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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936946/genetic-tools-for-the-enhancement-of-probiotic-properties
#1
Laura Ortiz-Velez, Robert Britton
The Lactobacillus genus is a diverse group of microorganisms, many of which are of industrial and medical relevance. Several Lactobacillus species have been used as probiotics, organisms that when present in sufficient quantities confer a health benefit to the host. A significant limitation to the mechanistic understanding of how these microbes provide health benefits to their hosts and how they can be used as therapeutic delivery systems has been the lack of genetic strategies to efficiently manipulate their genomes...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936894/recent-advances-in-protein-engineering-and-biotechnological-applications-of-glutathione-transferases
#2
Fereniki Perperopoulou, Fotini Pouliou, Nikolaos E Labrou
Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are a widespread family of enzymes that play a central role in the detoxification, metabolism, and transport or sequestration of endogenous or xenobiotic compounds. During the last two decades, delineation of the important structural and catalytic features of GSTs has laid the groundwork for engineering GSTs, involving both rational and random approaches, aiming to create new variants with new or altered properties. These approaches have expanded the usefulness of native GSTs, not only for understanding the fundamentals of molecular detoxification mechanisms, but also for the development medical, analytical, environmental, and agricultural applications...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936795/the-ugly-truth-about-ourselves-and-our-robot-creations-the-problem-of-bias-and-social-inequity
#3
Ayanna Howard, Jason Borenstein
Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses...
September 21, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936741/exosomes-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-as-potential-treatment-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
Yao-Hua Song, Lianbo Shao, Yu Zhang, Jin Zhou, Bin Liu, Xiangbin Pan, Yong-Jian Geng, Xi-Yong Yu, Yangxin Li
Cardiovascular diseases resulting from ischemic heart diseases remain to be the main causes of heart failure and death despite significant advances in medical treatment. The development of new therapies for heart failure is thus required to improve the outcome in these patients, and this has led to the development of cell-based therapies. Animal studies showed interesting results using various cell types. Some stem cell based therapies have been tested in clinical trials. Although the results were encouraging, challenges remain...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934118/graphene-based-materials-for-biosensors-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Phitsini Suvarnaphaet, Suejit Pechprasarn
The advantages conferred by the physical, optical and electrochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have contributed to the current variety of ultrasensitive and selective biosensor devices. In this review, we present the points of view on the intrinsic properties of graphene and its surface engineering concerned with the transduction mechanisms in biosensing applications. We explain practical synthesis techniques along with prospective properties of the graphene-based materials, which include the pristine graphene and functionalized graphene (i...
September 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933560/unintentional-nontraffic-injury-and-fatal-events-threats-to-children-in-and-around-vehicles
#6
Mark R Zonfrillo, Mackenzie L Ramsay, Janette E Fennell, Amber Rollins
Objective There have been substantial reductions in motor vehicle crash-related child fatalities due to advances in legislation, public safety campaigns, and engineering. Less is known about nontraffic injuries and fatalities to children in and around motor vehicles. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of various nontraffic incidents, injuries, and fatalities to children using a unique surveillance system and database. Methods Instances of nontraffic injuries and fatalities in the United States to children 0-14 years were tracked from January 1990 - December 2014 using a compilation of sources including media reports, individual accounts from families of affected children, medical examiner reports, police reports, child death review teams, coroner reports, medical professionals, legal professionals, and other various modes of publication...
September 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933269/drug-delivery-and-cosmeceutical-applications-of-polylactic-acid-based-novel-constructs-a-review
#7
Hafiz M N Iqbal, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz, Elena Ivonne Mancera-Andrade, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, Tajalli Keshavarz
In recent years, there has been a great research interest in bio-based biopolymers due to their potential as alternative polymers to the traditional petroleum-based synthetic counterparts. Research is underway around the globe on the development of 'greener' technologies. Recently, bio-based bio-constructs are being engineered for target applications in different bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world to address growing concerns of a global dependence on non-renewable petroleum-based resources. The utilization of properly designed and structured materials thus allows for the creation of well-defined environment that induces a series of directed measures, and so on...
September 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930362/rapid-development-of-specialty-population-registries-and-quality-measures-from-electronic-health-record-data-an-agile-framework
#8
Vaishnavi Kannan, Jason S Fish, Jacqueline M Mutz, Angela R Carrington, Ki Lai, Lisa S Davis, Josh E Youngblood, Mark R Rauschuber, Kathryn A Flores, Evan J Sara, Deepa G Bhat, DuWayne L Willett
BACKGROUND: Creation of a new electronic health record (EHR)-based registry often can be a "one-off" complex endeavor: first developing new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, followed by developing registry-specific data extractions from the EHR for analysis. Each development phase typically has its own long development and testing time, leading to a prolonged overall cycle time for delivering one functioning registry with companion reporting into production. The next registry request then starts from scratch...
