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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299288/food-safety-and-sustainable-nutrition-workshops-educational-experiences-for-primary-school-children-in-turin-italy
#1
Amaranta Traversa, Daniela Adriano, Alberto Bellio, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Silvia Gallina, Clara Ippolito, Angelo Romano, Paola Durelli, Andrea Pezzana, Lucia Decastelli
European control and prevention policies are focused to guarantee a high level of protection of consumers' health. Food-borne diseases as obesity, diabetes, food allergy, and food-borne outbreaks are increasing. To prevent food-borne diseases, it is fundamental to involve consumers, in particular children, in educational experiences aimed to learn the proper behaviours to be applied. In this context, we designed and performed 5 educational workshops about food safety, hidden allergens in food and nutrition aimed to involve children attending primary and summer school...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287609/assessing-the-risk-of-an-emerging-zoonosis-of-worldwide-concern-anisakiasis
#2
Miguel Bao, Graham J Pierce, Santiago Pascual, Miguel González-Muñoz, Simonetta Mattiucci, Ivona Mladineo, Paolo Cipriani, Ivana Bušelić, Norval J C Strachan
Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262787/oscillations-and-accelerations-of-ice-crystal-growth-rates-in-microgravity-in-presence-of-antifreeze-glycoprotein-impurity-in-supercooled-water
#3
Yoshinori Furukawa, Ken Nagashima, Shun-Ichi Nakatsubo, Izumi Yoshizaki, Haruka Tamaru, Taro Shimaoka, Takehiko Sone, Etsuro Yokoyama, Salvador Zepeda, Takanori Terasawa, Harutoshi Asakawa, Ken-Ichiro Murata, Gen Sazaki
The free growth of ice crystals in supercooled bulk water containing an impurity of glycoprotein, a bio-macromolecule that functions as 'antifreeze' in living organisms in a subzero environment, was observed under microgravity conditions on the International Space Station. We observed the acceleration and oscillation of the normal growth rates as a result of the interfacial adsorption of these protein molecules, which is a newly discovered impurity effect for crystal growth. As the convection caused by gravity may mitigate or modify this effect, secure observations of this effect were first made possible by continuous measurements of normal growth rates under long-term microgravity condition realized only in the spacecraft...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244005/sodium-selenite-prevents-paraquat-induced-neurotoxicity-in-zebrafish
#4
Talise E Müller, Mauro E Nunes, Charlene C Menezes, Aline T Marins, Jossiele Leitemperger, Ana Carolina Lopes Gressler, Fabiano B Carvalho, Catiuscia Molz de Freitas, Vanessa A Quadros, Roselei Fachinetto, Denis B Rosemberg, Vania L Loro
Considering the antioxidant properties of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and the involvement of oxidative stress events in paraquat-induced neurotoxicity, this study investigated the protective effect of dietary Na2SeO3 on biochemical and behavioral parameters of zebrafish exposed to paraquat (PQ). Fish were pretreated with a Na2SeO3 diet for 21 days and then PQ (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally with six injections for 16 days. In the novel tank test, the Na2SeO3 diet prevented the locomotor impairments, as well as the increase in the time spent in the top area of the tank, and the exacerbation of freezing episodes...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228353/isochoric-and-isobaric-freezing-of-fish-muscle
#5
Gabriel Năstase, Chenang Lyu, Gideon Ukpai, Alexandru Şerban, Boris Rubinsky
We have recently shown that, a living organism, which succumbs to freezing to -4 °C in an isobaric thermodynamic system (constant atmospheric pressure), can survive freezing to -4 °C in an isochoric thermodynamic system (constant volume). It is known that the mechanism of cell damage in an isobaric system is the freezing caused increase in extracellular osmolality, and, the consequent cell dehydration. An explanation for the observed survival during isochoric freezing is the thermodynamic modeling supported hypothesis that, in the isochoric frozen solution the extracellular osmolality is comparable to the cell intracellular osmolality...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221955/synergistic-effect-of-freezing-and-irradiation-on-bonito-fish-sarda-sarda-bloch-1793
#6
Can Okan Altan, Hülya Turan
In this study, bonito fish ( Sarda sarda Bloch, 1793) were irradiated at 3 or 5 kGy, packaged, frozen, and stored at -20 ± 2°C for 12 months. During storage, the microbiological, physical, and chemical changes of the fish flesh were then assessed. Increasing the irradiation dose to 5 kGy provided greater inhibition of mesophilic and psychotropic aerobic bacteria (P < 0.05). Because fewer bacteria were detected in irradiated (3 and 5 kGy) as compared with unirradiated control fish suggests that freezing and irradiation yielded better results when combined...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166981/sperm-quality-and-its-freezing-ability-throughout-the-spawning-season-in-prochilodus-lineatus-and-brycon-orbignyanus
#7
Isabela M Di Chiacchio, Izabella L G Almeida, Marcelo C Leal, Ana T M Viveiros
The aim of this study was to determine fresh and frozen sperm quality evaluated over two spawning seasons (2013-2014; 2014-2015) in Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. The spawning seasons were divided into two sampling periods: November to December and January to February. Males were hand-stripped after carp pituitary treatment. Fresh sperm motility rate, velocities (curvilinear = VCL; straight-line = VSL; average path = VAP), and the beat cross frequency (BCF) were determined using a Computer-Assisted Sperm Analyzer (CASA)...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098752/microbiological-load-of-edible-insects-found-in-belgium
#8
Rudy Caparros Megido, Sandrine Desmedt, Christophe Blecker, François Béra, Éric Haubruge, Taofic Alabi, Frédéric Francis
Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts...
