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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077930/before-the-freeze-otoliths-from-the-eocene-of-seymour-island-antarctica-reveal-dominance-of-gadiform-fishes-teleostei
#1
Werner Schwarzhans, Thomas Mörs, Andrea Engelbrecht, Marcelo Reguero, Jürgen Kriwet
The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp...
2017: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077765/acute-embryonic-anoxia-exposure-favours-the-development-of-a-dominant-and-aggressive-phenotype-in-adult-zebrafish
#2
Catherine M Ivy, Cayleih E Robertson, Nicholas J Bernier
Eutrophication and climate change are increasing the incidence of severe hypoxia in fish nursery habitats, yet the programming effects of hypoxia on stress responsiveness in later life are poorly understood. In this study, to investigate whether early hypoxia alters the developmental trajectory of the stress response, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 4 h of anoxia at 36 h post-fertilization and reared to adults when the responses to secondary stressors were assessed. While embryonic anoxia did not affect basal cortisol levels or the cortisol response to hypoxia in later life, it had a marked effect on the responses to a social stressor...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063712/the-psychoactive-pollutant-fluoxetine-compromises-antipredator-behaviour-in-fish
#3
Jake M Martin, Minna Saaristo, Michael G Bertram, Phoebe J Lewis, Timothy L Coggan, Bradley O Clarke, Bob B M Wong
Pharmaceuticals are increasingly being detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Particularly concerning are pharmaceutical pollutants that can adversely impact exposed wildlife, even at extremely low concentrations. One such contaminant is the widely prescribed antidepressant fluoxetine, which can disrupt neurotransmission and behavioural pathways in wildlife. Despite this, relatively limited research has addressed the behavioural impacts of fluoxetine at ecologically realistic exposure concentrations. Here, we show that 28-day fluoxetine exposure at two ecologically relevant dosages-one representing low surface water concentrations and another representing high effluent flow concentrations-alters antipredator behaviour in Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012381/automated-milk-fat-extraction-for-the-analyses-of-persistent-organic-pollutants
#4
Jeffrey C Archer, Roy G Jenkins
We have utilized an automated acid hydrolysis technology, followed by an abbreviated Soxhlet extraction technique to obtain fat from whole milk for the determination of persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls. The process simply involves (1) pouring the liquid milk into the hydrolysis beaker with reagents and standards, (2) drying the obtained fat on a filter paper and (3) obtaining pure fat via the modified Soxhlet extraction using 100mL of hexane per sample...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007536/conspecific-alarm-substance-differently-alters-group-behavior-of-zebrafish-populations-putative-involvement-of-cholinergic-and-purinergic-signaling-in-anxiety-and-fear-like-responses
#5
Julia Canzian, Barbara D Fontana, Vanessa A Quadros, Denis B Rosemberg
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent model organism for assessing fear and anxiety-like phenotypes. The short fin wild type (WT), and leopard (leo) are two zebrafish populations that present several behavioral differences, in which leo displays pronounced defensive responses. Mounting evidence suggests a modulatory role for cholinergic and purinergic signaling in fear and anxiety, but the involvement of these neurotransmitter systems in the behavioral profile of zebrafish is obscure. Here we tested whether the acute exposure to conspecific alarm substance (AS), an experimental protocol that induces fear, alters shoaling behavior, diving response, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and nucleotide hydrolysis in brain tissue of WT and leo...
December 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988417/impacts-of-the-antidepressant-fluoxetine-on-the-anti-predator-behaviours-of-wild-guppies-poecilia-reticulata
#6
Minna Saaristo, Alisha McLennan, Christopher P Johnstone, Bradley O Clarke, Bob B M Wong
Chemical pollution from pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognised as a major threat to aquatic communities. One compound of great concern is fluoxetine, which is one of the most widely prescribed psychoactive drugs in the world and frequently detected in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 28-d fluoxetine exposure at two environmentally relevant levels (measured concentrations: 4ng/L and 16ng/L) on anti-predator behaviour in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata). This was achieved by subjecting fluoxetine-exposed and unexposed guppies to a simulated bird strike and recording their subsequent behavioural responses...
