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Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez, Cristian Alfredo Segura-Cerda, Jorge Gaona-Bernal
Effective prevention of tuberculosis (Tb) would undoubtedly be of paramount relevance in the control of its global burden, which resulted in more than 6 million new cases in 2016. Research aimed to improve the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG), or directed to develop new candidates, has taken into account the interaction between the host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Recently, autophagy, an intracellular process of the host, has been shown to act as a mechanism that contributes to bacilli clearance in vitro and in vivo...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Velda J Gonzalez, Susan McMillan, Elsa Pedro, Maribel Tirado-Gomez, Leorey N Saligan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the health related quality of life (HRQOL) experienced by 79 Puerto Rican adults during cancer treatments. METHODS: This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design. Participants completed a demographics form and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General QOL questionnaire (FACT-G). Descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: Participants were ages 28-78; most of the participants had breast (38.0%), prostate (14...
2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Gennaro Ilardi, Daniela Russo, Silvia Varricchio, Giovanni Salzano, Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Virginia Napolitano, Rosa Maria Di Crescenzo, Alessandra Borzillo, Francesco Martino, Francesco Merolla, Massimo Mascolo, Stefania Staibano
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can play a causative role in the development of sinonasal tract malignancies. In fact, HPV may be the most significant causative agent implicated in sinonasal tumorigenesis and is implicated in as many as 21% of sinonasal carcinomas. To date, there are no definitive, reliable and cost-effective, diagnostic tests approved by the FDA for the unequivocal determination of HPV status in head and neck cancers. We followed an exhaustive algorithm to correctly test HPV infection, including a sequential approach with p16INK4a IHC, viral DNA genotyping and in situ hybridization for E6/E7 mRNA...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christopher E Patrick, Santosh Kumar, Geetha Balakrishnan, Rachel S Edwards, Martin R Lees, Leon Petit, Julie B Staunton
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo_{5} gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene, Younés Hachana
This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth)...
March 16, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Sophie Meuret, Toon Coenen, Steffi Woo, Yong-Ho Ra, Zetian Mi, Albert Polman
Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging spectroscopy provides two-dimensional optical excitation images of photonic nanostructures with deep-subwavelength spatial resolution. So far, CL imaging was unable to provide a direct measurement of the excitation and emission probabilities of photonic nanostructures in a spatially resolved manner. Here, we demonstrate that by mapping the cathodoluminescence autocorrelation function g(2) together with the CL spectral distribution the excitation and emission rates can be disentangled at every excitation position...
March 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Maria Cristina Pintus, Valentina Masile, Vassilios Fanos, Maria Antonietta Marcialis
Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD), first described in 2005, is a rare genetic X-linked disease, presenting with hyponatremia, hyposmolarity, euvolemia, inappropriately concentrated urine, increased natriuresis, and undetectable or very low arginine-vasopressine (AVP) circulating levels. It can occur in neonates, infants, or later in life. NSIAD must be early recognized and treated to prevent severe hyponatremia, which can show a dangerous impact on neonatal outcome. In fact, it potentially leads to death or, in case of survival, neurologic sequelae...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Haseeb Khaliq, Zhong Juming, Peng Ke-Mei
Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Vaishnavi Rohitkumar Shah, Pardeep K Gupta
PURPOSE: Despite the fact that r-hGH was first approved for use by FDA in 1995 and the conventional dosage form in the market has a limitation of daily subcutaneous injections, there remains a lack of sustained delivery system in the market. Nutropin depot, a long-acting dosage form of r-hGH was approved for marketing by FDA in 1999, however, it was discontinued in 2004. Since then, unabating efforts have been made to develop biodegradable polymer based formulations for r-hGH delivery...
