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Medical engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150718/re-educating-immunity-in-respiratory-allergies-the-potential-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mediated-gene-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Jeremy F Brooks, Janet M Davies, James W Wells, Raymond J Steptoe
Respiratory allergies represent a significant disease burden worldwide affecting up to 300 million people globally. Medication and avoidance of known triggers do not address the underlying pathology. Traditional immunotherapies for allergy aim to reinstate immune homeostasis but require years of treatment and have poor long-term efficacy. Novel approaches, such as gene-engineered hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, induce profound antigen-specific tolerance in autoimmunity. Recent evidence shows this approach may also have therapeutic utility for allergy...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148579/a-step-by-step-review-on-patient-specific-biomechanical-finite-element-models-for-breast-mri-to-x-ray-mammography-registration
#2
REVIEW
Eloy García, Yago Diez, Oliver Diaz, Xavier Lladó, Robert Martí, Joan Martí, Arnau Oliver
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray mammography are two image modalities widely used for the early detection and diagnosis of breast diseases in women. The combination of these modalities leads to a more accurate diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases. The aim of this paper is to review the registration between breast MRI and X-ray mammographic images using patient-specific finite element-based biomechanical models. Specifically, a biomechanical model is obtained from the patient's MRI volume and is subsequently used to mimic the mammographic acquisition...
November 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148314/clinical-decision-support-systems-in-hospital-care-using-ubiquitous-devices-current-issues-and-challenges
#3
Mirza Mansoor Baig, Hamid GholamHosseini, Aasia A Moqeem, Farhaan Mirza, Maria Lindén
Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising...
November 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147993/preparation-and-characterization-of-gelatin-sericin-carboxymethyl-chitosan-medical-tissue-glue
#4
Min Liang, Zhenzhu Li, Cengceng Gao, Fuping Wang, Zhongmin Chen
BACKGROUND: The development and application of medical glue has been continuously expanding and advancing. However, there are few glues that combine low-cost with excellent biocompatibility. METHODS: We have prepared a medical tissue glue using a gelatin (Gel), sericin (SS) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) blend solution, cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). The combination's characteristics and microstructure morphology were observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144187/indispensable-points-for-research-on-antiadhesion-materials
#5
Katsunori Takagi
To prevent postoperative abdominal adhesions, many new antiadhesion materials have been developed all over the world. Few studies have analyzed the thickness of antiadhesive materials, but it is an important factor in maximizing adhesion prevention. The aspect of material thickness will needed for the future studies. However, few materials proceeded further than animal experimentation. Comparison tests between the newly developed antiadhesion materials and products already on the market will make it easier to conduct clinical trials...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138742/hysterectomy-pathway-as-the-global-engine-of-practice-change-implications-for-value-in-care
#6
Amin Sanei-Moghaddam, Sharon Goughnour, Robert Edwards, John Comerci, Joseph Kelley, Nicole Donnellan, Faina Linkov, Suketu Mansuria
Introduction: In 2012, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) introduced a hysterectomy clinical pathway to reduce the number of total abdominal hysterectomies performed for benign gynecological indications. This study focused on exploring physician and patient factors impacting the utilization of hysterectomy clinical pathways. Methods: An online survey with 24 questions was implemented to explore physicians' attitudes and perceived barriers toward implementing the pathway...
2017: Central Asian Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135451/software-design-and-implementation-concepts-for-an-interoperable-medical-communication-framework
#7
Andreas Besting, Sebastian Bürger, Martin Kasparick, Benjamin Strathen, Frank Portheine
The new IEEE 11073 service-oriented device connectivity (SDC) standard proposals for networked point-of-care and surgical devices constitutes the basis for improved interoperability due to its independence of vendors. To accelerate the distribution of the standard a reference implementation is indispensable. However, the implementation of such a framework has to overcome several non-trivial challenges. First, the high level of complexity of the underlying standard must be reflected in the software design. An efficient implementation has to consider the limited resources of the underlying hardware...
