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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211911/three-dimensional-printing-of-calcium-sulfate-and-mesoporous-bioactive-glass-scaffolds-for-improving-bone-regeneration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Xin Qi, Peng Pei, Min Zhu, Xiaoyu Du, Chen Xin, Shichang Zhao, Xiaolin Li, Yufang Zhu
In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210626/osteogenic-differentiation-capacity-of-in-vitro-cultured-human-skeletal-muscle-for-expedited-bone-tissue-engineering
#2
Chunlei Miao, Lulu Zhou, Lufeng Tian, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Zhang, Fanghong Yang, Tianyi Liu, Shengjian Tang, Fangjun Liu
Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#3
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209913/rapid-imaging-of-tumor-cell-death-in-vivo-using-the-c2a-domain-of-synaptotagmin-i
#4
André A Neves, Bangwen Xie, Sarah Fawcett, Israt S Alam, Timothy H Witney, Maaike M de Backer, Julia Summers, William Hughes, Sarah McGuire, Dmitry Soloviev, Jodie Miller, William J Howat, De-En Hu, Tiago B Rodrigues, David Y Lewis, Kevin M Brindle
Cell death is an important target for imaging the early response of tumors to treatment. We describe here validation of a phosphatidylserine-binding agent for detecting tumor cell death in vivo based on the C2A domain of Synaptotagmin-I. Methods: The capability of near infrared fluorophore-labeled and 99mTechnetium- and (111)Indium-labeled derivatives of C2Am for imaging tumor cell death, using planar near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and single photon computed tomography (SPECT) respectively, was evaluated in implanted and genetically engineered mouse models of lymphoma and in a human colorectal xenograft...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208578/role-of-cortico-cancellous-heterologous-bone-in-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cell-xeno-free-culture-studied-by-synchrotron-radiation-phase-contrast-microtomography
#5
Serena Mazzoni, Sara Mohammadi, Giuliana Tromba, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Oriana Trubiani, Alessandra Giuliani
This study was designed to quantitatively demonstrate via three-dimensional (3D) images, through the Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography (SR-PhC-MicroCT), the osteoinductive properties of a cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block-DB) cultured with human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) in xeno-free media. In vitro cultures of hPDLSCs, obtained from alveolar crest and horizontal fibers of the periodontal ligament, were seeded onto DB scaffolds and cultured in xeno-free media for three weeks...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207238/real-time-monitoring-of-post-surgical-and-post-traumatic-eye-injuries-using-multi-layered-electrical-biosensor-chip
#6
Muhammad Shuja Khan, Santosh K Misra, Aaron Schwartz-Duval, Enrique A Daza, Fatemeh Ostadhossein, Matthew Bowman, Akshay Jain, Gina Taylor, Deana McDonagh, Leanne T Labriola, Dipanjan Pan
Lack of current techniques for the early monitoring of bleb leaks and other post-traumatic or post-surgical ocular injury has posed an unmet clinical need for the development of new techniques. Present evaluation techniques use either subjective or non-quantitative approaches. At present, there are no FDA approved ocular devices that can directly measure ascorbic acid (AA) concentration levels for both tear film (TF) and aqueous humor (AH) at point-of-care (POC) level. Toward this aim, we present a novel point-of-care (POC) quantitative assay, called the Ocular Biosensor device, which can be used to evaluate the integrity of the anterior surface of the eye by measuring the concentration of AA in TF and AH...
February 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205415/microfluidic-screening-reveals-heparan-sulfate-enhances-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-growth-by-modulating-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-transport
#7
Drew M Titmarsh, Clarissa L L Tan, Nick R Glass, Victor Nurcombe, Justin J Cooper-White, Simon M Cool
Cost-effective expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) remains a key challenge for their widespread clinical deployment. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a key hMSC mitogen often supplemented to increase hMSC growth rates. However, hMSCs also produce endogenous FGF-2, which critically interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS). We assessed the interplay of FGF-2 with a heparan sulfate variant (HS8) engineered to bind FGF-2 and potentiate its activity. Bone marrow-derived hMSCs were screened in perfused microbioreactor arrays (MBAs), showing that HS8 (50 μg/ml) increased hMSC proliferation and cell number after 3 days, with an effect equivalent to FGF-2 (50 ng/ml)...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203403/clinic-application-of-tissue-engineered-bronchus-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#8
Qiang Tan, Ruijun Liu, Xiaoke Chen, Jingxiang Wu, Yinggen Pan, Shun Lu, Walter Weder, Qingquan Luo