March 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Gary R Zirpoli, Susan E McCann, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Dawn L Hershman, Gregory Ciupak, Warren Davis, Joseph M Unger, Halle C F Moore, James A Stewart, Claudine Isaacs, Timothy J Hobday, Muhammad Salim, Gabriel N Hortobagyi, Julie R Gralow, G Thomas Budd, Kathy S Albain, Christine B Ambrosone
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) can interfere with daily function and quality of life, and there are no known preventive approaches. In a cohort of breast cancer patients receiving paclitaxel as part of a clinical trial (SWOG 0221), we examined the use of dietary supplements both before diagnosis and during treatment in relation to CIPN. Methods: At registration to S0221, 1225 breast cancer patients completed questionnaires regarding the use of multivitamins and supplements before and at diagnosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Nandita Perumal, Diego G Bassani, Daniel E Roth
The term "stunting" has become pervasive in international nutrition and child health research, program, and policy circles. Although originally intended as a population-level statistical indicator of children's social and economic deprivation, the conventional anthropometric definition of stunting (height-for-age z scores <-2 SD) is now widely used to define chronic malnutrition. Epidemiologists often portray it as a disease, making inferences about the causes of growth faltering based on comparisons between stunted (i...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Hassan Al Moussawi, Michael Krzyzak, Zainab Awada, Jean M Chalhoub
A brain abscess is defined as a focal intracerebral infection consisting of an encapsulated collection of pus, which can be a life-threatening complication of infections, trauma, or surgery. While immunocompromised patients can have a wide array of causative organisms, bacterial species represent the most common etiology in immunocompetent individuals. The incidence of brain abscesses ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 per 100,000, with a high predisposition among immunocompromised patients and in those with disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Cameron K Schmidt, Shehzad Khalid, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychological issues worldwide, displaying the youngest age of onset and greatest chronicity of any mood or substance abuse disorder. Given the high social and economic cost imposed by these disorders, developing effective treatments is of the utmost importance. Anxiety disorders manifest in a variety of symptomatic phenotypes and are highly comorbid with other psychological diseases such as depression. These facts have made unraveling the complex underlying neural circuity an ever-present challenge for researchers...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Xin Deng, Wen Zhao, Laijun Song, Wei Ying, Xinbin Guo
Glioma is one of the most common aggressive neuroepithelial malignant tumors in the central nervous system. It has a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis, primarily due to the fact that novel therapeutic agents cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been reported to move across the BBB and access the tumor site. However, whether EPCs expressing the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induce glioma cell apoptosis requires further investigation...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Alessio Travaglia, Adam B Steinmetz, Janelle M Miranda, Cristina M Alberini
Episodic memories in early childhood are rapidly forgotten, a phenomenon that is associated with "infantile amnesia," the inability of adults to remember early-life experiences. We recently showed that early aversive contextual memory in infant rats, which is in fact rapidly forgotten, is actually not lost, as reminders presented later in life reinstate a long-lasting and context-specific memory. We also showed that the formation of this infantile memory recruits in the hippocampus mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
A C M Veloo, H Jean-Pierre, U S Justesen, T Morris, E Urban, I Wybo, M Kostrzewa, A W Friedrich
Within the ENRIA project, several 'expertise laboratories' collaborated in order to optimize the identification of clinical anaerobic isolates by using a widely available platform, the Biotyper Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Main Spectral Profiles (MSPs) of well characterized anaerobic strains were added to one of the latest updates of the Biotyper database db6903; (V6 database) for common use. MSPs of anaerobic strains nominated for addition to the Biotyper database are included in this validation...
March 12, 2018: Anaerobe
Sara Díaz, Zaida Ortega, Mark McCourt, Mark P Kearns, Antonio N Benítez
This study focuses on the mechanical recycling of polymeric waste that is produced in considerable amount from the cable industry. Every year large amounts of cables become waste; wires recycling has traditionally focused on metal recovery, while the polymer cover has just been considered as a residue, being landfilled or incinerated. Nowadays, increasingly restrictive regulations and concern about environment make necessary to reduce landfilling as much as possible. Main novelty of the study is that the material used in the research is a post-consumer material and the entire residual material is used, without a previous purification, in contrast with similar studies...
March 12, 2018: Waste Management
Thais Assis-Ribas, Maria Fernanda Forni, Sheila Maria Brochado Winnischofer, Mari Cleide Sogayar, Marina Trombetta-Lima
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that display self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capacity. The repertoire of mature cells generated ranges but is not restricted to: fat, bone and cartilage. Their potential importance for both cell therapy and maintenance of in vivo homeostasis is indisputable. Nonetheless, both their in vivo identity and use in cell therapy remain elusive. A drawback generated by this fact is that little is known about the MSC niche and how it impacts differentiation and homeostasis maintenance...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
Ming-Yue Wang, Chang Shen, Meng-Fei An, Chuan-Qi Xie, Xin Wu, Qiang-Qiang Zhu, Bin Sun, Yan-Ping Huang, Yun-Li Zhao, Xuan-Jun Wang, Jun Sheng
AIMS: Dendrobium candidum (DC) and black tea, are traditional chinese drinks, which contain multiple active ingredients. However, whether or not the combination of these two ingredients can improve osteoporosis remains unknown. This study therefore aimed to examine the effects of the combination of DC and black tea extract (BTE) on osteoporosis. MAIN METHODS: Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in vivo as well as receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro was selected...
March 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Jennifer M Maurer, Charles G Sagerström
BACKGROUND: Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation. Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function...
March 15, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
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