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Benjamin Schreiber, Jonas Fischer, Sabrina Schiwy, Henner Hollert, Ralf Schulz
The effects of sediment contamination on fish are of high significance for the protection of ecosystems, human health and economy. However, standardized sediment bioassays with benthic fish species, that mimic bioavailability of potentially toxic compounds and comply with the requirements of alternative test methods, are still scarce. In order to address this issue, embryos of the benthic European weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis) were exposed to freeze-dried sediment (via sediment contact assays (SCA)) and sediment extracts (via acute fish embryo toxicity tests) varying in contamination level...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Raine Kortet, Tiina Lautala, Jukka Kekäläinen, Jouni Taskinen, Heikki Hirvonen
Hatchery-reared fish show high mortalities after release to the wild environment. Explanations for this include potentially predetermined genetics, behavioral, and physiological acclimation to fish farm environments, and increased vulnerability to predation and parasitism in the wild. We studied vulnerability to Diplostomum spp. parasites (load of eye flukes in the lenses), immune defense (relative spleen size) and antipredator behaviors (approaches toward predator odor, freezing, and swimming activity) in hatchery-reared juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) using a nested mating design...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Elena Hollergschwandtner, Thomas Schwaha, Josef Neumüller, Ulrich Kaindl, Daniela Gruber, Margret Eckhard, Michael Stöger-Pollach, Siegfried Reipert
Background: Biomineralization, e.g., in sea urchins or mollusks, includes the assembly of mesoscopic superstructures from inorganic crystalline components and biopolymers. The resulting mesocrystals inspire biophysicists and material scientists alike, because of their extraordinary physical properties. Current efforts to replicate mesocrystal synthesis in vitro require understanding the principles of their self-assembly in vivo. One question, not addressed so far, is whether intracellular crystals of proteins can assemble with biopolymers into functional mesocrystal-like structures...
2017: PeerJ
Edyta Malinowska-Pańczyk, Ilona Kołodziejska
The objective of the present work is to examine the influence of pressure up to 193 MPa at subzero temperature (without freezing of water) on myofibrillar proteins of salmon and cod meat and on the properties of gels obtained from washed mince of these fish. The solubility of proteins from myofibrils of cod and salmon meat suspended in 100 mM KCl solution increased after treating the samples with pressure above 60 MPa. The results of SDS- -PAGE analysis showed that under these conditions two myosin light chains, tropomyosin and troponin T were released from myofibrils...
September 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Marta F Riesco, Catarina Oliveira, Florbela Soares, Paulo J Gavaia, María T Dinis, Elsa Cabrita
Cryopreservation of Senegalese sole sperm can represent an alternative to overcome some reproductive problems of this species. However, it is important to guarantee the safe use of cryopreserved sperm by selecting an appropriate protocol according to a high demand quality need to be ensured. It has been demonstrated that traditional assays such as motility and viability do not provide enough information to identify specific damage caused by cryopreservation process (freezing and thawing). Specific tests, including lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, should be performed...
2017: PloS One
Shabab Nasir, Farhat Jabeen, Sadia Abbas, Iram Nasir, Mustapha Debboun
BACKGROUND: The population of mosquitoes is mainly influenced by the biotic and abiotic factors. Although Aedes aegypti was reported until 1960's in the Punjab, Pakistan, the population has increased dramatically since 2009 and caused severe epidemics in 2011 due to heavy floods and rains. Thus, this study was carried out to know the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the population of Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected from fresh, sewage, and rain water ponds, fish ponds, rice fields, tyres, tree holes, and manmade storage containers present in and around residential homes twice during every winter (October-February), summer (March-June) and monsoon season (July-September) from marked rural areas...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Petra Novak, Tea Zuliani, Radmila Milačič, Janez Ščančar
Six congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153 and BDE 154, were determined by a reliable and sensitive analytical method based on gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) in mussel and fish tissue samples. For their extraction, 30min of ultrasound-assisted extraction with a 25% aqueous solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and an additional 2h of mechanical shaking with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-citrate buffer and iso-octane were applied...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Kyohei Yasuno, Erika Takahashi, Isao Igarashi, Takuma Iguchi, Yoshimi Tsuchiya, Kiyonori Kai, Kazuhiko Mori
INTRODUCTION: Immediate early genes are widely used as neuronal cell activity markers in neuroscience. The present study investigated the relationship between their expression and abnormality in context fear conditioning. METHODS: The learning test (two-way active avoidance test) was conducted in male rats administered with nonselective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine or selective dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 at a dose level of 2.0 or 0.1mg/kg, respectively, for 4days...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
A Oblette, N Rives, L Dumont, A Rives, F Verhaeghe, F Jumeau, C Rondanino
STUDY QUESTION: Is nuclear quality of in vitro generated spermatozoa from fresh or frozen/thawed pre-pubertal mouse testes similar to that of their in vivo counterparts? SUMMARY ANSWER: The production of spermatozoa with aneuploidy, DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation defects was not significantly increased in organotypic cultures compared to in vivo controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although murine spermatozoa have been produced in vitro from pre-pubertal testes, their nuclear DNA integrity has never been investigated...
