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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642737/pheno-and-genotyping-of-hopanoid-production-in-acidobacteria
#1
Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, W Irene C Rijpstra, Svetlana N Dedysh, Bärbel U Foesel, Laura Villanueva
Hopanoids are pentacyclic triterpenoid lipids synthesized by different bacterial groups. Methylated hopanoids were believed to be exclusively synthesized by cyanobacteria and aerobic methanotrophs until the genes encoding for the methylation at the C-2 and C-3 position (hpnP and hpnR) were found to be widespread in the bacterial domain, invalidating their use as specific biomarkers. These genes have been detected in the genome of the Acidobacterium "Ca. Koribacter versatilis," but our knowledge of the synthesis of hopanoids and the presence of genes of their biosynthetic pathway in other member of the Acidobacteria is limited...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638818/effects-of-anakinra-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-a-patient-with-1129g-a-928g-a-mutations-in-mvk-gene-and-heterozygosity-for-the-mutation-2107c-a-in-cias1-gene
#2
Gianluigi Laccetta, Maria Tutera, Mario Miccoli, Rita Consolini
Mevalonate kinase deficiency impairs several aspects of the patient's quality of life, thus early diagnosis and treatment are required to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A 15-year-old patient with double heterozygosity for the mutations 1129G>A and 928G>A in MVK gene, heterozygosity for the mutation 2107C>A in CIAS1 gene and hyper-IgD syndrome phenotype, has been treated with anakinra with a reduction of 50% in the number of fever episodes per month, a reduction of 33% in the days of fever for each attack and normal blood tests in the intercritical phase...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637327/effect-of-simvastatin-on-baboon-endometriosis
#3
Hugh S Taylor, Myles Alderman, Thomas M D'Hooghe, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Duleba J Antoni
Endometriosis, a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age is characterized by ectopic growth of the endometrial tissues, altered steroid hormone response and inflammation. Previous studies revealed that statins, selective inhibitors of the key step of mevalonate pathway, inhibit growth of endometrial stromal cells in vitro and reduce endometriotic lesions in murine models of endometriosis. This study evaluated the effects of simvastatin on the development of endometriosis in a baboon model of this disease...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631068/autoinflammatory-diseases-with-periodic-fevers
#4
REVIEW
Erdal Sag, Yelda Bilginer, Seza Ozen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One purpose of this review was to raise awareness for the new autoinflammatory syndromes. These diseases are increasingly recognized and are in the differential diagnosis of many disease states. We also aimed to review the latest recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency (HIDS/MVKD) are the more common autoinflammatory diseases that are characterized by periodic fevers and attacks of inflammation...
July 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612271/overexpression-of-dnaj-like-chaperone-enhances-carotenoid-synthesis-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#5
Tateki Morikawa, Yusuke Uraguchi, Shohei Sanda, Satoshi Nakagawa, Shigeki Sawayama
Production of functional carotenoids using microalgae may facilitate the commercialization of anti-aging nutritional supplements. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uses a non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) synthesis. Two enzymes thought to play important roles in this MEP pathway to IPP synthesis are 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductase (DXR). DnaJ-like chaperone (Orange protein) is thought to support phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in plant carotenoid synthesis...
June 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588486/potential-of-il-1-il-18-and-inflammasome-inhibition-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Gabriele Fenini, Emmanuel Contassot, Lars E French
In 2002, intracellular protein complexes known as the inflammasomes were discovered and were shown to have a crucial role in the sensing of intracellular pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs). Activation of the inflammasomes results in the processing and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Several autoinflammatory disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes and Familial Mediterranean Fever have been associated with mutations of genes encoding inflammasome components...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587179/screening-of-deoxynivalenol-producing-strains-and-elucidation-of-possible-toxigenic-molecular-mechanism
#7
Xiangfeng Zheng, Xiaoli Zhang, Lina Zhao, Maurice T Apaliya, Qiya Yang, Wei Sun, Xiaoyun Zhang, Hongyin Zhang
In this study, seven strains of Fusarium graminearum were isolated from wheat, of which six were identified to produce deoxynivalenol and the production of deoxynivalenol was assessed. F. graminearum strain Fg1 was noted to produce 1.0 μg/g deoxynivalenol during the incubation period in the Czapek yeast broth, while none was detected in F. graminearum strain Fg2. Hence, the differences in proteomes and transcriptomes of Fg1 and Fg2 were compared to analyze the mechanism underlying deoxynivalenol production...
