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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723670/quaking-5-suppresses-aggressiveness-of-lung-cancer-cells-through-inhibiting-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#1
Xuexia Zhou, Xuebing Li, Cuiyun Sun, Cuijuan Shi, Dan Hua, Lin Yu, Yanjun Wen, Feng Hua, Qian Wang, Qinghua Zhou, Shizhu Yu
Quaking-5 (QKI-5) belongs to the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) family of RNA binding proteins and functions as a tumor suppressor in several human malignancies. In this study, we attempt to elucidate the role of QKI-5 in the pro-metastasis processes of lung cancer (LC) cells and the underlying mechanisms. We confirmed that QKI-5 was decreased in human LC tissues and cell lines, especially in high-metastatic cells. Moreover, QKI expression was positively correlated with LC patients' survival...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722012/type-iii-crispr-cas-systems-produce-cyclic-oligoadenylate-second-messengers
#2
Ole Niewoehner, Carmela Garcia-Doval, Jakob T Rostøl, Christian Berk, Frank Schwede, Laurent Bigler, Jonathan Hall, Luciano A Marraffini, Martin Jinek
In many prokaryotes, type III CRISPR-Cas systems detect and degrade invasive genetic elements by an RNA-guided, RNA-targeting multisubunit interference complex. The CRISPR-associated protein Csm6 additionally contributes to interference by functioning as a standalone ribonuclease that degrades invader RNA transcripts, but the mechanism linking invader sensing to Csm6 activity is not understood. Here we show that Csm6 proteins are activated through a second messenger generated by the type III interference complex...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718021/evidence-for-photolytic-and-microbial-degradation-processes-in-the-dissipation-of-leptospermone-a-natural-%C3%AE-triketone-herbicide
#3
Sana Romdhane, Marion Devers-Lamrani, Fabrice Martin-Laurent, Amani Ben Jrad, Delphine Raviglione, Marie-Virginie Salvia, Pascale Besse-Hoggan, Franck E Dayan, Cédric Bertrand, Lise Barthelmebs
Bioherbicides appear as an ecofriendly alternative to synthetic herbicides, generally used for weed management, because they are supposed to have low side on human health and ecosystems. In this context, our work aims to study abiotic (i.e., photolysis) and biotic (i.e,. biodegradation) processes involved in the fate of leptospermone, a natural β-triketone herbicide, by combining chemical and microbiological approaches. Under controlled conditions, the photolysis of leptospermone was sensitive to pH. Leptospermone has a half-life of 72 h under simulated solar light irradiations...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717243/the-long-non-coding-rna-loc441204-enhances-cell-growth-in-human-glioma
#4
Tzu-Kang Lin, Chang-Nen Chang, Cheng-Shian Tsai, Yin-Cheng Huang, Yu-Jen Lu, Wei-Jan Chen, Yang-Hsiang Lin, I-Hsiao Chung, Kwang-Huei Lin
Glioma is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor. While long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are clearly more abundant in human brain than protein-coding genes, the specific roles of lncRNAs and mechanisms underlying their dysregulation in glioma remain unclear. Here, we focused on lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in brain tumor and their potential biological functions. LOC441204, a novel non-coding RNA gene displaying high expression in clinical specimens of brain tumor and significant upregulation in glioma cell lines in microarray analyses, was selected for further study...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716713/n-myc-regulates-growth-and-fiber-cell-differentiation-in-lens-development
#5
Gabriel R Cavalheiro, Gabriel E Matos-Rodrigues, Yilin Zhao, Anielle L Gomes, Deepti Anand, Danilo Predes, Silmara de Lima, Jose G Abreu, Deyou Zheng, Salil A Lachke, Ales Cvekl, Rodrigo A P Martins
Myc proto-oncogenes regulate diverse cellular processes during development, but their roles during morphogenesis of specific tissues are not fully understood. We found that c-myc regulates cell proliferation in mouse lens development and previous genome-wide studies suggested functional roles for N-myc in developing lens. Here, we examined the role of N-myc in mouse lens development. Genetic inactivation of N-myc in the surface ectoderm or lens vesicle impaired eye and lens growth, while "late" inactivation in lens fibers had no effect...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716407/overexpression-of-lsi1-in-cold-sensitive-rice-mediates-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-and-enhances-resistance-to-chilling-stress
#6
Changxun Fang, Pengli Zhang, Xin Jian, Weisi Chen, Hongmei Lin, Yingzhe Li, Wenxiong Lin
Frequent cold spells in late spring can damage early rice seedlings. However, overexpression of the silicon-uptake gene Lsi1 (Lsi1-OX) in cold-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L., accession: Dular) notably enhances its chilling resistance. In this study, we found that continual chilling led to chlorophyll and RNA degradation in wild-type Dular leaves, whereas leaves from a Lsi1-OX line exhibited no obvious changes. A comparison of the global mRNA expression between the two rice lines showed that genes encoding photosynthesis-antenna proteins were downregulated and those encoding the proteasome were upregulated in the wild-type organism...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716126/the-effects-of-potato-virus-y-derived-virus-small-interfering-rnas-of-three-biologically-distinct-strains-on-potato-solanum-tuberosum-transcriptome
#7
Lindani Moyo, Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Madhu Kappagantu, Neena Mitter, Vidyasagar Sathuvalli, Hanu R Pappu
BACKGROUND: Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions...
