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Molecular diagnostic

Y Jiang, D Cao, C G Xu
Objective: To investigate the expressions of growth arrest-specific protein (GAS1), IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAP) and perforin (PRF1) in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) and their relationships with clinical significances and the prognoses of ALK+ ALCL. Methods: Twenty-six formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of ALK+ ALCL patients who were diagnosed from January 2011 to September 2016 were collected. Twelve FFPE samples of patients with ALK+ ALCL, 13 FFPE samples of patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma (not otherwise specified) (PTCL-NOS) and 8 FFPE samples of patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) were used as control groups...
February 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Marcelo A Queiroz, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Giovanni Guido Cerri
The new technology of PET/MRI is a prototype of hybrid imaging, allowing for the combination of molecular data from PET scanning and morphofunctional information derived from MRI scanning. Recent advances regarding the technical aspects of this device, especially after the development of MRI-compatible silicon photomultipliers of PET, permitted an increase in the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI translated into dose reduction and higher imaging quality. Among several clinical applications, PET/MRI gains ground initially in oncology, where MRI per se plays an essential role in the assessment of primary tumors (which is limited in the case of PET/CT), including prostate, rectal and gynecological tumors...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Huifang Liu, Fei Zhao, Choong Eun Jin, Bonhan Koo, Eun Yeong Lee, Linlin Zhong, KyuSik Yun, Yong Shin
Nucleic acid-based diagnostics are widely used for clinical applications due to their powerful recognition of biomolecule properties. Isolation and purification of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA in the diagnostic system have been severely hampered in point-of-care testing because of low recovery yields, degradation of nucleic acids due to the use of chaotropic detergent and high temperature, and the requirement of large instruments such as centrifuges and thermal controllers. Here, we report a novel large instrument- and detergent-free assay via binary nanomaterial for ultrasensitive nucleic acid isolation and detection from cells (eukaryotic and prokaryotic)...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yongqiang Cheng, Lijuan Dong, Jiangyan Zhang, Yaqing Zhao, Zhengping Li
The development of simple, robust, and reliable microRNA (miRNA) detection methods is of great significance in the studies of the biological function of miRNAs, molecular diagnostics, treatment of diseases, and targeted drugs. In recent years, with the increasing development of miRNA research, lots of novel approaches were developed for the detection of miRNA in terms of sensitivity, specificity, multiplicity, in situ imaging, etc. In particular, nucleic acid amplification-based methods and many detection techniques such as droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), electrochemiluminescence (ECL), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and mass spectrometry (MS) have been employed widely for the highly sensitive detection of miRNA...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Weijing Wang, Dongfeng Zhang, Chunsheng Xu, Yili Wu, Haiping Duan, Shuxia Li, Qihua Tan
Serum uric acid (SUA), as the end product of purine metabolism, has proven emerging roles in human disorders. Here based on a sample of 379 middle and old-aged Chinese twin pairs, we aimed to explore the magnitude of genetic impact on SUA variation by performing sex-limitation twin modeling analyses and further detect specific genetic variants related to SUA by conducting a genome-wide association study. Monozygotic (MZ) twin correlation for SUA level (rMZ = 0.56) was larger than for dizygotic (DZ) twin correlation (rDZ = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yu Chun Cai, Fen Wu, Wei Hu, Jiaxu Chen, Shao Hong Chen, Bin Xu, Yan Lu, Lin Ai, Chun Li Yang, Shimin Zhao
Babesiosis has become a new global threat impacting human health, and most human babesiosis cases are caused by Babesia microti. Until now few antigens of B. microti have been described which can be used for the diagnosis of human babesiosis. In the present study, we report on the bioinformatic analysis, cloning and expression of the sequence encoding the B. microti seroreactive antigen 5-1-1 to investigate its potential incorporation in serologic diagnostic tools for babesiosis. Bioinformatic analysis and recombinant gene expression were performed to molecularly characterize seroreactive antigen 5-1-1...
