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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239974/simultaneous-monitoring-of-monoamines-amino-acids-nucleotides-and-neuropeptides-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-neurosecretion-in-bovine-chromaffin-cells
#1
Aneta Wojnicz, José Avendaño-Ortiz, Ricardo de Pascual, Lucía Ruiz-Pascual, Antonio G García, Ana Ruiz-Nuño
The primary functions of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells are the synthesis and storage in their chromaffin vesicles of the catecholamines noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (AD), and their subsequent release into the bloodstream by Ca(2+) -dependent exocytosis under conditions of fear or stress (fight or flight response). Several monoamines, nucleotides and opiates, such as leucine-enkephalin (LENK) and methionine-enkephalin (MENK), are also co-stored and co-released with the catecholamines. However, other neurotransmitters have not been studied in depth...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239957/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-malignance-of-lung-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#2
Xuebing Li, Xuexia Zhou, Yongwen Li, Lingling Zu, Hongli Pan, Boning Liu, Wang Shen, Yaguang Fan, Qinghua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related death, with high rates of recurrence and poor outcomes. An abnormally high expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in various cancers suggests an oncogenic role; however, its function in lung cancer is largely unknown. METHODS: Sixty-four pairs of lung cancer tissues were collected for ATF3 expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry staining...
February 27, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239885/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-associated-with-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-drugs-an-emerging-disease
#3
J Marcoval, R M Penín, N Sabé, F Valentí-Medina, M Bonfill-Ortí, L Martínez-Molina
Leishmaniasis is endemic in several geographic areas of the world. In each of these areas, particular species of Leishmania with differing aggressiveness to humans predominate. In the European Mediterranean basin, cutaneous leishmaniasis usually presents with discrete, self-healing skin lesions. Although it is known that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors may increase the risk of developing infections such as tuberculosis, there is scarce literature on Leishmania infections in patients treated with these drugs...
February 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239803/nasal-hppsis-administration-enhances-ngf-and-tumor-suppressor-protein-p73-in-human-brain-cancer-tissues-preliminary-data
#4
L Aloe, M L Rocco, E Stigliano, F Angelini, M Iacoangeli, V Frari, F Salvinelli
OBJECTIVE: Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor known to play a critical role in growth, survival, differentiation and neuroprotection of peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons, as well as brain neurons. We have recently reported that nasal administration of high-pressure isotonic physiological saline solution (HPpSIS) enhances the level of NGF and the expression of NGF receptors in neurons of the olfactory bulbs and forebrain cholinergic neurons of laboratory animals...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239754/neprilysin-facilitates-adipogenesis-through-potentiation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-signaling-pathway
#5
Juwan Kim, Dasol Han, Sung-Hyun Byun, Mookwang Kwon, Sun-Jung Cho, Young Ho Koh, Keejung Yoon
Neprilysin (NEP) is a zinc metallopeptidase that cleaves a number of small peptides into inactive forms. Despite the recent evidence of a significant correlation between the levels of NEP in plasma and the severity of obesity in humans, a cause-and-effect relationship or a functional role of NEP in obesity has remained uncertain. In this study, we show that NEP has a positive regulatory effect on fat cell formation from precursor cells. NEP increases the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or the C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line in differentiation conditions...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239749/interleukin-21-inhibits-cancer-mediated-foxp3-induction-in-na%C3%A3-ve-human-cd4-t-cells
#6
Vinodh Kannappan, Kate Butcher, Malgorzata Trela, Iain Nicholl, Weiguang Wang, Kesley Attridge
IL-21 is known to promote anti-tumour immunity due to its ability to promote T cell responses and counteract Treg-mediated suppression. It has also been shown to limit Treg frequencies during tumour-antigen stimulations. However, whether this represents inhibition of FOXP3 induction in naïve CD4 T cells or curtailed expansion of natural Treg remains unclear. Moreover, whether this effect is maintained in an environment of tumour-derived immunosuppressive factors is not known. Here, we show that in the context of a number of cancers, naïve CD45RA+ CD4 T cells are induced to express high levels of FOXP3, and that FOXP3 expression correlates with inhibition of T cell proliferation...