November 14, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131760/deep-learning-a-primer-for-radiologists
#8
Gabriel Chartrand, Phillip M Cheng, Eugene Vorontsov, Michal Drozdzal, Simon Turcotte, Christopher J Pal, Samuel Kadoury, An Tang
Deep learning is a class of machine learning methods that are gaining success and attracting interest in many domains, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, and playing games. Deep learning methods produce a mapping from raw inputs to desired outputs (eg, image classes). Unlike traditional machine learning methods, which require hand-engineered feature extraction from inputs, deep learning methods learn these features directly from data. With the advent of large datasets and increased computing power, these methods can produce models with exceptional performance...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131053/an-experimental-study-to-measure-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-human-liver
#9
Alireza Karimi, Ahmad Shojaei
BACKGROUND: Since the liver is one of the most important organs of the body that can be injured during trauma, that is, during accidents like car crashes, understanding its mechanical properties is of great interest. Experimental data is needed to address the mechanical properties of the liver to be used for a variety of applications, such as the numerical simulations for medical purposes, including the virtual reality simulators, trauma research, diagnosis objectives, as well as injury biomechanics...
October 31, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129824/impact-of-fish-aberrations-and-cllu1-expression-on-the-prognosis-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-presentation-of-156-patients-from-turkey
#10
Ümmet Abur, Gönül Oğur, Ömer Salih Akar, Engin Altundağ, Huri Sema Aymelek, Düzgün Özatlı, Mehmet Turgut
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the impact of the CLLU1 expression and FISH analysis of a group of Turkish CLL patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally, 156 CLL patients were analysed by FISH method;47 of them were also evaluated for CLLU1 expression. Results were correlated with clinical parameters. RESULTS: FISH aberrations were found in 62% of patients. These aberrations were del13q14 (67%), trisomy 12 (27%), del11q22 (19%), del17p (8%) and 14q32 rearrangements (20%)...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129433/nanoparticulate-specific-effects-of-silver-on-teleost-cardiac-contractility
#11
Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Kenneth Javier Williams, J Craig Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
Silver nanoparticles (nAg), due to their biocidal properties, are common in medical applications and are used in more consumer products than any other engineered nanomaterial. This growing abundance, combined with their ability to translocate across the epithelium and bioaccumulate, suggests that internalized nAg may present a risk of toxicity to many organisms in the future. However, little experimentation has been devoted to cardiac responses to acute nAg exposure, even though nAg is known to disrupt ion channels even when ionic Ag(+) does not...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128529/laser-processed-calcium-phosphate-reinforced-cocrmo-for-load-bearing-applications-processing-and-wear-induced-damage-evaluation
#12
Himanshu Sahasrabudhe, Susmita Bose, Amit Bandyopadhyay
To mitigate shortcomings in current biomedical CoCrMo alloy, composites of CoCrMo with calcium phosphate (CaP) were envisioned. CoCrMo alloy was reinforced with CaP to enhance the wear resistance of the alloy. A powder based direct energy additive manufacturing technique of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) was used for processing of CoCrMo alloy with 1% and 3% (by weight) of CaP in the form of hydroxyapaptite. Addition of CaP was found to stabilize the ε (HCP) phase along with the more common γ (FCC) phase of the CoCrMo alloy, and the microstructure showed discontinuous chromium carbide phase...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122535/limited-output-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-lotes-2017-engineering-principles-regulatory-statutes-and-industry-standards-for-wellness-over-the-counter-or-prescription-devices-with-low-risk
#13
Marom Bikson, Bhaskar Paneri, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Bashar W Badran, Robin Azzam, Devin Adair, Abhishek Datta, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J Tyler
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122352/microbial-community-response-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-ag-in-nitrifying-activated-sludge-revealed-by-ion-semiconductor-sequencing
#14
Carley A Gwin, Emilie Lefevre, Christina L Alito, Claudia K Gunsch
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are known to act as biocides, are incorporated into medical and consumer products including athletic clothing, stuffed animals, liquid dietary supplements, and more. The increasing use of AgNPs in these products is likely to lead to their entry into both natural and engineered systems, which has the potential to disrupt bacterial processes including those involved in nutrient cycling in wastewater treatment. In the present study, sequencing batch reactors (SBR) mimicking secondary wastewater treatment were operated to determine the effects of AgNPs on the microbial communities contained within activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP)...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120687/a-100-patient-clinical-evaluation-of-an-alternating-pressure-replacement-mattress-in-a-home-based-setting
#15
Jackie Stephen-Haynes, Rosie Callaghan
BACKGROUND: alternating pressure air mattresses (APAMs) support the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. A health and care NHS trust was seeking an APAM that would improve clinical outcomes in relation to pressure ulcers while considering financial cost. An APAM existed that could meet the trust's needs but there was a lack of evidence over its use in a community/home setting. This study examined the effect of using the Dual Professional (IQ Medical) APAM for patients at a high risk of pressure ulceration...