July 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713996/downregulation-of-aqp2-in-the-anterior-vaginal-wall-is-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence
#8
Zujuan Zhang, Pan Xu, Zhenwei Xie, Fengxian Shen, Ning Chen, Liming Yu, Ronghuan He
The pathogenesis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is unclear. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that transport water and small solutes, including glycerol, across cell membranes. AQPs have been demonstrated to serve a role in skin hydration, cellular proliferation, migration, immunity, wound healing and vascular remodeling in multiple organs. Furthermore, studies have confirmed that abnormal synthesis and degradation of collagens in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling contributes to SUI, by altering normal tissue architecture and mechanical properties...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710366/mirnas-in-the-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-are-not-phylogenetically-conserved-and-play-a-limited-role-in-responses-to-nutrient-deprivation
#9
Adam Voshall, Eun-Jeong Kim, Xinrong Ma, Tomohito Yamasaki, Etsuko N Moriyama, Heriberto Cerutti
The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains many types of small RNAs (sRNAs) but the biological role(s) of bona fide microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To address their possible function(s) in responses to nutrient availability, we examined miRNA expression in cells cultured under different trophic conditions (mixotrophic in the presence of acetate or photoautotrophic in the presence or absence of nitrogen). We also reanalyzed miRNA expression data in Chlamydomonas subject to sulfur or phosphate deprivation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710133/novel-stress-inducible-antisense-rnas-of-protein-coding-loci-are-synthesized-by-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase
#10
Akihiro Matsui, Kei Iida, Maho Tanaka, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Kayoko Mizunashi, Jong-Myong Kim, Satoshi Takahashi, Norio Kobayashi, Shuji Shigenobu, Kazuo Shinozaki, Motoaki Seki
Our previous study identified approximately 6,000 abiotic stress-responsive non-coding transcripts existing on the antisense strand of protein-coding genes, and implied that a type of antisense RNA was synthesized from a sense RNA template by a study of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR). Expression analyses revealed that the expression of novel abiotic stress-induced antisense RNA on 1,136 gene loci was reduced in the rdr1/2/6 mutants. RNase protection indicated that the RD29A antisense RNA and other RDR1/2/6-dependent antisense RNAs are involved in the formation of double-stranded RNA...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709658/ngago-gdna-system-efficiently-suppresses-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-through-accelerating-decay-of-pregenomic-rna
#11
Zhuanchang Wu, Siyu Tan, Leiqi Xu, Lifen Gao, Haizhen Zhu, Chunhong Ma, Xiaohong Liang
Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the hepatocytes nucleus is responsible for persistent infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Current antiviral therapy drugs nucleos(t)ide analogs or interferon fail to eradicate HBV cccDNA. Genome editing technique provides an effective approach for HBV treatment through targeting viral cccDNA. Natronobacterium gregoryi Argonaute (NgAgo)-guide DNA (gDNA) system with powerful genome editing prompts us to explore its application in inhibiting HBV replication. Preliminary function verification indicated that NgAgo/EGFP-gDNA obviously inhibited EGFP expression...
July 11, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709241/careful-accounting-of-extrinsic-noise-in-protein-expression-reveals-correlations-among-its-sources
#12
John A Cole, Zaida Luthey-Schulten
In order to grow and replicate, living cells must express a diverse array of proteins, but the process by which proteins are made includes a great deal of inherent randomness. Understanding this randomness-whether it arises from the discrete stochastic nature of chemical reactivity ("intrinsic" noise), or from cell-to-cell variability in the concentrations of molecules involved in gene expression, or from the timings of important cell-cycle events like DNA replication and cell division ("extrinsic" noise)-remains a challenge...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708852/simultaneous-silencing-of-isoamylases-isa1-isa2-and-isa3-by-multi-target-rnai-in-potato-tubers-leads-to-decreased-starch-content-and-an-early-sprouting-phenotype
#13
Stephanus J Ferreira, Melanie Senning, Michaela Fischer-Stettler, Sebastian Streb, Michelle Ast, H Ekkehard Neuhaus, Samuel C Zeeman, Sophia Sonnewald, Uwe Sonnewald
Isoamylases hydrolyse (1-6)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in starch and are involved in both starch granule formation and starch degradation. In plants, three isoamylase isoforms with distinct functions in starch synthesis (ISA1 and ISA2) and degradation (ISA3) have been described. Here, we created transgenic potato plants with simultaneously decreased expression of all three isoamylases using a chimeric RNAi construct targeting all three isoforms. Constitutive expression of the hairpin RNA using the 35S CaMV promoter resulted in efficient silencing of all three isoforms in leaves, growing tubers, and sprouting tubers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707598/protein-tagging-destruction-and-infection
#14
Chetana Bhaskarla, Manoj Bhosale, Pip Banerjee, Nagasuma Chandra, Dipankar Nandi
Cells possess protein quality control mechanisms to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. In eukaryotes, the roles of the ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of cellular proteins is well established. Recent studies have elucidated protein tagging mechanisms in prokaryotes, involving transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA) and pupylation. In this review, newer insights and bioinformatics analysis of two distinct bacterial protein tagging machineries are discussed. The machinery for tmRNA-mediated tagging is present in several eubacterial representatives, e...