June 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580927/the-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-a1-regulates-phosphoantigen-release-and-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cell-activation-by-dendritic-cells
#8
Barbara Castella, Joanna Kopecka, Patrizia Sciancalepore, Giorgia Mandili, Myriam Foglietta, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Francesco Novelli, Chiara Riganti, Massimo Massaia
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are activated by phosphoantigens, such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is generated in the mevalonate pathway of antigen-presenting cells. IPP is released in the extracellular microenvironment via unknown mechanisms. Here we show that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates extracellular IPP release from dendritic cells (DC) in cooperation with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and butyrophilin-3A1. IPP concentrations in the supernatants are sufficient to induce Vγ9Vδ2 T cell proliferation after DC mevalonate pathway inhibition with zoledronic acid (ZA)...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574746/microbial-production-of-mevalonate-by-recombinant-escherichia-coli-using-acetic-acid-as-a-carbon-source
#9
Xin Xu, Meng Xie, Qian Zhao, Mo Xian, Huizhou Liu
We sought to produce mevalonate, an important organic acid, by recombinant Escherichia coli, using acetic acid, a less costly alternative feedstock, as a carbon source. In this study, the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway originating with acetate was constructed in recombinant E. coli, resulting in the production of 1.06 g L(-1) mevalonate with a productivity of 0.03 g L(-1) h(-1) in a 5-L bioreactor. The mevalonate concentration and productivity were significantly enhanced with increased cell density during 2-stage aerobic fermentation, reaching 7...
June 2, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554582/geranylgeraniol-prevents-the-simvastatin-induced-pcsk9-expression-role-of-the-small-g-protein-rac1
#10
Nicola Ferri, Silvia Marchianò, Maria Giovanna Lupo, Annalisa Trenti, Giuseppe Biondo, Paola Castaldello, Alberto Corsini
Statins are known to increase the plasma levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) through the activation of the sterol responsive element binding protein (SREBP) pathway due to the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. In the present study, we explore a possible role of the prenylated proteins on the statin-mediated PCSK9 induction in Caco-2 cells. Simvastatin (40μM) induced both PCSK9 mRNA (10.7±3.2 fold) and protein (2.2±0.3 fold), after 24h incubation. The induction of PCSK9 mRNA was partially, but significantly, prevented by the co-incubation with mevalonate (MVA), farnesol (FOH) and geranylgeraniol (GGOH), while a complete prevention was observed on secreted PCSK9, evaluated by ELISA assay...
May 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544034/knock-down-of-farnesyl-pyrophosphate-synthase-protects-heart-derived-h9c2-cells-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-injury
#11
Dong-Pu Dai, Huan-Dong Wu, Jian Yang, Shi-Zhen Shen, Chen-Ze Zhao, Jie Ding, Shen-Jiang Hu
Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Our previous studies have indicated that cardiac-specific overexpression of FPPS induces cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice, and inhibition of FPPS prevents angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. However, the role for FPPS in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury is still not clear. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of FPPS on MIR injury in H9c2 cells which were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) to mimic MIR...
May 24, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542128/hmg-coa-reductase-promotes-protein-prenylation-and-therefore-is-indispensible-for-t-cell-survival
#12
Sonja M Lacher, Julia Bruttger, Bettina Kalt, Jean Berthelet, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Simone Wörtge, Ari Waisman
Statins are a well-established family of drugs that lower cholesterol levels via the competitive inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). In addition, the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins on T cells make them attractive as therapeutic drugs in T-cell-driven autoimmune disorders. Since statins do not exclusively target HMGCR and thus might have varying effects on different cell types, we generated a new mouse strain allowing for the tissue-specific deletion of HMGCR...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532507/isoprenoid-biosynthesis-in-dandelion-latex-is-enhanced-by-the-overexpression-of-three-key-enzymes-involved-in-the-mevalonate-pathway
#13
Katharina M Pütter, Nicole van Deenen, Kristina Unland, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
BACKGROUND: Latex from the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum contains many high-value isoprenoid end products, e.g. triterpenes and polyisoprenes such as natural rubber. The isopentenyl pyrophosphate units required as precursors for these isoprenoids are provided by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The key enzyme in this pathway is 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and its activity has been thoroughly characterized in many plant species including dandelion. However, two enzymes acting upstream of HMGR have not been characterized in dandelion latex: ATP citrate lyase (ACL), which provides the acetyl-CoA utilized in the MVA pathway, and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (AACT), which catalyzes the first step in the pathway to produce acetoacetyl-CoA...