March 17, 2018: Acta Tropica
Andrew L Folpe, Rondell P Graham, Anthony Martinez, David Schembri-Wismayer, Jennifer Boland, Karen J Fritchie
The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a distinctive biphasic malignant neoplasm harboring the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion and consisting of primitive round to spindled cells admixed with foci of relatively mature hyaline cartilage, is usually straightforward by morphological evaluation alone. However, in the setting of a limited biopsy, specimens lacking cartilage generate a broad differential diagnosis, encompassing a variety of other primitive sarcomas, including spindle cell/ sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma...
March 17, 2018: Human Pathology
Dwight D Bowman
Parasitology is a relevant and integral part of veterinary medicine, and the WAAVP membership has skills ranging from morphological diagnostics and routine parasite control recommendations through the cutting edges of many disciplines, e.g., pharmacology, immunology, molecular biology and genomics. We regularly face a majority of students who want only the practical information useful the moment they enter the clinics. However, we are preparing them for careers lasting 30-50 years. Thus, we also must help them prepare for their futures...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Dawei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Guangqi Kong
BACKGROUND Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, the knowledge of circRNAs in bladder cancer remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of circRNAs in the development and progression of bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three pairs of bladder carcinomas (including high- and low-grade tumors) and adjacent normal tissues were collected from patients. The total RNAs were extracted from these samples and subjected to Clariom D microarray assays to detect the differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ewa A Woźnica, Małgorzata Inglot, Ryszard K Woźnica, Lidia Łysenko
Despite continuous progress in medicine, sepsis remains the main cause of deaths in the intensive care unit. Liver failure complicating sepsis/septic shock has a significant impact on mortality in this group of patients. The pathophysiology of sepsis-associated liver dysfunction is very complicated and still not well understood. According to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) Guidelines, the diagnosis of liver dysfunction during sepsis is based on the increase in bilirubin concentration >2 mg/dL and the occurrence of coagulation disorders with INR > 1...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Masoumeh Nemati, Naser Ajami, Mehrdad Asghari Estiar, Saleheh Rezapour, Reyhaneh Ravanbakhsh Gavgani, Shahryar Hashemzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Ebrahim Sakhinia
BACKGROUND: To date, 4 classes of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified in humans. Class I HDACs are zinc-dependent and NAD+-independent enzymes, and include 4 isoforms closely related to yeast RPD3: HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to quantitatively evaluate the expression of HDAC3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to correlate its expression levels with clinicopathological parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We characterized expression patterns of HDAC3 as class I HDAC isoforms in a cohort of 48 CRC patients by quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Bayardo Perez-Ordoñez
Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the larynx and head and neck are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of neoplasms categorized by the 2017 WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumors as: (a) well-differentiated (WD-NEC), (b) moderately-differentiated (MD-NEC), and (c) poorly-differentiated (PD-NEC) with small cell and large cell types. The classification incorporates elements of differentiation and grading and closely correlates to the 5-year disease specific survival of 100, 52.8, 19.3 and 15.3% for each diagnostic category...
March 20, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Elizabeth Ann Misch, Christopher Saddler, James Muse Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent trends in the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), emerging pathogens, new insights into NTM pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging pathogens include Mycobacterium chimaera and drug-resistant subspecies of Mycobacterium abscessus. Important virulence mechanisms of pathogenic NTM include the ability to alter the macrophage's permissiveness to intracellular bacterial growth...