July 13, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706991/multiplexed-gene-control-reveals-rapid-mrna-turnover
#15
Antoine Baudrimont, Sylvia Voegeli, Eduardo Calero Viloria, Fabian Stritt, Marine Lenon, Takeo Wada, Vincent Jaquet, Attila Becskei
The rates of mRNA synthesis and decay determine the mRNA expression level. The two processes are under coordinated control, which makes the measurements of these rates challenging, as evidenced by the low correlation among the methods of measurement of RNA half-lives. We developed a minimally invasive method, multiplexed gene control, to shut off expression of genes with controllable synthetic promoters. The method was validated by measuring the ratios of the nascent to mature mRNA molecules and by measuring the half-life with endogenous promoters that can be controlled naturally or through inserting short sequences that impart repressibility...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705956/rapid-recovery-gene-downregulation-during-excess-light-stress-and-recovery-in-arabidopsis
#16
Peter Alexander Crisp, Diep Ganguly, Aaron B Smith, Kevin D Murray, Gonzalo M Estavillo, Iain R Searle, Ethan Ford, Ozren Bogdanović, Ryan Lister, Justin O Borevitz, Steven R Eichten, Barry J Pogson
Stress recovery may prove to be a promising approach to increase plant performance, and theoretically, mRNA instability may facilitate faster recovery. Transcriptome (RNA-seq, qPCR, sRNA-seq, PARE) and methylome profiling during repeated excess-light stress and recovery was performed at intervals as short as three minutes. We demonstrate that 87% of the stress-upregulated mRNAs analysed exhibit very rapid recovery. For instance, HSP101 abundance declined two-fold every 5.1 minutes. We term this phenomenon Rapid Recovery Gene Downregulation (RRGD), whereby mRNA abundance rapidly decreases promoting transcriptome resetting...
July 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705905/genome-wide-transcriptional-dynamics-in-the-companion-bacterial-symbionts-of-the-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-cicadellidae-homalodisca-vitripennis-reveal-differential-gene-expression-in-bacteria-occupying-multiple-host-organs
#17
Gordon M Bennett, Rebecca A Chong
The agricultural pest the Glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: GWSS), harbors two bacterial symbionts, "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca Baumannia cicadellinicola", that provide the ten essential amino acids (EAAs) limited in the host plant-sap diet. Although differing in origins and symbiotic age, both bacteria have experienced extensive genome degradation resulting from their ancient restriction to specialized host organs (bacteriomes) that provide cellular support and ensure vertical transmission...
July 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704505/csmirtar-condition-specific-microrna-targets-database
#18
Wei-Sheng Wu, Bor-Wen Tu, Tsung-Te Chen, Shang-Wei Hou, Joseph T Tseng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are functional RNA molecules which play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation. miRNAs regulate their target genes by repressing translation or inducing degradation of the target genes' mRNAs. Many databases have been constructed to provide computationally predicted miRNA targets. However, they cannot provide the miRNA targets expressed in a specific tissue and related to a specific disease at the same time. Moreover, they cannot provide the common targets of multiple miRNAs and the common miRNAs of multiple genes at the same time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704426/rna-secondary-structure-and-nucleotide-composition-of-the-conserved-hallmark-sequence-of-leishmania-sider2-retroposons-are-essential-for-endonucleolytic-cleavage-and-mrna-degradation
#19
Hiva Azizi, Tatiany P Romão, Karen Santos Charret, Prasad K Padmanabhan, Osvaldo P de Melo Neto, Michaela Müller-McNicoll, Barbara Papadopoulou
We have reported previously that Short Interspersed Degenerate Retroposons of the SIDER2 subfamily, largely located within 3'UTRs of Leishmania transcripts, promote rapid turnover of mRNAs through endonucleolytic cleavage within the highly conserved second tandem 79-nt hallmark sequence (79-nt SII). Here, we used site-directed mutagenesis and in silico RNA structural studies to delineate the cis-acting requirements within 79-nt SII for cleavage and mRNA degradation. The putative cleavage site(s) and other nucleotides predicted to alter the RNA secondary structure of 79-nt SII were either deleted or mutated and their effect on mRNA turnover was monitored using a gene reporter system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703277/mirnas-and-ovarian-cancer-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
Bornali Deb, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer in women globally. However, even with the advances in detection andtherapeutics it still represents the most dangerous gynecologic malignancy in women of the industrialized countries. The discovery of micro- RNAs (miRNA), a small noncoding RNA molecule targeting multiple mRNAs and regulation of gene expression by triggering translation repression and/or RNA degradation, has revealed the existence of a new array for regulation of genes involved in cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of miRNAs expression in OC...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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