May 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529155/metabolic-insights-into-the-cold-survival-strategy-and-overwintering-of-the-common-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fabricius-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#14
Wei Zhu, Huan Zhang, Qian Meng, Menglong Wang, Guiling Zhou, Xuan Li, Hongtuo Wang, Lin Miao, Qilian Qin, Jihong Zhang
The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12h) plus 13°C (12h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524155/statin-use-candidate-mevalonate-pathway-biomarkers-and-colon-cancer-survival-in-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Ronan T Gray, Maurice B Loughrey, Peter Bankhead, Chris R Cardwell, Stephen McQuaid, Roisin F O'Neill, Kenneth Arthur, Victoria Bingham, Claire McGready, Anna T Gavin, Jacqueline A James, Peter W Hamilton, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Liam J Murray, Helen G Coleman
BACKGROUND: Statin use after colorectal cancer diagnosis may improve survival but evidence from observational studies is conflicting. The anti-cancer effect of statins may be restricted to certain molecular subgroups. In this population-based cohort study, the interaction between p53 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMGCR) expression, KRAS mutations, and the association between statin use and colon cancer survival was assessed. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 740 stage II and III colon cancer patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2008...
June 6, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522199/engineering-metabolic-pathways-in-escherichia-coli-for-constructing-a-microbial-chassis-for-biochemical-production
#16
REVIEW
Takuya Matsumoto, Tsutomu Tanaka, Akihiko Kondo
The present work reviews literature describing the re-design of the metabolic pathways of a microbial host using sophisticated genetic tools, yielding strains for producing value-added chemicals including fuels, building-block chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and derivatives. This work employed Escherichia coli, a well-studied microorganism that has been successfully engineered to produce various chemicals. E. coli has several advantages compared with other microorganisms, including robustness, and handling. To achieve efficient productivities of target compounds, an engineered E...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501379/metabolic-impact-of-nutrient-starvation-in-mevalonate-producing-escherichia-coli
#17
Ami Masuda, Yoshihiro Toya, Hiroshi Shimizu
The aim of this work was to enhance mevalonate yield from glucose in Escherichia coli by essential nutrient starvations and to reveal these effects on the central carbon metabolism. Stationary phase culture without essential nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and magnesium was evaluated using an engineered E. coli introducing mvaE and mvaS genes from Enterococcus faecalis. Sulfur starvation resulted in the highest mevalonate yield of 0.61C-molC-mol(-1) from glucose. The metabolic impacts of nutrient starvation were investigated by (13)C-metabolic flux analysis...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501347/defective-protein-prenylation-is-a-diagnostic-biomarker-of-mevalonate-kinase-deficiency
#18
Marcia A Munoz, Julie Jurczyluk, Sam Mehr, Ryan C Chai, Rob J W Arts, Angela Sheu, Chelsea McMahon, Jacqueline R Center, Davinder Singh-Grewal, Jeffrey Chaitow, Dianne E Campbell, Julian M W Quinn, Kirill Alexandrov, Zakir Tnimov, Stuart G Tangye, Anna Simon, Tri Giang Phan, Michael J Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500274/combined-hmg-coa-reductase-and-prenylation-inhibition-in-treatment-of-ccm
#19
Sayoko Nishimura, Ketu Mishra-Gorur, JinSeok Park, Yulia V Surovtseva, Said M Sebti, Andre Levchenko, Angeliki Louvi, Murat Gunel
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular anomalies that develop in the central nervous system and, more rarely, the retina. The lesions can cause headache, seizures, focal neurological deficits, and hemorrhagic stroke. Symptomatic lesions are treated according to their presentation; however, targeted pharmacological therapies that improve the outcome of CCM disease are currently lacking. We performed a high-throughput screen to identify Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs or other bioactive compounds that could effectively suppress hyperproliferation of mouse brain primary astrocytes deficient for CCM3...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497352/monogenic-periodic-fever-syndromes-treatment-options-for-the-pediatric-patient
#20
REVIEW
Seza Ozen, Selcan Demir
Autoinflammatory diseases are disorders of the innate immune system characterized by uncontrolled inflammation. The most commonly encountered autoinflammatory diseases are the hereditary periodic fever syndromes, which present with fever and other features of the skin, serosal membranes, and musculoskeletal system. The main inherited (monogenic) periodic fever syndromes are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (HIDS)/mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD)...
May 11, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
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