January 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077930/before-the-freeze-otoliths-from-the-eocene-of-seymour-island-antarctica-reveal-dominance-of-gadiform-fishes-teleostei
#9
Werner Schwarzhans, Thomas Mörs, Andrea Engelbrecht, Marcelo Reguero, Jürgen Kriwet
The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp...
2017: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077765/acute-embryonic-anoxia-exposure-favours-the-development-of-a-dominant-and-aggressive-phenotype-in-adult-zebrafish
#10
Catherine M Ivy, Cayleih E Robertson, Nicholas J Bernier
Eutrophication and climate change are increasing the incidence of severe hypoxia in fish nursery habitats, yet the programming effects of hypoxia on stress responsiveness in later life are poorly understood. In this study, to investigate whether early hypoxia alters the developmental trajectory of the stress response, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 4 h of anoxia at 36 h post-fertilization and reared to adults when the responses to secondary stressors were assessed. While embryonic anoxia did not affect basal cortisol levels or the cortisol response to hypoxia in later life, it had a marked effect on the responses to a social stressor...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063712/the-psychoactive-pollutant-fluoxetine-compromises-antipredator-behaviour-in-fish
#11
Jake M Martin, Minna Saaristo, Michael G Bertram, Phoebe J Lewis, Timothy L Coggan, Bradley O Clarke, Bob B M Wong
Pharmaceuticals are increasingly being detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Particularly concerning are pharmaceutical pollutants that can adversely impact exposed wildlife, even at extremely low concentrations. One such contaminant is the widely prescribed antidepressant fluoxetine, which can disrupt neurotransmission and behavioural pathways in wildlife. Despite this, relatively limited research has addressed the behavioural impacts of fluoxetine at ecologically realistic exposure concentrations. Here, we show that 28-day fluoxetine exposure at two ecologically relevant dosages-one representing low surface water concentrations and another representing high effluent flow concentrations-alters antipredator behaviour in Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012381/automated-milk-fat-extraction-for-the-analyses-of-persistent-organic-pollutants
#12
Jeffrey C Archer, Roy G Jenkins
We have utilized an automated acid hydrolysis technology, followed by an abbreviated Soxhlet extraction technique to obtain fat from whole milk for the determination of persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls. The process simply involves (1) pouring the liquid milk into the hydrolysis beaker with reagents and standards, (2) drying the obtained fat on a filter paper and (3) obtaining pure fat via the modified Soxhlet extraction using 100mL of hexane per sample...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007536/conspecific-alarm-substance-differently-alters-group-behavior-of-zebrafish-populations-putative-involvement-of-cholinergic-and-purinergic-signaling-in-anxiety-and-fear-like-responses
#13
Julia Canzian, Barbara D Fontana, Vanessa A Quadros, Denis B Rosemberg
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent model organism for assessing fear and anxiety-like phenotypes. The short fin wild type (WT), and leopard (leo) are two zebrafish populations that present several behavioral differences, in which leo displays pronounced defensive responses. Mounting evidence suggests a modulatory role for cholinergic and purinergic signaling in fear and anxiety, but the involvement of these neurotransmitter systems in the behavioral profile of zebrafish is obscure. Here we tested whether the acute exposure to conspecific alarm substance (AS), an experimental protocol that induces fear, alters shoaling behavior, diving response, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and nucleotide hydrolysis in brain tissue of WT and leo...