December 10, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965084/cannabinoid-modulation-of-zebrafish-fear-learning-and-its-functional-analysis-investigated-by-c-fos-expression
#7
Tim Ruhl, Malou Zeymer, Gerhard von der Emde
It has been shown that zebrafish fear learning proceeds in the same way as reported for rodents. However, in zebrafish fear learning it is possible to substitute the use of electric shocks as unconditioned stimulus and utilize the inborn fear responses to the alarm substance Schreckstoff, instead. The skin extract Schreckstoff elicits typical fear reactions such as preferred bottom dwelling, swimming in a tighter shoal, erratic movements and freezing. This natural fear behavior can be transferred from Schreckstoff to any other sensory stimulus by associative conditioning (fear learning)...
December 10, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951652/multivalent-display-of-antifreeze-proteins-by-fusion-to-self-assembling-protein-cages-enhances-ice-binding-activities
#8
Sean W Phippen, Corey A Stevens, Tyler D R Vance, Neil P King, David Baker, Peter L Davies
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are small monomeric proteins that adsorb to the surface of ice to inhibit ice crystal growth and impart freeze resistance to the organisms producing them. Previously, monomeric AFPs have been conjugated to the termini of branched polymers to increase their activity through the simultaneous binding of more than one AFP to ice. Here, we describe a superior approach to increasing AFP activity through oligomerization that eliminates the need for conjugation reactions with varying levels of efficiency...
December 13, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913993/antifreeze-glycopeptides-from-structure-and-activity-studies-to-current-approaches-in-chemical-synthesis
#9
REVIEW
Małgorzata Urbańczyk, Jerzy Góra, Rafał Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a class of biological antifreeze agents found predominantly in Arctic and Antarctic species of fish. They possess the ability to regulate ice nucleation and ice crystal growth, thus creating viable life conditions at temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids. AFGPs usually consist of 4-55 repetitions of the tripeptide unit Ala-Ala-Thr that is O-glycosylated at the threonine side chains with β-D-galactosyl-(1 → 3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Due to their interesting properties and high antifreeze activity, they have many potential applications, e...
December 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908637/response-of-three-cyprinid-fish-species-to-the-scavenger-deterrent-factor-produced-by-the-mutualistic-bacteria-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes
#10
Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Baris Gulcu, Manickam Raja, Pachiappan Perumal, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan, Harry K Kaya, Selcuk Hazir
The symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively, produce a compound(s) called the Scavenging Deterrent Factor (SDF). SDF deters a number of terrestrial insect scavengers and predators and one bird species from feeding on host insects killed by the nematode-bacterium complex but has not been tested against aquatic vertebrates. Moreover, the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus association is believed to have evolved in an aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777464/sustainable-use-of-silver-warehou-seriollela-punctata-effects-of-storage-processing-conditions-and-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion-on-selected-in-vitro-bioactivities
#11
V Manikkam, M L Mathai, W A Street, O N Donkor, T Vasiljevic
Australian underutilised fish species may serve as a potential source of valuable proteins and potent bioactive peptides. This novel research is the first to investigate the effects of storage-processing conditions and an in-vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin-pancreatin) on bioactive peptides' release during storage of fish fillet, derived from Australian silver warehou (Seriolella punctata). In-vitro bioactivities including angiotensin-converting enzyme and trypsin inhibitory and antioxidant activities were analysed...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761327/greater-than-x-kb-a-quantitative-assessment-of-preservation-conditions-on-genomic-dna-quality-and-a-proposed-standard-for-genome-quality-dna
#12
Daniel G Mulcahy, Kenneth S Macdonald, Seán G Brady, Christopher Meyer, Katharine B Barker, Jonathan Coddington
Advances in biodiversity genomic sequencing will increasingly depend on the availability of DNA samples-and their quantifiable metadata-preserved in large institutional biorepositories that are discoverable to the scientific community. Improvements in sequencing technology constantly provide longer reads, such that longer fragment length, higher molecular weight, and overall "genome-quality" DNA (gDNA) will be desirable. Ideally, biorepositories should publish numerical scale measurements of DNA quality useful to the user community...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739374/antifreeze-proteins-from-diverse-organisms-and-their-applications-an-overview
#13
Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tzi Bun Ng, Jack Ho Wong
Antifreeze proteins are ice-binding or ice-structuring proteins that prevent water from freezing by adsorbing to the ice surface and stopping the growth of minute ice crystals to large crystals in a non-colligative manner. The antifreeze proteins are found in species like fish, arthropods, plants, algae, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. The diversity, distribution and classification of antifreeze proteins were highlighted in this review. Antifreeze proteins help the organisms adapt to and survive in subzero temperature environments...
