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Optic nerve atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639452/-magnetic-resonance-strength-of-1-5-t-possibilities-detailed-view-of-the-optic-nerve
#1
P Hanzlíková, J Chmelová
Due to the increased availability of MRI, this modality is the first choice for patients with a suspected pathology of the optic nerve, chiasm and optic tracts. Magnetic resonance imaging allows to evaluate the optic nerve itself as well as the gain or atrophy, its focal changes; it also allows detailed views of the surrounding structures such as vagina of the optic nerve and the mutual ratio between the full thickness of the nerve and the vagina, and the nerve itself. MR method uses a tissue contrast of an adipose tissue structures to a detailed imaging of the orbit...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#2
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635423/inner-retinal-dystrophy-in-a-patient-with-biallelic-sequence-variants-in-brat1
#3
Julius T Oatts, Jacque L Duncan, Creig S Hoyt, Anne M Slavotinek, Anthony T Moore
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the BRCA1-associated protein required for the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation-1 (BRAT1) gene cause lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome characterized by rigidity and intractable seizures and a milder phenotype with intellectual disability, seizures, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia or dyspraxia, and cerebellar atrophy. To date, nystagmus, cortical visual impairment, impairment of central vision, optic nerve hypoplasia, and optic atrophy have been described in this condition...
March 2, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626415/a-case-of-childhood-onset-giant-cell-tumor-that-caused-optic-nerve-atrophy-in-both-eyes
#4
Masahiro Tonari, Junko Matsuo, Hidehiro Oku, Jun Sugasawa, Tsunehiko Ikeda, Kazunori Tatsuzawa, Tomoaki Fujita
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the case of a female patient who had a giant cell tumor in the paranasal sinus during childhood, and while undergoing multiple resection surgeries experienced optic atrophy in both eyes. CASE PRESENTATION: This study involved a 35-year-old woman who was previously diagnosed with a giant cell tumor of the paranasal sinus bone at age 13. A CT scan revealed a large tumor extending from the sphenoid sinus to the ethmoid sinus...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596752/the-retina-in-multiple-system-atrophy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Carlos E Mendoza-Santiesteban, Iñigo Gabilondo, Jose Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, adult-onset, rapidly progressive fatal synucleinopathy that primarily affects oligodendroglial cells in the brain. Patients with MSA only rarely have visual complaints, but recent studies of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed atrophy of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and to a lesser extent the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) complex. METHODS: We performed a literature review and meta-analysis according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines for studies published before January 2017, identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases, which reported OCT-related outcomes in patients with MSA and controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594428/compromised-integrity-of-central-visual-pathways-in-patients-with-macular-degeneration
#6
Maka Malania, Julia Konrad, Herbert Jägle, John S Werner, Mark W Greenlee
Purpose: Macular degeneration (MD) affects the central retina and leads to gradual loss of foveal vision. Although, photoreceptors are primarily affected in MD, the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and central visual pathways may also be altered subsequent to photoreceptor degeneration. Here we investigate whether retinal damage caused by MD alters microstructural properties of visual pathways using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Six MD patients and six healthy control subjects participated in the study...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584914/optical-coherence-tomography-for-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#7
Philipp Albrecht, Christine Blasberg, Marius Ringelstein, Ann-Kristin Müller, David Finis, Rainer Guthoff, Ella-Maria Kadas, Wolf Lagreze, Orhan Aktas, Hans-Peter Hartung, Friedemann Paul, Alexander U Brandt, Axel Methner