December 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988417/impacts-of-the-antidepressant-fluoxetine-on-the-anti-predator-behaviours-of-wild-guppies-poecilia-reticulata
#14
Minna Saaristo, Alisha McLennan, Christopher P Johnstone, Bradley O Clarke, Bob B M Wong
Chemical pollution from pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognised as a major threat to aquatic communities. One compound of great concern is fluoxetine, which is one of the most widely prescribed psychoactive drugs in the world and frequently detected in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 28-d fluoxetine exposure at two environmentally relevant levels (measured concentrations: 4ng/L and 16ng/L) on anti-predator behaviour in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata). This was achieved by subjecting fluoxetine-exposed and unexposed guppies to a simulated bird strike and recording their subsequent behavioural responses...
February 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965084/cannabinoid-modulation-of-zebrafish-fear-learning-and-its-functional-analysis-investigated-by-c-fos-expression
#15
Tim Ruhl, Malou Zeymer, Gerhard von der Emde
It has been shown that zebrafish fear learning proceeds in the same way as reported for rodents. However, in zebrafish fear learning it is possible to substitute the use of electric shocks as unconditioned stimulus and utilize the inborn fear responses to the alarm substance Schreckstoff, instead. The skin extract Schreckstoff elicits typical fear reactions such as preferred bottom dwelling, swimming in a tighter shoal, erratic movements and freezing. This natural fear behavior can be transferred from Schreckstoff to any other sensory stimulus by associative conditioning (fear learning)...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951652/multivalent-display-of-antifreeze-proteins-by-fusion-to-self-assembling-protein-cages-enhances-ice-binding-activities
#16
Sean W Phippen, Corey A Stevens, Tyler D R Vance, Neil P King, David Baker, Peter L Davies
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are small monomeric proteins that adsorb to the surface of ice to inhibit ice crystal growth and impart freeze resistance to the organisms producing them. Previously, monomeric AFPs have been conjugated to the termini of branched polymers to increase their activity through the simultaneous binding of more than one AFP to ice. Here, we describe a superior approach to increasing AFP activity through oligomerization that eliminates the need for conjugation reactions with varying levels of efficiency...
December 13, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913993/antifreeze-glycopeptides-from-structure-and-activity-studies-to-current-approaches-in-chemical-synthesis
#17
REVIEW
Małgorzata Urbańczyk, Jerzy Góra, Rafał Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a class of biological antifreeze agents found predominantly in Arctic and Antarctic species of fish. They possess the ability to regulate ice nucleation and ice crystal growth, thus creating viable life conditions at temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids. AFGPs usually consist of 4-55 repetitions of the tripeptide unit Ala-Ala-Thr that is O-glycosylated at the threonine side chains with β-D-galactosyl-(1 → 3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Due to their interesting properties and high antifreeze activity, they have many potential applications, e...
February 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908637/response-of-three-cyprinid-fish-species-to-the-scavenger-deterrent-factor-produced-by-the-mutualistic-bacteria-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes
#18
Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Baris Gulcu, Manickam Raja, Pachiappan Perumal, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan, Harry K Kaya, Selcuk Hazir
The symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively, produce a compound(s) called the Scavenging Deterrent Factor (SDF). SDF deters a number of terrestrial insect scavengers and predators and one bird species from feeding on host insects killed by the nematode-bacterium complex but has not been tested against aquatic vertebrates. Moreover, the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus association is believed to have evolved in an aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777464/sustainable-use-of-silver-warehou-seriollela-punctata-effects-of-storage-processing-conditions-and-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion-on-selected-in-vitro-bioactivities
#19
V Manikkam, M L Mathai, W A Street, O N Donkor, T Vasiljevic
Australian underutilised fish species may serve as a potential source of valuable proteins and potent bioactive peptides. This novel research is the first to investigate the effects of storage-processing conditions and an in-vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin-pancreatin) on bioactive peptides' release during storage of fish fillet, derived from Australian silver warehou (Seriolella punctata). In-vitro bioactivities including angiotensin-converting enzyme and trypsin inhibitory and antioxidant activities were analysed...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761327/greater-than-x-kb-a-quantitative-assessment-of-preservation-conditions-on-genomic-dna-quality-and-a-proposed-standard-for-genome-quality-dna
#20
Daniel G Mulcahy, Kenneth S Macdonald, Seán G Brady, Christopher Meyer, Katharine B Barker, Jonathan Coddington
Advances in biodiversity genomic sequencing will increasingly depend on the availability of DNA samples-and their quantifiable metadata-preserved in large institutional biorepositories that are discoverable to the scientific community. Improvements in sequencing technology constantly provide longer reads, such that longer fragment length, higher molecular weight, and overall "genome-quality" DNA (gDNA) will be desirable. Ideally, biorepositories should publish numerical scale measurements of DNA quality useful to the user community...
2016: PeerJ
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