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Medical engineering

Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The atrocities in Syria have been covered in the four general medical weekly journals in the USA and the UK. Medical journal articles addressing political determinants of public health have rightly described and criticised the international community's failure to enforce humanitarian law while urging global bodies of power to ensure protection of civilians and civilian infrastructure and medical services. Discussions of the political influences on health of people in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip) seem to be considered politically out-of-bounds by some medical journals...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Vincent-Philippe Lavallée, Jalila Chagraoui, Tara MacRae, Miriam Marquis, Arnaud Bonnefoy, Jana Krosl, Sébastien Lemieux, Anne Marinier, Caroline Pabst, Georges-Étienne Rivard, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Narges Safai, Bendix Carstensen, Henrik Vestergaard, Martin Ridderstråle
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of a multifactorial treatment programme in a real-life setting on clinical outcomes and estimated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. DESIGN: A retrospective observational cohort study, using data from the electronic medical records and national registers. SETTING: Tertiary diabetes centre in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=4299) referred to a programme with focus on treatment of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia between 1 January 2001 and 1 April 2016...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Heidi Doden, Lina A Sallam, Saravanan Devendran, Lindsey Ly, Greta Doden, Steven L Daniel, João M P Alves, Jason M Ridlon
Bile acids are important cholesterol-derived nutrient signaling hormones, synthesized in the liver, that act as detergents to solubilize dietary lipids. Bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating gut bacteria generate the toxic bile acids deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid from host bile acids. The ability of these bacteria to remove the 7-hydroxyl group is partially dependent on 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) activity which reduces 7-oxo-bile acids generated by other gut bacteria. 3α-HSDH is an important enzymatic activity in the bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation pathway...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ayesha Sohail, O A Bég, Zhiwu Li, Sebahattin Celik
The mathematics of imaging is a growing field of research and is evolving rapidly parallel to evolution in the field of imaging. Imaging, which is a sub-field of biomedical engineering, considers novel approaches to visualize biological tissues with the general goal of improving health. "Medical imaging research provides improved diagnostic tools in clinical settings and supports the development of drugs and other therapies. The data acquisition and diagnostic interpretation with minimum error are the important technical aspects of medical imaging...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Geoffrey Masuyer, Sicai Zhang, Sulyman Barkho, Yi Shen, Linda Henriksson, Sara Košenina, Min Dong, Pål Stenmark
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most potent toxins known and are also used to treat an increasing number of medical disorders. There are seven well-established serotypes (BoNT/A-G), which all act as zinc-dependent endopeptidases targeting specific members of the SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons. A new toxin serotype, BoNT/X, was recently identified. It cleaves not only the canonical targets, vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP) 1/2/3 at a unique site, but also has the unique ability to cleave VAMP4/5 and Ykt6...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hui Sun, Yuanxiu Hong, Yuejing Xi, Yijie Zou, Jingyi Gao, Jianzhong Du
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been attracting much attention due to their excellent antimicrobial efficiency and low rate in driving antimicrobial resistance (AMR) which has been increasing globally to alarming levels. Conjugation of AMPs into functional polymers not only preserves excellent antimicrobial activities but reduces the toxicity and offers more functionalities, which brings new insight towards developing multifunctional biomedical materials such as hydrogels, polymer vesicles, polymer micelles, etc...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Joseph E Kerschner, Jerris R Hedges, Karen Antman, Edward Abraham, Edgar Colón Negrón, J Larry Jameson
Academic medical center (AMC) faculty, administrators, and leaders have the critical tasks of teaching and training the next generation of health care providers and biomedical researchers, as well as generating new knowledge that improves the health of all. In the United States, medical schools and their affiliated hospitals train remarkably high-quality physicians and scientists, and the research conducted at these institutions results in advances in health. To that end, AMCs have become essential engines for driving better health in the United States and the rest of the world; they also have become essential engines driving the economies of their respective communities and regions...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Mohamed Elgendi, Yongbo Liang, Rabab Ward
Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals collected using a pulse oximeter are increasingly being used for screening and diagnosis purposes. Because of the non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use nature of the pulse oximeter, clinicians and biomedical engineers are investigating how PPG signals can help in the management of many medical conditions, especially for global health application. The study of PPG signal analysis is relatively new compared to research in electrocardiogram signals, for instance; however, we anticipate that in the near future blood pressure, cardiac output, and other clinical parameters will be measured from wearable devices that collect PPG signals, based on the signal's vast potential...