The objectives of the study were to investigate the value of optical coherence tomography in detecting papilledema in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a disease which is difficult to monitor and which can lead to permanent visual deficits; to analyze retinal changes over time. In this non-interventional case-control study, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to analyze the retinal and optic nerve head (ONH) morphology of 21 patients with IIH and 27 age- and sex-matched healthy controls over time...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575651/mutations-in-nkx6-2-cause-progressive-spastic-ataxia-and-hypomyelination
#8
Viorica Chelban, Nisha Patel, Jana Vandrovcova, M Natalia Zanetti, David S Lynch, Mina Ryten, Juan A Botía, Oscar Bello, Eloise Tribollet, Stephanie Efthymiou, Indran Davagnanam, Fahad A Bashiri, Nicholas W Wood, James E Rothman, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Henry Houlden
Progressive limb spasticity and cerebellar ataxia are frequently found together in clinical practice and form a heterogeneous group of degenerative disorders that are classified either as pure spastic ataxia or as complex spastic ataxia with additional neurological signs. Inheritance is either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Hypomyelinating features on MRI are sometimes seen with spastic ataxia, but this is usually mild in adults and severe and life limiting in children. We report seven individuals with an early-onset spastic-ataxia phenotype...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561632/-traumatic-asphyxia-with-permanent-visual-loss-case-report
#9
Tibor Kántor, Bianca Grigorescu, Gabriel Popescu, Attila Ferencz, Örs Nagy, János Jung, István Gergely
Traumatic asphyxia is a rare condition that occurs after compressive thoracoabdominal trauma, which is characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, cervicofacial cyanosis, edema and petechiae. Serious life-threatening thoracic and abdominal injuries may coexist. After conservatory treatment in most cases complete recovery is achieved, but in isolated cases permanent neurological lesions may occur. We present the case of the 39-year-old male patient who suffered a compressive thoracoabdominal trauma. The physical examination showed the characteristic "ecchymotic mask"...
June 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557580/assessment-of-optic-nerve-head-pallor-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#10
Lisa Ramm, Birte Schwab, Richard Stodtmeister, Martin Hammer, Lydia Sauer, Eberhard Spörl, Lutz E Pillunat, Naim Terai
PURPOSE: To investigate optic nerve head (ONH) pallor quantitatively in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and in healthy subjects, and to examine the relationship to mean deviation in perimetry (MD), cup-disk ratio (CDR), and diameters of retinal vessels. METHODS: A total of 89 POAG patients (67.6 ± 11.1 years) and 48 healthy subjects (63.3 ± 14 years) were included. A dual-bandpass transmission filter was introduced in the illumination path of the fundus camera of the Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (Imedos Systems UG) and two monochromatic images at different wavelenghts (548 ± 10 and 610 ± 10 nm) were recorded simultaneously...
May 30, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557535/peripapillary-atrophy-in-high-myopia
#11
Weifeng Liu, Liping Gong, Yingjie Li, Xuan Zhu, Jay M Stewart, Changyun Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate peripapillary atrophy (PPA) in high myopia (HM) as a function of extent of myopia, axial length (AL), and age. METHODS: Medical records from patients (n = 88) seen in the Ophthalmology Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China, and diagnosed with high myopia (HM)-defined as spherical equivalent (SE) of >6.00 diopters (D) of myopia in either eye-were included in this study. Eyes were classified according to SE and age...
May 30, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555457/-situs-inversus-of-the-optic-nerve-a-case-report
#12
I Lopez-Cuenca, R de Hoz, E Salobrar-Garcia, B Rojas, A I Ramirez, J J Salazar, A Trivino, J M Ramirez
INTRODUCTION: Situs inversus of the optic nerve is a congenital anomaly characterised by the emergence of the vessels in the retina towards the nose rather than in a temporal direction. It is caused by an anomalous insertion of the optic stalks into the optic vesicle that gives rise to dysversion of the head of the optic nerve. It is not an isolated condition and usually appears jointly with tilted disc syndrome and in patients with myopia. It is characterised by the presence of inferior conus atrophy, deficiencies in the temporal visual field, refraction defects and ambliopy...
