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Beta lactamase

Bat-Sheva Gottesman, Pnina Shitrit, Michal Katzir, Michal Chowers
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance in the community results in greater use of empiric broad spectrum antibiotics for patients at hospital admission. As a measure of antibiotic stewardship it is important to identify a patient population that can receive narrow spectrum antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate resistance patterns of Escherichia coli bloodstream infection (BSI) from strictly community-acquired infection and the impact of recent antibiotic use on this resistance...
June 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Kennedy F Chah, Ifeoma C Ugwu, Angela Okpala, Kwabugge Y Adamu, Carla Andrea Alonso, Sara Ceballos, John N Nwanta, Carmen Torres
OBJECTIVE: To screen chickens and pigs slaughtered for human consumption for presence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) beta-lactamase-producing enteric bacteria. METHODS: Faecal samples from 410 broiler chickens and 100 pigs were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2μg/ml cefotaxime. The antibacterial resistance phenotypes of the recovered isolates were determined by disc-diffusion method while PCR and subsequent sequencing was performed to identify the ESBL and pAmpC gene variants and other associated resistance determinants...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ji Lu, Min Jin, Son Hoang Nguyen, Likai Mao, Jie Li, Lachlan J M Coin, Zhiguo Yuan, Jianhua Guo
Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to public health. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics are generally recognized as the key factors contributing to antibiotic resistance. However, whether non-antibiotic, anti-microbial (NAAM) chemicals can directly induce antibiotic resistance is unclear. We aim to investigate whether the exposure to a NAAM chemical triclosan (TCS) has an impact on inducing antibiotic resistance on Escherichia coli. Here, we report that at a concentration of 0.2 mg/L TCS induces multi-drug resistance in wild-type Escherichia coli after 30-day TCS exposure...
June 11, 2018: Environment International
Matteo Bassetti, Alessandro Russo, Alessia Carnelutti, Alessandro La Rosa, Elda Righi
Introduction Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are burdened by high mortality rates. The development of new compounds to face the global threat of resistance is urgently needed. Combination regimens including "old" high-dose antimicrobials are currently limited by the risk of toxicity, resistance selection, and reduced efficacy. Following the Infectious Diseases Society of America call to develop 10 new antibacterials by 2020, new molecules are currently under development or have become available for use in clinical practice...
June 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Niloofar Zahedian Nezhad, Hamid Heidari, Ashkan Motamedifar, Mohammad Motamedifar
Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and can lead to a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The emergence of multiple-drug resistant strains, particularly extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains, has become a global healthcare concern. Our study sought to investigate the antimicrobial resistance pattern and presence of integrons and fimH determinants among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates obtained from hospitalized Iranian patients...
May 2018: Oman Medical Journal
A Rezaei, H Fazeli, M Halaji, M Moghadampour, J Faghri
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Acinetobacter baumannii has become a global concern in nosocomial infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of MBL producing genes among clinical isolates of A. baumannii from hospitalized patients. METHODS: This study was performed from October 2015 to October 2016 at three teaching hospitals located in Isfahan, Iran. Totally, 100 A-baumannii isolates were collected from clinical specimens and identified as A-baumannii using standard microbiological methods...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Angela Gomez-Simmonds, Stephania Stump, Marla J Giddins, Medini K Annavajhala, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
Treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are limited. While Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring bla KPC account for most CRE, recent evidence points to increasing diversification of CRE. We determined whether CRE species and antibiotic resistance genotype influence response to relebactam (REL), a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor with class A/C activity, combined with imipenem(IMI)/cilastatin. We carried out broth microdilution testing to IMI alone or in the presence of 4 μg/mL REL in 154 clinical isolates collected at a New York City hospital with high prevalence of bla KPC including Enterobacter spp...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Philine von Tippelskirch, Greta Gölz, Michaela Projahn, Katrin Daehre, Anika Friese, Uwe Roesler, Thomas Alter, Stefanie Orquera
Food producing animals are considered a reservoir for Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC) producing Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, meat is discussed to be a potential source for the transmission of these resistant bacteria to humans. There is only limited information about the quantitative load of ESBL-/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in different sample matrices during slaughter and their distribution in the slaughterhouse environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence as well as quantitative load of ESBL-/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in caecum, skin and filet samples of different broiler chicken flocks during slaughter in Germany...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Sameer Ahmed Alsharapy, Betitera Yanat, Lorena Lopez-Cerero, Samar Saeed Nasher, Paula Díaz-De-Alba, Álvaro Pascual, José-Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Abdelaziz Touati
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the O25b/ST131 clone in ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Yemen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli strains were collected from clinical samples of inpatients and outpatients from Sana'a (Yemen) from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and sequencing were used for detection of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target genes gyrA and parC...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Lena Decuyper, Sari Deketelaere, Lore Vanparys, Marko Jukic, Izidor Sosic, Eric Sauvage, Ana Maria Amoroso, Olivier Verlaine, Bernard Joris, Stanislav Gobec, Matthias D'hooghe
As a complement to the renowned bicyclic beta-lactam antibiotics, monocyclic analogues provide a breath of fresh air in the battle against resistant bacteria. In that framework, the present study discloses the in silico design and unprecedented ten-step synthesis of eleven nocardicin-like enantiomerically pure 2-{3-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)acetamido]-2-oxoazetidin-1-yl}acetic acids starting from serine as a readily accessible precursor. The capability of this novel class of monocyclic 3-amino-beta-lactams to inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of various (resistant) bacteria was assessed, revealing the potential of alfa-benzylidenecarboxylates as interesting leads in the pursuit of novel PBP inhibitors...