BACKGROUND: Delayed revascularization process and substitute infection remain to be key challenges in tissue engineered (TE) airway reconstruction. We propose an "in-vivo bioreactor" design, defined as an implanted TE substitutes perfused with an intra-scaffold medium flow created by an extracorporeal portable pump system for in situ organ regeneration. The perfusate keeps pre-seeded cells alive before revascularization. Meanwhile the antibiotic inside the perfusate controls topical infection...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202751/superiority-in-rhesus-macaques-of-targeting-hiv-1-env-gp140-to-cd40-versus-lox-1-in-combination-with-replication-competent-nyvac-kc-for-induction-of-env-specific-antibody-and-t-cell-responses
#9
Gerard Zurawski, Xiaoying Shen, Sandra Zurawski, Georgia D Tomaras, David C Montefiori, Mario Roederer, Guido Ferrari, Christine Lacabaratz, Peter Klucar, Zhiqing Wang, Kathryn E Foulds, Shing-Fen Kao, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Nicole L Yates, Celia LaBranche, Sherry Stanfield-Oakley, Karen Kibler, Bertram Jacobs, Andres Salazar, Steve Self, Jimmy Fulp, Raphael Gottardo, Lindsey Galmin, Deborah Weiss, Anthony Cristillo, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Yves Levy
We compared the HIV-1-specific immune responses generated by targeting HIV-1 envelope protein (Env gp140) to either CD40 or LOX-1, two endocytic receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), in Rhesus macaques primed with a poxvirus vector (NYVAC-KC) expressing Env gp140. The DC-targeting vaccines, humanized recombinant monoclonal antibodies fused to Env gp140, were administered as a boost with poly ICLC adjuvant either alone or co-administered with the NYVAC-KC vector. All the DC-targeting vaccine administrations with poly ICLC increased the low-level serum anti-Env IgG responses elicited by NYVAC-KC priming significantly more (up to P =0...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202657/deciphering-the-ras-erk-pathway-in-vivo
#10
REVIEW
Coralie Dorard, Georg Vucak, Manuela Baccarini
The RAS/ERK pathway has been intensely studied for about three decades, not least because of its role in human pathologies. ERK activation is observed in the majority of human cancers; in about one-third of them, it is driven by mutational activation of pathway components. The pathway is arguably one of the best targets for molecule-based pharmacological intervention, and several small-molecule inhibitors are in clinical use. Genetically engineered mouse models have greatly contributed to our understanding of signaling pathways in development, tissue homeostasis, and disease...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202532/cd40-signaling-drives-potent-cellular-immune-responses-in-heterologous-cancer-vaccinations
#11
Supot Nimanong, Dmitrij Ostroumov, Jessica Wingerath, Sarah Knocke, Norman Woller, Engin Guerlevik, Christine Falk, Michael P Manns, Florian Kuehnel, Thomas C Wirth
Antagonistic antibodies targeting co-inhibitory receptors have revolutionized the treatment of cancer by inducing durable immune responses and clinical remissions in patients. In contrast, success of agonistic costimulatory antibodies has thus far been limited due to insufficient induction of adaptive immune responses. Here we describe a novel vaccination method consisting of a primary dendritic cell immunization followed by a composite vaccination including an agonistic CD40 antibody, soluble antigen and a TLR3 agonist, referred to as CoAT...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202353/the-potential-clinical-promise-of-multimodality-metronomic-chemotherapy-revealed-by-preclinical-studies-of-metastatic-disease
#12
Robert S Kerbel, Yuval Shaked
We present a rationale for further clinical development and assessment of metronomic chemotherapy on the basis of unexpected results obtained in translational mouse models of cancer involving treatment of advanced metastatic disease. Historically, mouse cancer therapy models have been dominated by treating established primary tumors or early stage low volume microscopic disease. Treatment of primary tumors is also almost always the case when using genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMS) of cancer or patient-derived xenografts (PDXs)...
February 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202228/cross-institutional-knowledge-based-planning-kbp-implementation-and-its-performance-comparison-to-auto-planning-engine-ape
#13
Binbin Wu, Martijn Kusters, Martina Kunze-Busch, Tim Dijkema, Todd McNutt, Giuseppe Sanguineti, Karl Bzdusek, Anatoly Dritschilo, Dalong Pang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate (1) whether a plan library established at one institution can be applied for another institution's knowledge-based planning (KBP); (2) the performance of cross-institutional KBP compared to Auto-Planning Engine (APE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radboud University Medical Center (RUMC) provided 35 oropharyngeal cancer patients (68Gy to PTV(68) and 50.3Gy to PTV(50.3)) with clinically-delivered and comparative APE plans. The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) contributed a three-dose-level plan library consisting of 179 clinically-delivered plans...