June 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538978/the-characteristics-of-deep-optic-nerve-head-morphology-in-myopic-normal-tension-glaucoma
#13
Jong Chul Han, Eun Jung Lee, Si Bum Kim, Changwon Kee
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between axial length (AL) and deep optic nerve head (ONH) structure and to evaluate the characteristics of deep ONH structures in myopic normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods: The following parameters were assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT): externally oblique border tissue (EOBT) length, ONH tilt angle, optic canal (OC) obliqueness, and β-zone peripapillary atrophy (PPA). In addition, the angular location of the maximal value of each parameter and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect were measured using infrared and red-free photos...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533131/don-t-get-off-the-track
#14
Rod Foroozan, Andrew G Lee
A 43 year-old man noted decreased vision after head trauma, with normal neuroimaging acutely. He had a left homonymous hemianopia, confirmed with hemifield visual evoked potentials, from trauma to the right optic tract. Four months after trauma an MRI of the brain showed atrophy of the right optic tract, and funduscopy revealed optic disc pallor with decreased retinal nerve fiber layer measures consistent with an optic tract syndrome.
May 19, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532291/using-key-informant-method-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-causes-of-childhood-blindness-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#15
Ada E Aghaji, Ifeoma R Ezegwui, Jude O Shiweobi, Cyril C Mamah, Mary N Okoloagu, Ernest N Onwasigwe
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531809/multifocal-visual-evoked-potentials-in-optic-neuritis-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Gorm Pihl-Jensen, Mathias Falck Schmidt, Jette Lautrup Frederiksen
Multifocal visual evoked potential (mf-VEP) represents a new approach to the classical full field (ff-)VEP with separate responses from up to 60 sectors of the visual field. A thorough literature survey of the use of mf-VEP in optic neuritis (ON) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is presented (38 published studies were retrieved). Mf-VEP provides direct topographical information of specific lesions and facilitates investigations on structural-functional correlations thus providing new methods for exploring the interplay between demyelination, atrophy and remyelination in MS...
July 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527030/intravitreal-erythropoietin-injection-in-late-stage-optic-neuropathy-a-safety-study-on-human
#17
Ugur Acar, Bekir Kucuk, Mehmet Koray Sevinc, Seckin Aykas, Mesut Erdurmus, Gungor Sobaci
AIM: To evaluate the whether intravitreal erythropoietin (EPO) administration has any beneficial or adverse effect in patients with late-stage optic neuropathy (ON) or not. METHODS: The study examined 16 eyes of 16 patients who had late-stage ON and ≥1/20 best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in their affected eye. There were nonarteritic ischemic ON in 10 (62.5%) eyes, traumatic ON in 4 (25.0%) eyes and methanol-induced ON in 2 (12.5%) eyes. Using pars plana approach, 2000 IU/0...
May 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511578/retinal-atrophy-in-relation-to-visual-functioning-and-vision-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Lisanne J Balk, Danko Coric, Jenny A Nij Bijvank, Joep Killestein, Bernard Mj Uitdehaag, Axel Petzold
BACKGROUND: Inner retinal layer atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been validated as a structural imaging biomarker for neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: To determine how retinal layer thickness relates to high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA), low-contrast visual acuity (LCVA) and vision-related quality of life (QoL) and to investigate the effect of previous episodes on MS-associated optic neuritis (MSON). METHODS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was performed in 267 patients with MS...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509138/juvenile-nephronophthisis-and-dysthyroidism-a-rare-association
#19
Fateme Shamekhi Amiri, Ariana Kariminejad
Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive kidney disease, represents the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage kidney disease in the first three decades of life. A 27-year-old male was presented with gait imbalance, sever pruritus since 10 days prior time of admission. In past medical history, he had bilateral cataract, torsional nystagmus, and bilateral optic nerve atrophy since 2 years of age. He was also mentioned history of multinodular goiter with dysfunctional thyroid state since 2 years before admission...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507532/spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-as-a-new-diagnostic-marker-for-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#20
Joana M Afonso, Manuel Falcão, Frank Schlichtenbrede, Fernando Falcão-Reis, Sérgio Estrela Silva, Till M Schneider
PURPOSE: Characterized by a progressive onset of gait disturbances, dementia, and urinary incontinence, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered a rare, but under-diagnosed disease. Non-invasive diagnostic markers are still insufficient to enable the diagnosis of iNPH with certainty and yet early treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting can reverse symptoms and stop disease progression. Vascular circulation abnormalities in iNPH may be reflected by changes in subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPChT)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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