March 11, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Simon Drouin, D Louis Collins
Direct volume rendering has become an essential tool to explore and analyse 3D medical images. Despite several advances in the field, it remains a challenge to produce an image that highlights the anatomy of interest, avoids occlusion of important structures, provides an intuitive perception of shape and depth while retaining sufficient contextual information. Although the computer graphics community has proposed several solutions to address specific visualization problems, the medical imaging community still lacks a general volume rendering implementation that can address a wide variety of visualization use cases while avoiding complexity...
2018: PloS One
Ismail Memon
Cadaver dissection is considered a tool for studying the structural details of the human body. Lately, conflicting opinions regarding the utility of this modality in medical training have been published in medical literature. This review of literature was done to examine the status of anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection in traditional, modern, and postgraduate medical training across the world. Literature published in the English language on topics related to cadaver dissection in the past three decades was scrutinized using different search engines...
March 12, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim, Sukh Que Park, Jun Kyeung Ko, Dae-Won Kim, Jung Cheol Park, Je Young Yeon, Seung Young Chung, Joonho Chung, Sung-Pil Joo, Gyojun Hwang, Deog Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang, Kyu-Sun Choi, Sung Ho Lee, Seung Hun Sheen, Hyun-Seung Kang, Byung Moon Kim, Hee-Joon Bae, Chang Wan Oh, Hyeon Seon Park
Despite advancements in treating ruptured cerebral aneurysms, an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is still a grave cerebrovascular disease associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Based on the literature published to date, worldwide academic and governmental committees have developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to propose standards for disease management in order to achieve the best treatment outcomes for aSAHs. In 2013, the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons issued a Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs...
March 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Matic Grom, Mirijam Kozorog, Simon Caserman, Andrej Pohar, Blaž Likozar
Protein A-based affinity chromatography is a highly-efficient separation method to capture, purify and isolate biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAb) - an important medical product of biopharmaceutical industrial manufacturing. It is considered the most expensive step in purification downstream operations; therefore, its performance optimization offers a great cost saving in the overall production expenditure. The biochemical mixture-separating specific interaction experiments with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture harvest, containing glycosylated extracellular immunoglobulins (Ig), were made using five different state-of-the-art commercial resins...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ayan Das, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays...
March 8, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Yongzhou Wang, Ying Miao, Jieling Zhang, Jian Ping Wu, Thomas Brett Kirk, Jiake Xu, Dong Ma, Wei Xue
Hydrogels with shape memory behavior and internal structure have wide applications in fields ranging from tissue engineering and medical instruments to drug delivery; however, creating the hydrogels has proven to be extremely challenging. This study presents a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to fabricate the shape memory hydrogels with internal structure (SMHs) by combining sodium alginate (alginate) and pluronic F127 diacrylate macromer (F127DA). SMHs were constituted by a dual network structure...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Firas Awaja, Giorgio Speranza, Heike Kaltenegger, Débora Coraça-Huber, Birgit Lohberger
Osteo-integration and tissue regeneration are vital for the longevity, durability, and unremitting functionality of medical implants/scaffolds implanted in vivo. It's essential for biomaterials used for in vivo implantation to induce the cellular secretion of growth factors, necessary for the desired tissue generation, since the administration of artificial growth factors, in vivo, is largely prohibited. Plasma functionalized (N2 and O2 ) and stabilized Graphene Oxide (GO) thin layers in a hybrid with amorphous carbon (aC) induced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) growth factors in fibroblasts (hGF) and, more remarkably, in osteoblasts (hFOB) cells confirming the suitability for tissue regeneration and osteo-integration applications...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Johannes Erhardt, Erwin Fuhrer, Oliver G Gruschke, Jochen Leupold, Matthias C Wapler, Jurgen Hennig, Thomas Stieglitz, Jan G Korvink
Patients suffering from neuronal degenerative diseases are increasingly being equipped with neural implants to treat symptoms or restore functions and increase their quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would be the modality of choice for diagnosis and compulsory post-operative monitoring of such patients. However, interactions between the MR environment and implants pose severe health risks to the patient. Nevertheless, neural implant recipients regularly underwent MRI examinations, and adverse events were reported rarely...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Asim Azhar, Qamar Zia, Shakeel Ahmad Ansari, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Athanasios Alexiou, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology exploits materials and devices with a functional organization that has been engineered at the nanometre scale. The application of nanotechnology in neuroscience involves specific interactions with neurons and glial cells. This property is used for delivering drugs and other small molecules (such as genes, oligonucleotides and contrasting agents) across the blood brain barrier (BBB), an important requirement for delivering the drug successfully to the brain. Nanotechnology based approaches (NBA) favoured transcytosis-mediated delivery of nanoparticles to the brain by crossing the BBB...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
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