June 14, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930148/elongation-of-axon-extension-for-human-ipsc-derived-retinal-ganglion-cells-by-a-nano-imprinted-scaffold
#9
Tien-Chun Yang, Jen-Hua Chuang, Waradee Buddhakosai, Wen-Ju Wu, Chen-Ju Lee, Wun-Syuan Chen, Yi-Ping Yang, Ming-Chia Li, Chi-Hsien Peng, Shih-Jen Chen
Optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) lead to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and therefore motivate the application of transplantation technique into disease therapy. However, it is a challenge to direct the transplanted optic nerve axons to the correct location of the retina. The use of appropriate scaffold can promote the proper axon growth. Recently, biocompatible materials have been integrated into the medical field, such as tissue engineering and reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929219/3d-printing-for-clinical-application-in-otorhinolaryngology
#10
REVIEW
Nongping Zhong, Xia Zhao
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a promising technology that can use a patient's image data to create complex and personalized constructs precisely. It has made great progress over the past few decades and has been widely used in medicine including medical modeling, surgical planning, medical education and training, prosthesis and implants. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a powerful tool that has the potential to fabricate bioengineered constructs of the desired shape layer-by-layer using computer-aided deposition of living cells and biomaterials...
September 19, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929009/meta-analysis-of-biomarkers-for-severe-dengue-infections
#11
Kuan-Meng Soo, Bahariah Khalid, Siew-Mooi Ching, Chau Ling Tham, Rusliza Basir, Hui-Yee Chee
BACKGROUND: Dengue viral infection is an acute infection that has the potential to have severe complications as its major sequela. Currently, there is no routine laboratory biomarker with which to predict the severity of dengue infection or monitor the effectiveness of standard management. Hence, this meta-analysis compared biomarker levels between dengue fever (DF) and severe dengue infections (SDI) to identify potential biomarkers for SDI. METHODS: Data concerning levels of cytokines, chemokines, and other potential biomarkers of DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, and severe dengue were obtained for patients of all ages and populations using the Scopus, PubMed, and Ovid search engines...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928907/adipose-derived-stromal-cell-in-regenerative-medicine-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Reza Tabatabaei Qomi, Mohsen Sheykhhasan
The application of appropriate cell origin for utilizing in regenerative medicine is the major issue. Various kinds of stem cells have been used for the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Such as, several stromal cells have been employed as treat option for regenerative medicine. For example, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells and adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are used in cell-based therapy. Data relating to the stem cell therapy and processes associated with ADSC has developed remarkably in the past 10 years...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928304/nomophobic-behaviors-among-smartphone-using-medical-and-engineering-students-in-two-colleges-of-west-bengal
#13
Pallabi Dasgupta, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Samir Dasgupta, Jayanta Kumar Roy, Abhijit Mukherjee, Romy Biswas
BACKGROUND: Growing smartphone usage among global and Indian college students has resulted in considerable issues of "nomophobia" (NMP) or feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals whenever unable to use their smartphones. This significantly impacts their health, work, and study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence of NMP among smartphone using medical and engineering undergraduates of West Bengal and to compare the nomophobic behaviors, its predictors, and smartphone usage among them...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925994/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-assessment-and-management-of-toxicities
#14
REVIEW
Sattva S Neelapu, Sudhakar Tummala, Partow Kebriaei, William Wierda, Cristina Gutierrez, Frederick L Locke, Krishna V Komanduri, Yi Lin, Nitin Jain, Naval Daver, Jason Westin, Alison M Gulbis, Monica E Loghin, John F de Groot, Sherry Adkins, Suzanne E Davis, Katayoun Rezvani, Patrick Hwu, Elizabeth J Shpall
Immunotherapy using T cells genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is rapidly emerging as a promising new treatment for haematological and non-haematological malignancies. CAR-T-cell therapy can induce rapid and durable clinical responses, but is associated with unique acute toxicities, which can be severe or even fatal. Cytokine-release syndrome (CRS), the most commonly observed toxicity, can range in severity from low-grade constitutional symptoms to a high-grade syndrome associated with life-threatening multiorgan dysfunction; rarely, severe CRS can evolve into fulminant haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)...