October 12, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702417/differences-in-expenditure-and-amounts-of-fresh-foods-fruits-and-vegetables-and-fish-purchased-in-urban-and-rural-scotland
#14
Baukje de Roos, Ferdinando Binacchi, Stephen Whybrow, Alan A Sneddon
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively analyse expenditure on all fresh foods, fruits and vegetables (F&V) and fish across urban and rural households in Scotland. Fresh foods were chosen since, in general, they are perceived to contribute more to health than processed foods. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of purchase data of all foods brought into the home during 2012 from the Kantar Worldpanel database. Purchase data were restricted to fresh, unprocessed and raw foods or 'fresh to frozen' foods where freezing was part of harvesting...
October 5, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698404/neofunctionalization-of-zona-pellucida-proteins-enhances-freeze-prevention-in-the-eggs-of-antarctic-notothenioids
#15
Lixue Cao, Qiao Huang, Zhichao Wu, Dong-Dong Cao, Zhanling Ma, Qianghua Xu, Peng Hu, Yanxia Fu, Yu Shen, Jiulin Chan, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Wanying Zhai, Liangbiao Chen
The mechanisms by which the eggs of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes avoid freezing are not fully understood. Zona pellucida proteins (ZPs) are constituents of the chorion which forms a protective matrix surrounding the egg. Here we report occurrence of freezing temperature-related gene expansion and acquisition of unusual ice melting-promoting (IMP) activity in a family of Antarctic notothenioid ZPs (AnnotoZPs). Members of AnnotoZPs are shown to bind with ice and non-colligatively depress the melting point of a solution in a range of 0...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697558/changes-in-the-levels-of-humoral-immune-activities-after-storage-of-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-skin-mucus
#16
Héctor Cordero, Alberto Cuesta, José Meseguer, M Ángeles Esteban
Skin mucus is increasingly used as a source for determining immunity-related proteins and enzymes. However, the ability to accurately measure some activities may be modified by inadequate handling and storage of the samples. This study aims to measure the effect of freezing and lyophilization at the time of collection on such activities. Fresh, frozen (immediately after collection at -20 °C and -80 °C) and lyophilized skin mucus samples obtained from the same groups of fish specimens of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516305/collagen-chitosan-porous-bone-tissue-engineering-composite-scaffold-incorporated-with-ginseng-compound-k
#17
Thangavelu Muthukumar, Adithan Aravinthan, Judith Sharmila, Nam Soo Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim
In this study, suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering were successfully prepared using fish scale collagen, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Porous composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying method. The Korean traditional medicinal ginseng compound K, a therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis that reduces inflammation and enhances production of bone morphogenetic protein-2, was incorporated into the composite scaffold. The scaffold was characterized for pore size, swelling, density, degradation, mineralization, cell viability and attachment, and its morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503614/fish-oil-and-microalga-omega-3-as-dietary-supplements-a-comparative-study-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-high-fat-fed-rats
#18
Adil Haimeur, Virginie Mimouni, Lionel Ulmann, Anne-Sophie Martineau, Hafida Messaouri, Fabienne Pineau-Vincent, Gérard Tremblin, Nadia Meskini
Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0...
September 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391990/effect-of-technological-factors-on-the-activity-and-losses-of-cathepsins-b-d-and-l-during-the-marinating-of-atlantic-and-baltic-herrings
#19
Mariusz Szymczak
BACKGROUND: This study analyzes the effect of salt and acetic acid concentration, time, temperature and fish freezing on the activity and losses of cathepsins during the marinating of Atlantic and Baltic herrings. RESULTS: The highest contribution in meat GPA was found for cathepsin D-like. This contribution decreased during the marinating process as a result of, among other things, cathepsins losses to brine. The methods of marinating had a significant impact on cathepsin activity losses...
July 8, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374423/effect-of-dietary-fish-oil-supplementation-on-ram-semen-freeze-ability-and-fertility-using-soybean-lecithin-and-egg-yolk-based-extenders
#20
R Masoudi, M Sharafi, A Zare Shahneh, A Towhidi, H Kohram, M Zhandi, V Esmaeili, A Shahverdi
Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing...
October 1, 2016: Theriogenology
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