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120686/why-is-the-heel-particularly-vulnerable-to-pressure-ulcers
#16
Amit Gefen
In this article, the vulnerability of the soft tissues of the heel to pressure ulcers (injuries) is explained from a biomechanical engineering perspective, and emerging technologies for protecting the heel, particularly low-friction garments, are reviewed. Sustained deformations in the soft tissue of the weight-bearing posterior heel cause progressive cell and tissue damage due to loss of homeostasis in the cells, as the cytoskeleton and plasma membranes of the affected cells lose integrity and functionality...
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119355/preparation-of-electrospun-core-sheath-yarn-with-enhanced-bioproperties-for-biomedical-materials
#17
Boyu Li, Chengkun Liu, Fenglei Zhou, Xue Mao, Runjun Sun
OBJECTIVES: To create a multifunctional medical material that combines the advantages of both nanofibers and macroyarns. RESULTS: A novel electrospinning-based approach was developed for creating polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber covered yarns (PCL-NCYs) in which polyglycolic acid multi-strand filaments (PGA-MFs) were used as the core. BALB/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells were cultured on the PCL-NCYs substrate and cell morphology and proliferation were determined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay...
November 8, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118982/uneven-distribution-of-professors-and-instructors-in-medical-disciplines-dealing-with-the-four-main-chronic-non-communicable-diseases-the-case-of-the-italian-universities
#18
Giovanni Viegi, Stefano Centanni, Francesco Blasi
Background: Chronic (non-communicable) diseases (NCD) -- principally cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes -- are leading causes of death and disability. There is the need to adopt a core University curriculum which let students be taught by teachers who are experts of the four main NCD, for reaching the public health goals proposed by the UN and the WHO. Methods: Our aim was to assess whether all medical students, regardless of the Italian university of enrolment, have an equal opportunity to be educated by an expert teacher in each of the four NCD...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110245/quality-assessment-of-information-on-bariatric-surgery-websites
#19
Diana Vetter, Hendrik Ruhwinkel, Dimitri A Raptis, Marco Bueter
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of patient information on bariatric surgery in the internet using the modified Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP) tool. METHODS: Systematic review of information on bariatric surgery in the internet by entering common search terms into five search engines. The top 100 websites of every search term and search engine were assessed using the validated EQIP tool (maximum score, 36), which entails points for content, structure, and identification data of a given website...
November 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110101/histological-transformation-after-acquired-resistance-to-epidermal-growth-factor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Yi Shao, Dian-Sheng Zhong
Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations generally respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, acquired resistance will eventually develop place after 8-16 months. Several mechanisms contribute to the resistance including T790M mutation, c-Met amplification, epithelial mesenchymal transformation and PIK3CA mutation; however, histological transformation is a rare mechanism. The patterns and mechanisms underlying histological transformation need to be explored...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
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