June 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Motofumi Tosa, Masako Aihara, Junko Murakami
A 78-year-old man had a fever and exhibited disordered consciousness, which led to his transportation to our hospital. On arrival, he exhibited discharge from the ear. Because extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was detected in the ear discharge and cerebrospinal fluid specimens, it was inferred to be the causal bacteria. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated the same ESBL-producing E. coli pattern in the patient's ear discharge, external auditory canal granulation, cerebrospinal fluid, and stool, indicating their common molecular epidemiological origin...
June 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
Abdol Ahad Dogonchi, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Abdollah Ardebili, Sajjad Yazdansetad, Abazar Pournajaf
Objective: Carbapenems are effective agents to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa . However, there is a potential threat of emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-mediated resistance in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Materials and Methods: Different clinical specimens were subjected to conventional culture-based identification of P...
April 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Dixie F Mollenkopf, Brittany De Wolf, Sydnee M Feicht, Johana K Cenera, Christy A King, Joany C van Balen, Thomas E Wittum
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in retail meat pose a health hazard to the public, as does contamination of these products with Salmonella. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella as well as Escherichia coli expressing AmpC and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) resistance phenotypes contaminating broiler transport cages and fresh, retail ground chicken meat. Sterile gauze sponges were used to collect duplicate cage floor samples from transport trailers that deliver market-ready birds to a single organic poultry-processing facility...
June 6, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Joseph L Kuti, Qi Wang, Hongbin Chen, Henan Li, Hui Wang, David P Nicolau
Objectives: We report the in vitro activity of amikacin and comparators against Gram-negative bacteria collected from blood and respiratory specimens in China during a 1-year period between December 2015 and December 2016. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution methods using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI breakpoints, except for tigecycline against Enterobacteriaceae...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Galina Goltsman, Yehuda Baumohl, Gilad Gal, Zvi Buckman, Valery Proshkin, Emily Lubart
BACKGROUND: The worldwide spread of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria has affected health care. ESBL confers resistance to the majority of beta-lactam antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We intended to quantify the rates of rectal ESBL-positive and negative patients that eventually developed fever and urinary tract infection (UTI). All rectal ESBL-positive patients were to be initially treated with the conventional antibiotics that have anti-ESBL activity (amikacin or ertapenem), while ESBL-negative patients were given ceftriaxone...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Sadia Shakoor, Imran Ahmed, Saima Mukhtiar, Israr Ahmed, Farzeen Hirani, Shazia Sultana, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE: Fecal contamination of potable water leads to unsafe water supply. Although many urban areas of large metropolitan cities receive safe water, peri-urban areas are often not monitored by public health authorities and water supply and quality remain unknown. We assessed microbiological quality and rates of antimicrobial resistance in viable indicator bacteria in two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan. Water samples were collected over 5 months (October 2015 to February 2016) from these peri-urban communities and samples were processed for microbiological quality as per Standing Committee of Analysts, United Kingdom and World Health Organization guidelines and criteria for drinking water...
June 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Richard Cunningham, Lewis Jones, Doyo Gragn Enki, Robert Tischhauser
BACKGROUND: Gastric acid suppressants increase the risk of gastroenteritis by allowing ingested pathogens to survive passage through the stomach. It is not known whether the same mechanism affects transmission of Enterobacteriacae. We carried out a case-control study to answer this question. AIM: To determine whether use of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) increases the risk of infection with Enterobacteriacae in hospital patients. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study in a teaching hospital in South West England...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus, Levina Rutta, Matthias Frosch, Ulrich Vogel, Stephen E Mshana
INTRODUCTION: Despite the reported high rates of surgical site infections (SSI) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in low-income countries, including Tanzania, the role of EPE carriage to subsequent occurrence of SSI is not known. This study investigated the magnitude of EPE carriage among surgical patients at the time of admission and discharge, and linked the carried EPE genotypes to those from SSI. METHODS: EPE were confirmed among isolates from rectal and wound/pus swabs using VITEK-2...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Danielle Rankin, Luz Caicedo, Nychie Dotson, Paige Gable, Alvina Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Manju Suresh, N Nithya, P R Jayasree, K P Vimal, P R Manish Kumar
The present study deals with membrane-bound efflux pumps, MexAB-OprM and MexXY and their respective regulatory genes mexR, nalC, nalD and mexZ in multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following antibiotic sensitivity testing and detection of various beta-lactamases, hyperexpression of efflux pump genes, mexB and mexY in the isolates was investigated using semi-quantitative and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Amplicons from regulatory genes were sequenced and subjected to mutational and phylogenetic analysis...
May 30, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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