February 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239742/the-role-of-the-sdf-1-cxcr7-axis-on-the-growth-and-invasion-ability-of-endometrial-cancer-cells
#7
Hong-Qin Gu, Zhen-Bo Zhang, Jia-Wen Zhang, Qian-Qian Wang, Xiao-Wei Xi, Yin-Yan He
PURPOSE: Stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) are involved in human endometrial carcinoma (EC) progression. CXCR7 is another important receptor of SDF-1 and has a higher affinity with SDF-1 compared with that of CXCR4. This paper aims to study the effects of the SDF-1/CXCR7 axis on the growth and invasion ability of EC cells. METHODS: CXCR7 expression was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting in EC cell lines and 30 cases of primary EC tissue from patients...
February 27, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239673/effectiveness-of-a-walnut-enriched-diet-on-murine-sperm-involvement-of-reduced-peroxidative-damage
#8
Lauren S Coffua, Patricia A Martin-DeLeon
A walnut supplement for a Western-style diet in men was shown to improve sperm motility, vitality, and morphology. To gain further insights into factors underlying this improvement, we administered a parallel walnut-enriched diet to mice [including those with a defect in sperm motility due to deletion of Plasma Membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 4 (Pmca4(-/-) )] to determine if there is a similar improvement that is accompanied by reduced sperm membrane peroxidative damage. Although sperm vitality and acrosome reaction rate were unaffected, the diet led to a significant improvement in motility (P < 0...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239637/alzheimer-s-disease-the-influence-of-age-on-clinical-heterogeneity-through-the-human-brain-connectome
#9
Bradford C Dickerson, Michael Brickhouse, Scott McGinnis, David A Wolk
INTRODUCTION: One major factor that influences the heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is age: younger AD patients more frequently exhibit atypical forms of AD. We propose that this age-related heterogeneity can be understood better by considering age-related differences in atrophy in the context of large-scale brain networks subserving cognitive functions that contribute to memory. METHODS: We examined data from 75 patients with mild AD dementia from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239621/assay-to-evaluate-bal-fluid-regulation-of-fibroblast-%C3%AE-sma-expression
#10
Jennifer L Larson-Casey, A Brent Carter
: Because transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1) induces differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, we developed a protocol to evaluate alveolar macrophage-derived TGF-β1 regulation of lung fibroblast differentiation (Larson-Casey et al., 2016). The protocol allows evaluating the ability of mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid to alter fibroblast differentiation. Fibroblast differentiation was measured by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages play an integral role in pulmonary fibrosis development by increasing the expression of TGF-β1 (He et al...
November 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239608/elimination-of-dog-mediated-human-rabies-deaths-by-2030-needs-assessment-and-alternatives-for-progress-based-on-dog-vaccination
#11
Ryan M Wallace, Eduardo A Undurraga, Jesse D Blanton, Julie Cleaton, Richard Franka
BACKGROUND: Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis-in perpetuity-, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of dog rabies virus by 2030...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239427/food-components-and-contaminants-as-anti-androgenic-molecules
#12
REVIEW
Daniele Marcoccia, Marco Pellegrini, Marco Fiocchetti, Stefano Lorenzetti, Maria Marino
Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation and puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behavior. Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), regulate male sexual differentiation during development, sperm production beginning from puberty, and maintenance of prostate homeostasis. Several substances present in the environment, now classified as endocrine disruptors (EDCs), strongly interfere with androgen actions in reproductive and non-reproductive tissues...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239379/estrogen-receptor-dependent-regulation-of-dendritic-cell-development-and-function
#13
REVIEW
Sophie Laffont, Cyril Seillet, Jean-Charles Guéry
Autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer affect women and men differently. Because they tend to develop more vigorous adaptive immune responses than men, women are less susceptible to some infectious diseases but also at higher risk of autoimmunity. The regulation of immune responses by sex-dependent factors probably involves several non-redundant mechanisms. A privileged area of study, however, concerns the role of sex steroid hormones in the biology of innate immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239377/pro-inflammatory-signaling-in-a-3d-organotypic-skin-model-after-low-let-irradiation-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-cox-2-activation-and-impact-on-cell-differentiation
#14
Anna Acheva, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise
Nearly 85% of radiotherapy patients develop acute radiation dermatitis, which is an inflammatory reaction of the skin at the treatment field and in the surrounding area. The aims of this study were to unravel the mechanisms of radiation-induced inflammatory responses after localized irradiation in a human 3D organotypic skin culture model. This could provide possible inflammatory targets for reduction of skin side effects. 3D organotypic skin cultures were set up and locally irradiated with 225 kVp X-rays, using a combination of full exposure and partial shielding (50%) of the cultures...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239234/harnessing-demographic-differences-in-organizations-what-moderates-the-effects-of-workplace-diversity
#15
Yves R F Guillaume, Jeremy F Dawson, Lilian Otaye-Ebede, Stephen A Woods, Michael A West
To account for the double-edged nature of demographic workplace diversity (i.e,. relational demography, work group diversity, and organizational diversity) effects on social integration, performance, and well-being-related variables, research has moved away from simple main effect approaches and started examining variables that moderate these effects. While there is no shortage of primary studies of the conditions under which diversity leads to positive or negative outcomes, it remains unclear which contingency factors make it work...