August 23, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
Yue Ma, Qiyao Wang, Wensheng Xu, Xiaohong Liu, Xiating Gao, Yuanxing Zhang
The capability of cold-adaptation is a prerequisite of microorganisms that survive in an environment with frequent fluctuations in temperature. As a global causative agent of vibriosis in marine fish farming, Vibrio anguillarum can efficiently grow and proliferate under cold-stress conditions, which is 15°C lower than the optimal growth temperatures (25-30°C). Our data showed that V. anguillarum was able to synthesize ectoine de novo and that ectoine was essential for its growth under cold stress. Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mutants lacking ectABC and proVWX (ectoine synthesis and transporter system genes, respectively), we confirmed that accumulation of this compatible solute occurs strictly at low temperatures and that the expression of ectA and proV is highly activated in the stationary growth phase...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Rafael Cuevas-Uribe, E Hu, Harry Daniels, Adriane O Gill, Terrence R Tiersch
The Southern Flounder Paralichthys lethostigma is a high-value species and a promising aquaculture candidate. Because sperm volume can be limited in this species (<500 μL), new sperm cryopreservation methods need to be evaluated. Vitrification is an alternative to conventional slow-rate freezing, whereby small volumes are cryopreserved at high cooling rates (>1,000°C/min). The goal of this work was to develop a standardized approach for vitrification of Southern Flounder sperm. The specific objectives were to (1) evaluate thawing methods and vitrification solutions, (2) evaluate the postthaw membrane integrity of sperm vitrified in different cryoprotectant solutions, (3) examine the relationship between membrane integrity and motility, and (4) evaluate the ability of vitrified sperm to fertilize eggs...
2017: North American Journal of Aquaculture
Maria Jose Cardador, Mercedes Gallego
Disinfected water and/or disinfectants are commonly used by the freezing industry in such processes as sanitising, washing, blanching, cooling and transporting the final product. For this reason, disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be expected in frozen foods. This study focused on the presence of DBPs in a wide variety of frozen vegetables, meats and fish. For this purpose, the 14 halogenated DBPs more prevalent in disinfected water were selected (four trihalomethanes, seven haloacetic acids, two haloacetonitriles and trichloronitromethane)...
September 29, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Satoshi Ansai, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Shingo Maegawa, Kiyoshi Naruse, Youhei Washio, Kenji Sato, Masato Kinoshita
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2(Δ13/Δ13)) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
Kiran Bhattacharyya, David L McLean, Malcolm A MacIver
All visual animals must decide whether approaching objects are a threat. Our current understanding of this process has identified a proximity-based mechanism where an evasive maneuver is triggered when a looming stimulus passes a subtended visual angle threshold. However, some escape strategies are more costly than others, and so it would be beneficial to additionally encode the level of threat conveyed by the predator's approach rate to select the most appropriate response. Here, using naturalistic rates of looming visual stimuli while simultaneously monitoring escape behavior and the recruitment of multiple reticulospinal neurons, we find that larval zebrafish do indeed perform a calibrated assessment of threat...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Peter J Jenkelunas, Eunice C Y Li-Chan
The aim of this study was to investigate application of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) as cryoprotectants for cod fish mince subjected to freeze-thaw abuse. Response surface methodology revealed little difference in cryoprotectant ability between FPHs produced from Pacific hake muscle within the range of conditions studied, namely Flavourzyme® enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S 1-4%), time (1-6h) and pH (5-7). When added at 4% or higher concentrations, FPH minimized expressible moisture and cook loss, while maximizing salt extractable protein from freeze-thaw abused fish mince, providing similar or better cryoprotection compared to an 8% sucrose-sorbitol blend, and a stabilizing effect of FPH on myosin was observed by differential scanning calorimetry...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ramachandran Balamurugan, Natesan Munuswamy
The aim of this study was to document the effects of cryopreservation on sperm motility and viability in Grey mullet Mugil cephalus. Cryopreservation of sperm was attempted by using two extenders ringer solution for marine fish (RSMF) and V2 extender (V2E) and cryoprotectants dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (GLY), propylene glycol (PG) and methanol (MeOH). Cryoprotectants were assessed at different concentrations individually as well as in combination with varying equilibration times (10 and 30min)...
October 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Irja Sunde Roiha, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Christoph Josef Backi, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Magnea G Karlsdóttir
BACKGROUND: The catch of marine whitefish is typically seasonal, whereas the land-based processing industry has a need for all-year stable supply of raw materials. This challenge can be met by applying fish frozen at sea. When using frozen fish, the methods employed for thawing may influence the safety and quality of the final product. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of novel thawing strategies in order to provide an all-year supply of high-quality and safe cod products...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Qunfeng Cheng, Chuanjin Huang, Antoni P Tomsia
Nature is very successful in designing strong and tough, lightweight materials. Examples include seashells, bone, teeth, fish scales, wood, bamboo, silk, and many others. A distinctive feature of all these materials is that their properties are far superior to those of their constituent phases. Many of these natural materials are lamellar or layered in nature. With its "brick and mortar" structure, nacre is an example of a layered material that exhibits extraordinary physical properties. Finding inspiration in living organisms to create bioinspired materials is the subject of intensive research...
August 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
Nadia Maria Berterame, Stefano Bertagnoli, Vera Codazzi, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established workhorse, either for recombinant or natural products, thanks to its natural traits and easily editable metabolism. However, during a bio-based industrial process it meets multiple stresses generated by operative conditions such as non-optimal temperature, pH, oxygenation and product accumulation. The development of tolerant strains is therefore indispensable for the improvement of production, yield and productivity of fermentative processes. In this regard, plants as resilient organisms are a generous source for fishing genes and/or metabolites that can help the cell factory to counteract environmental constraints...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Shukai Zheng, Caixia Liu, Yanhong Huang, Mian Bao, Yuanni Huang, Kusheng Wu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants in various environmental matrices and organisms and pose a threat to neural systems of organisms. However, though quite a few studies have explored the effect of PBDEs on neural behaviors such as learning and memory abilities in animals, their mechanisms are less known. We used the zebrafish model to evaluate neurotoxicity of PBDEs and observe changes in behavior and related gene expression. In behavioral testing, 50 zebrafish were divided into five groups treated with different concentrations of BDE-47...
October 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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