February 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199738/orthosteric-and-allosteric-potentiation-of-heteromeric-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#14
REVIEW
Jingyi Wang, Jon Lindstrom
Heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were thought to have two orthodox agonist binding sites at two α/β subunit interfaces. Highly selective ligands are hard to achieve by targeting orthodox agonist sites because of high sequence similarity of this binding pocket among different subunits. Recently, unorthodox acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites have been discovered at some α/α and β/α subunit interfaces, such as α4/α4, α5/α4 and β3/α4. Targeting unorthodox sites may yield subtype-selective ligands which are otherwise hard to develop, such as those for (α4β2)2 α5, (α4β2)2 β3 and (α6β2)2 β3 nAChRs...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199294/flow-induced-microvascular-network-formation-of-therapeutic-relevant-arteriovenous-av-loop-based-constructs-in-response-to-ionizing-radiation
#15
Volker J Schmidt, Jennifer M Covi, Christoph Koepple, Johannes G Hilgert, Elias Polykandriotis, Amir K Bigdeli, Luitpold V Distel, Raymund E Horch, Ulrich Kneser
BACKGROUND The arteriovenous (AV) loop model enables axial vascularization to gain a functional microcirculatory system in tissue engineering constructs in vivo. These constructs might replace surgical flaps for the treatment of complex wounds in the future. Today, free flaps are often exposed to high-dose radiation after defect coverage, according to guideline-oriented treatment plans. Vascular response of AV loop-based constructs has not been evaluated after radiation, although it is of particular importance...
February 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199182/one-reporter-for-in-cell-activity-profiling-of-majority-of-protein-kinase-oncogenes
#16
Iva Gudernova, Silvie Foldynova-Trantirkova, Barbora El Ghannamova, Bohumil Fafilek, Miroslav Varecha, Lukas Balek, Eva Hruba, Lucie Jonatova, Iva Jelinkova, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Lukas Trantirek, Jiri Mayer, Pavel Krejci
In-cell profiling enables the evaluation of receptor tyrosine activity in a complex environment of regulatory networks that affect signal initiation, propagation and feedback. We used FGF-receptor signaling to identify EGR1 as a locus that strongly responds to the activation of a majority of the recognized protein kinase oncogenes, including 30 receptor tyrosine kinases and 154 of their disease-associated mutants. The EGR1 promoter was engineered to enhance trans-activation capacity and optimized for simple screening assays with luciferase or fluorescent reporters...
February 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198985/cell-aggregation-enhances-bone-formation-by-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#17
A Chatterjea, V L LaPointe, A Barradas, H Garritsen, H Yuan, A Renard, C A van Blitterswijk, J de Beor
The amount of bone generated using current tissue engineering approaches is insufficient for many clinical applications. Previous in vitro studies suggest that culturing cells as 3D aggregates can enhance their osteogenic potential, but the effect on bone formation in vivo is unknown. Here, we use agarose wells to generate uniformly sized mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) aggregates. When combined with calcium phosphate ceramic particles and a gel prepared from human platelet-rich plasma, we generated a tissue engineered construct which significantly improved in vivo bone forming capacity as compared to the conventional system of using single cells seeded directly on the ceramic surface...
February 15, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197701/-innovative-forms-of-specific-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
P Zieglmayer
The clinical efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy depends on tolerance induction. Treatment success is currently limited by treatment-related adverse reactions. Novel approaches mainly target improvement of tolerability in addition to optimized immunogenicity. For epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), commercially available treatment extracts are applied to skin via a patch. The route exhibits excellent tolerability and good clinical efficacy. The first encouraging data on a peanut EPIT were published in 2016...
February 14, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196872/muc16-regulates-tspyl5-for-lung-cancer-cell-growth-and-chemoresistance-by-suppressing-p53
#19
Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Shireen Salfity, Parthasarathy Seshacharyulu, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Abigail Thomas, Srustidhar Das, Prabin D Majhi, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Raghupathy Vengoji, Subodh M Lele, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, Surinder K Batra, Apar Kishor Ganti
PURPOSE: MUC16, a tumor biomarker and cell surface associated mucin, is overexpressed in various cancers; however, its role in lung cancer pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we have explored the mechanistic role of MUC16 in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To identify the functional role of MUC16, stable knockdown was carried in lung cancer cells with two different shRNAs. Clinical significance of MUC16 was evaluated in lung cancer patient's tissues using IHC. We have generated genetically engineered mouse model (KrasG12D; AdCre) to evaluate the preclinical significance of MUC16...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196661/pediatric-medical-device-development-by-surgeons-via-capstone-engineering-design-programs
#20
Bryan S Sack, Rodolfo A Elizondo, Gene O Huang, Nicolette Janzen, Jimmy Espinoza, Magdalena Sanz-Cortes, Jennifer E Dietrich, Julie Hakim, Eric Richardson, Maria Oden, John Hanks, Balakrishna Haridas, James F Hury, Chester J Koh
BACKGROUND: There is a need for pediatric medical devices that accommodate the unique physiology and anatomy of pediatric patients that is increasingly receiving more attention. However, there is limited literature on the programs within children's hospitals and academia that can support pediatric device development. We describe our experience with pediatric device design utilizing collaborations between a children's hospital and two engineering schools. METHODS: Utilizing the academic year as a timeline, unmet pediatric device needs were identified by surgical faculty and matched with an engineering mentor and a team of students within the Capstone Engineering Design programs at two universities...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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