February 2017: Journal of Organizational Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239164/adipocyte-c1qtnf5-expression-is-bmi-dependently-related-to-early-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-systemic-ctrp5-serum-levels-in-obese-children
#16
J T Schwartze, K Landgraf, U Spielau, D Rockstroh, D Löffler, J Kratzsch, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The recently identified adipocytokine C1QTNF5 (encodes for CTRP5) has been demonstrated to inhibit pro-metabolic insulin signaling in adipocytes. We hypothesized that adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (AT) would correlate with the degree of obesity, systemic CTRP5 serum levels, and early AT and metabolic dysfunction in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sc AT samples were obtained from 33 healthy Caucasian lean children aged 10...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238987/identifying-factors-for-worker-motivation-in-zambia-s-rural-health-facilities
#17
Samuel S Cross, Dr Marianne Baernholdt
BACKGROUND: Within Zambia there is a shortage of health workers in rural areas. This study aims to identify motivating factors for retaining rural health workers. METHODS: Sixty rural health workers completed surveys and 46 were interviewed. They rated the importance of six motivating factors and discussed these and other factors in interviews. An interview was conducted with a Government Human Resources Manager (HR Manager) to elicit contextual information. RESULTS: All six factors were identified as being very important motivators, as were two additional factors...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238948/mechanisms-of-embryonic-stomach-development
#18
REVIEW
Kyle W McCracken, James M Wells
The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including foregut patterning, stomach specification, and gastric regionalization. These developmental events have important implications in later homeostasis and disease in the adult stomach...
February 23, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238906/fibulin-4-reduces-extracellular-matrix-production-and-suppresses-chondrocyte-differentiation-via-dkk1-mediated-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#19
Lei Shangguan, Guangzhi Ning, Zhuojing Luo, Yue Zhou
Fibulin-4 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein implicated in connective tissue development and elastic fiber formation. However, little is known about the underlying function of Fibulin-4 in cartilage development. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and probable mechanism of Fibulin-4 stimulation in ECM production and chondrocyte differentiation. Fibulin-4 has been observed to be abnormally elevated and matrix metalloproteinases 13 (MMP13) level was highly expressed in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238896/comparison-of-the-predictability-of-human-hepatic-clearance-for-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-oatp-substrate-drugs-between-different-in-vitro-in-vivo-extrapolation-approaches
#20
Saki Izumi, Yoshitane Nozaki, Takafumi Komori, Osamu Takenaka, Maeda Kazuya, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Yuichi Sugiyama
Prediction of human pharmacokinetic profiles of drug candidates is an essential step towards first-in-human studies. However, it remains difficult to quantitatively predict hepatic clearance, particularly when hepatic uptake is mediated by transporter(s). Using 15 organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrate drugs, we tested 3 in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approaches to predict overall hepatic intrinsic clearance in vivo (CLint,all,vivo). IVIVE approaches involved metabolic intrinsic clearance in human liver microsomes (CLint,met) with or without hepatocyte-to-buffer maximum unbound concentration ratio (Kp,uu,max) correction and uptake intrinsic clearance at 37°C (PSinf,37°C) in human hepatocyte suspensions...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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