although infantile spasms can be caused by a variety of etiologies, the clinical features are stereotypical. The neuronal and vascular mechanisms that contribute to the emergence of infantile spasms are not well understood. We performed a multimodal study by simultaneously recording electroencephalogram and functional Near-infrared spectroscopy in an intentionally heterogeneous population of six children with spasms in clusters. Regardless of the etiology, spasms were accompanied by two phases of hemodynamic changes; an initial change in the cerebral blood volume (simultaneously with each spasm) followed by a neurovascular coupling in all children except for the one with a large porencephalic cyst...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578467/demonstration-of-impaired-neurovascular-coupling-responses-in-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-functional-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging
#11
Stefano Tarantini, Gabor A Fulop, Tamas Kiss, Eszter Farkas, Dániel Zölei-Szénási, Veronica Galvan, Peter Toth, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Increasing evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicates that cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and microcirculatory damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many types of dementia in the elderly, including both vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include impairment of neurovascular coupling responses/functional hyperemia ("neurovascular uncoupling"). Due to the growing interest in understanding and pharmacologically targeting pathophysiological mechanisms of VCID, there is an increasing need for sensitive, easy-to-establish methods to assess neurovascular coupling responses...
June 3, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573491/p2x7-receptor-large-pore-signaling-in-avian-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cells
#12
Robson X Faria, Hercules R Freitas, Ricardo A M Reis
ATP is a pleiotropic molecule that promotes extra- and intracellular signaling to regulate numerous functions. This nucleotide activates purine and pyrimidine receptors at the plasma membrane, categorized as ionotropic P2X or G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) P2Y receptors. P2X are ligand-gated ion channel receptors, expressed in both retinal neurons and Müller cells leading to neuron-glia communication, calcium waves and neurovascular coupling. However, how P2X pore is formed upon ATP activation and how signaling pathways regulates the complex is still a matter of controversy...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566094/assessment-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-adult-patients-with-aortic-coarctation
#13
Rachel Wong, Waheed Ahmad, Allan Davies, Neil Spratt, Andrew Boyle, Christopher Levi, Peter Howe, Nicholas Collins
BACKGROUND: Survival into adult life in patients with aortic coarctation is typical following surgical and catheter-based techniques to relieve obstruction. Late sequelae are recognised, including stroke, hypertension, and intracerebral aneurysm formation, with the underlying mechanisms being unclear. We hypothesised that patients with a history of aortic coarctation may have abnormalities of cerebral blood flow compared with controls. METHODS: Patients with a history of aortic coarctation underwent assessment of cerebral vascular function...
June 1, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560239/image-reconstruction-of-oxidized-cerebral-cytochrome-c-oxidase-changes-from-broadband-near-infrared-spectroscopy-data
#14
Sabrina Brigadoi, Phong Phan, David Highton, Samuel Powell, Robert J Cooper, Jeremy Hebden, Martin Smith, Ilias Tachtsidis, Clare E Elwell, Adam P Gibson
In diffuse optical tomography (DOT), overlapping and multidistance measurements are required to reconstruct depth-resolved images of oxy- ([Formula: see text]) and deoxy- (HHb) hemoglobin concentration changes occurring in the brain. These can be considered an indirect measure of brain activity, under the assumption of intact neurovascular coupling. Broadband systems also allow changes in the redox state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO) to be measured, which can be an important biomarker when neurovascular coupling is impaired...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553198/a-resilient-non-neuronal-source-of-the-spatiotemporal-lag-structure-detected-by-bold-signal-based-blood-flow-tracking
#15
Toshihiko Aso, Guanhua Jiang, Shin-Ichi Urayama, Hidenao Fukuyama
Recent evidence has suggested that blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals convey information about brain circulation via low frequency oscillation of systemic origin (sLFO) that travels through the vascular structure ("lag mapping"). Prompted by its promising application in both physiology and pathology, we examined this signal component using multiple approaches. A total of 30 healthy volunteers were recruited to perform two reproducibility experiments at 3 Tesla using multiband echo planar imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521048/altered-coupling-between-resting-state-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#16
Jiajia Zhu, Chuanjun Zhuo, Lixue Xu, Feng Liu, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu
Background: Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Methods: 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515434/cerebral-blood-flow-regulation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease
#17
REVIEW
Kassandra Kisler, Amy R Nelson, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation is essential for normal brain function. The mammalian brain has evolved a unique mechanism for CBF control known as neurovascular coupling. This mechanism ensures a rapid increase in the rate of CBF and oxygen delivery to activated brain structures. The neurovascular unit is composed of astrocytes, mural vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, and endothelia, and regulates neurovascular coupling. This Review article examines the cellular and molecular mechanisms within the neurovascular unit that contribute to CBF control, and neurovascular dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504673/a-fluoro-nissl-dye-identifies-pericytes-as-distinct-vascular-mural-cells-during-in-vivo-brain-imaging
#18
Eyiyemisi C Damisah, Robert A Hill, Lei Tong, Katie N Murray, Jaime Grutzendler
Pericytes and smooth muscle cells are integral components of the brain microvasculature. However, no techniques exist to unambiguously identify these cell types, greatly limiting their investigation in vivo. Here we show that the fluorescent Nissl dye NeuroTrace 500/525 labels brain pericytes with specificity, allowing high-resolution optical imaging in the live mouse. We demonstrate that capillary pericytes are a population of mural cells with distinct morphological, molecular and functional features that do not overlap with precapillary or arteriolar smooth muscle actin-expressing cells...
July 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504643/exploiting-neurovascular-coupling-a-bayesian-sequential-monte-carlo-approach-applied-to-simulated-eeg-fnirs-data
#19
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Arcangelo Merla, Antonio Chiarelli
OBJECTIVE: Electrical and hemodynamic brain activity are linked through the neurovascular coupling process and they can be simultaneously measured through integration of Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thanks to the lack of electro-optical interference, the two procedures can be easily combined and, whereas EEG provides electrophysiological information, fNIRS can provide measurements of two hemodynamic variables, such as oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495529/mek-erk-and-calcineurin-nfat-mediated-mechanism-of-cerebral-hyperemia-and-brain-injury-following-nmda-receptor-activation
#20
Yuki Kurauchi, Rintaro Kinoshita, Asami Mori, Kenji Sakamoto, Tsutomu Nakahara, Kunio Ishii
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and induces neuronal injury, but similarities between these processes are poorly understood. In this study, by measuring rCBF in vivo, we identified a clear correlation between cerebral hyperemia and brain injury. NMDA receptor activation induced brain injury as a result of rCBF increase, which was attenuated by an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase or calcineurin. Moreover, NMDA induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) in neurons...
May 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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