March 19, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Mirella Luciani, Tiziana Di Febo, Massimiliano Orsini, Ivanka Krasteva, Angela Cattaneo, Michele Podaliri Vulpiani, Chiara Di Pancrazio, Angela Bachi, Manuela Tittarelli
The diagnosis of dourine can be difficult because the clinical signs of this disease in horses are similar to those of surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi . Moreover, T. equiperdum and T. evansi are closely related and, so far, they cannot be distinguished using serological tests. In a previous work, the T. equiperdum protein pattern recognized by antibodies from dourine-infected horses and the humoral immune response kinetics were investigated by immunoblotting assay; a total of 20 sera from naturally and experimentally infected horses and from healthy animals were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Qinqin Huang, Fu-Bing Wang, Chun-Hui Yuan, Zhaobo He, Lang Rao, Bo Cai, Bolei Chen, Susu Jiang, Zhiqiang Li, Jincao Chen, Wei Liu, Feng Guo, Zheng Ao, Shi Chen, Xing-Zhong Zhao
Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a burgeoning topic in cancer biomarker discovery research with minimal invasive blood draws. CTCs can be used as potential biomarkers for disease prognosis, early cancer diagnosis and pharmacodynamics. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs limits their clinical utility because of technical challenges such as the isolation and subsequent detailed molecular and functional characterization of rare CTCs from patient blood samples. Methods: In this study, we present a novel density gradient centrifugation method employing biodegradable gelatin nanoparticles coated on silicon beads for the isolation, release, and downstream analysis of CTCs from colorectal and breast cancer patients...
2018: Theranostics
Tong Zhu, Xueqian Hu, Pinkang Wei, Guangzhi Shan
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the deadliest types of cancer in the world. Lymph node (LN) metastasis is a complex and malignant behavior of GC, involving a sequence of biological processes, including decreased adherence to adjacent cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and lymphatic channel permeation. LN metastasis is directly associated with the treatment response, local recurrence and long-term survival of patients with GC. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of LN metastasis in GC development require further investigation...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Shengli Chen, Huafang Hao, Ping Zhao, Wenheng Ji, Mingxia Li, Yongsheng Liu, Yuefeng Chu
Mycoplasma bovis is a major bovine pathogen that causes considerable economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Moreover, M. bovis biofilm can persist in the environment and its host. To date, M. bovis biofilm antigens recognized by bovine convalescent sera and their comparison with planktonic cells have not yet been explored. This study utilized an immunoproteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting using convalescent bovine serum, and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to identify the immunoreactive proteins expressed in biofilm- and planktonic-grown M...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel Stoessel, Claudia Schulte, Marcia C Teixeira Dos Santos, Dieter Scheller, Irene Rebollo-Mesa, Christian Deuschle, Dirk Walther, Nicolas Schauer, Daniela Berg, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Walter Maetzler
Parkinson's disease (PD) shows high heterogeneity with regard to the underlying molecular pathogenesis involving multiple pathways and mechanisms. Diagnosis is still challenging and rests entirely on clinical features. Thus, there is an urgent need for robust diagnostic biofluid markers. Untargeted metabolomics allows establishing low-molecular compound biomarkers in a wide range of complex diseases by the measurement of various molecular classes in biofluids such as blood plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Johannes Birtel, Tobias Eisenberger, Martin Gliem, Philipp L Müller, Philipp Herrmann, Christian Betz, Diana Zahnleiter, Christine Neuhaus, Steffen Lenzner, Frank G Holz, Elisabeth Mangold, Hanno J Bolz, Peter Charbel Issa
Macular and cone/cone-rod dystrophies (MD/CCRD) demonstrate a broad genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, with retinal alterations solely or predominantly involving the central retina. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an efficient diagnostic tool for identifying mutations in patient with retinitis pigmentosa, which shows similar genetic heterogeneity. To detect the genetic causes of disease in patients with MD/CCRD, we implemented a two-tier procedure consisting of Sanger sequencing and targeted NGS including genes associated with clinically overlapping conditions...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hongyu Yuan, Wei Zhou, Yang Yang, Liyan Xue, Linxiu Liu, Yongmei Song
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignant tumors in China with a poor prognosis. Most ESCC patients were diagnosed at advanced stages, losing the opportunity for surgical excision. Hence, it remains a pressing work to identify biomarkers for early detection, prognosis prediction and targeting therapies in ESCC. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes a 15-kDa protein, and is involved in the post-translational modification (PTMs) of multiple proteins. However, the molecular functions of ISG15 in ESCC remain unclear...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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