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923473/virtual-surgery-for-patients-with-nasal-obstruction-use-of-computational-fluid-dynamics-mecomland-%C3%A2-digbody-%C3%A2-noseland-%C3%A2-to-document-objective-flow-parameters-and-optimise-surgical-results
#15
Manuel A Burgos, Maria Agustina Sevilla García, Enrique Sanmiguel Rojas, Carlos Del Pino, Carlos Fernández Velez, Francisco Piqueras, Francisco Esteban Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. We present a novel CFD software package to improve results following nasal surgery for obstruction. METHODS: A group of engineers in collaboration with otolaryngologists have developed a very intuitive CFD software package called MeComLand®, which uses the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, thus showing in detail results originated by CFD such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, or wall shear stress...
September 15, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923128/-items-for-criticism-not-in-sequence-joseph-delee-pare-lorentz-and-the-fight-for-life-1940
#16
Caitjan Gainty
In the late 1920s, the American obstetrician Joseph DeLee brought the motion-picture camera into the birth room. Following that era's trend of adapting industrial efficiency practices for medical environments, DeLee's films give spectacular and unexpected expression to the engineering concept of 'streamlining'. Accomplishing what more tangible obstetric streamlining practices had failed to, DeLee's cameras, and his post-production manipulation, shifted birth from messy and dangerous to rationalized, efficient, death-defying...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919526/chemical-crosslinking-of-biopolymeric-scaffolds-current-knowledge-and-future-directions-of-crosslinked-engineered-bone-scaffolds
#17
REVIEW
Ahmad Oryan, Amir Kamali, Ali Moshiri, Hossien Baharvand, Hamed Daemi
Bone tissue scaffolds made from either natural or synthetic polymers are employed to promote bone healing. However, lack of sufficient or poor mechanical properties such as low integrity and stability reduces their medical applications. Crosslinking, defined as induction of chemical or physical links among polymer chains, is a simple method generally used to modify mechanical, biological and degradation properties of hydrogels. Although crosslinking through chemical reactions improves the mechanical properties of bone substitutes, most of the reagents used for this aim demonstrate undesirable effects and may exert toxic reactions...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918053/ush2a-gene-editing-using-the-crispr-system
#18
Carla Fuster-García, Gema García-García, Elisa González-Romero, Teresa Jaijo, María D Sequedo, Carmen Ayuso, Rafael P Vázquez-Manrique, José M Millán, Elena Aller
Usher syndrome (USH) is a rare autosomal recessive disease and the most common inherited form of combined visual and hearing impairment. Up to 13 genes are associated with this disorder, with USH2A being the most prevalent, due partially to the recurrence rate of the c.2299delG mutation. Excluding hearing aids or cochlear implants for hearing impairment, there are no medical solutions available to treat USH patients. The repair of specific mutations by gene editing is, therefore, an interesting strategy that can be explored using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917626/ultrasound-assisted-liposuction-provides-a-source-for-functional-adipose-derived-stromal-cells
#19
Dominik Duscher, Zeshaan N Maan, Anna Luan, Matthias M Aitzetmüller, Elizabeth A Brett, David Atashroo, Alexander J Whittam, Michael S Hu, Graham G Walmsley, Khosrow S Houschyar, Arndt F Schilling, Hans-Guenther Machens, Geoffrey C Gurtner, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
BACKGROUND AIMS: Regenerative medicine employs human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for their multi-lineage plasticity and their pro-regenerative cytokine secretome. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) are concentrated in fat tissue, and the ease of harvest via liposuction makes them a particularly interesting cell source. However, there are various liposuction methods, and few have been assessed regarding their impact on ASC functionality. Here we study the impact of the two most popular ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) devices currently in clinical use, VASER (Solta Medical) and Lysonix 3000 (Mentor) on ASCs...
September 13, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914948/nanotopography-mediated-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-derived-stem-cells
#20
Akash Bachhuka, Bahman Delalat, Soraya Rasi Ghaemi, Stan Gronthos, Nicolas H Voelcker, Krasimir Vasilev
Advanced medical devices, treatments and therapies demand an understanding of the role of interfacial properties on the cellular response. This is particularly important in the emerging fields of cell therapies and tissue regeneration. In this study, we evaluate the role of surface nanotopography on the fate of human dental pulp derived stem cells (hDPSC). These stem cells have attracted interest because of their capacity to differentiate to a range of useful lineages but are relatively easy to isolate. We generated and utilized density gradients of gold nanoparticles which allowed us to examine, on a single substrate, the influence of nanofeature density and size on stem cell behavior...
September 15, 2017: Nanoscale
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