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gastro enteritis

G Pini, S Bigoni, L Congiu, A M Romanelli, M F Scusa, P Di Marco, A Benincasa, P Morescalchi, A Ferlini, F Bianchi, D Tropea, M Zappella
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder almost exclusively affecting females, characterized by a broad clinical spectrum of signs and symptoms and a peculiar course. The disease affects different body systems: nervous, muscolo-skeletal, gastro-enteric. Moreover, part of the symptoms are related to the involvement of the autonomic nervous system. In the Tuscany Rett Center at Versilia Hospital, we collected data from 151 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of classical or variant RTT syndrome...
September 29, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Nor Rosidah Ibrahim, Tan Hooi Kheng, Ariffin Nasir, Noraida Ramli, Jimmy Lee Kok Foo, Sharifah Huda Syed Alwi, Hans Van Rostenberghe
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether feeding with 2-hourly or 3-hourly feeding interval reduces the time to achieve full enteral feeding and to compare their outcome in very low birthweight preterm infants. DESIGN: Parallel-group randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Two regional tertiary neonatal intensive care units. PATIENTS: 150 preterm infants less than 35 weeks gestation with birth weight between 1...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
M Atie, O Khoma, G Dunn, G L Falk
Oedema can occur in handled tissues following upper gastrointestinal surgery with anastomosis formation. Obstruction of the lumen may result in delayed return of enteric function. Intravenous steroid use may be beneficial. Three cases of delayed emptying following fundoplication, gastro-enteric and entero-enteric anastomoses are reviewed. Conservative management with supportive measures failed. Dexamethasone was administered to treat the oedematous obstruction. A literature review in PubMed, Cochrane database and Medline for English language publications on the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of acute post surgical oedema of the upper gastrointestinal was conducted...
2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
F Gerbe, P Jay
Epithelial tuft cells (also known as "brush" cells in the airway) were first identified morphologically, almost six decades ago in the trachea and gastro-intestinal tract, but their function remained mysterious until three almost simultaneous reports recently revealed their essential role in the initiation of immune type 2 responses. This is a new and exciting example of cooperation between the epithelial and haematopoietic compartments for the management of enteric parasite infections. Here we review tuft cell functions and markers, and anchors epithelial tuft cells within the current paradigm of type 2 immune responses...
November 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Ruiqi Xue, Huan Gu, Yamei Qiu, Yong Guo, Christine Korteweg, Jin Huang, Jiang Gu
CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ezekiel Wong Toh Yoon, Kaori Yoneda, Shinya Nakamura, Kazuki Nishihara
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the method of choice for long-term enteral nutrition, feeding-related adverse events such as aspiration pneumonia and peristomal leakage can impede the use of PEG. Percutaneous endoscopic transgastric jejunostomy (PEG-J) using large-bore jejunal tubes may help by circumventing gastric passage during enteral nutrition and improving drainage of gastric secretions. METHODS: 20 patients (12 males and 8 females) who received PEG-J after unsuccessful PEG feeding during a 6-year period in our institution were analysed retrospectively to evaluate the efficacy of large-bore jejunal feeding tubes in maintaining enteral nutrition...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Ciro Franzese, Luca Cozzi, Davide Franceschini, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Tiziana Comito, Fiorenza De Rose, Pierina Navarria, Pietro Mancosu, Stefano Tomatis, Antonella Fogliata, Marta Scorsetti
AIM: To study clinical outcome for oligometastatic patients (abdominal lymph-node metastases) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients were studied retrospectively. Dose prescription was 45 Gy in six fractions. Clinical outcome was assessed with actuarial analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 1.5 years; 45 patients (63.3%) had solitary metastasis, and 26 (36.6%) had multiple lesions...
August 8, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Paolo Quitadamo, Nikhil Thapar, Annamaria Staiano, Osvaldo Borrelli
The current increasing survival of children with severe central nervous system damage has created a major challenge for medical care. Gastrointestinal and nutritional problems in neurologically impaired children have been recently recognized as an integral part of their disease, often leading to growth failure and worsened quality of life for both children and caregivers. Nutritional support is essential for the optimal care of these children. Undernourished handicapped children might not respond properly to intercurrent diseases and suffer unnecessarily...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Christina I Kosma, Dimitra A Lambropoulou, Triantafyllos A Albanis
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) which include omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole, are extensively used for the relief of gastro-intestinal disorders. Despite their high worldwide consumption, PPIs are extensively metabolized in human bodies and therefore are not regularly detected in monitoring studies. Very recently, however, it has been shown that some omeprazole metabolites may enter and are likely to persist in aquatic environment. Hence, to fully assess the environmental exposures and risks associated with PPIs, it is important to better understand and evaluate the fate and behavior not only of the parent compound but also of their metabolites and their transformation products arising from biotic and abiotic processes (hydrolysis, photodegradation, biodegradation etc...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Dominika Suchecka, Joanna Harasym, Jacek Wilczak, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Protective and antioxidant properties of highly purified oat β-glucans of high and low molecular weight in liver and stomach were evaluated. The novelty in approach was to determine whether dietary β-glucans affect the parameters of oxidative stress directly in the stomach and indirectly in the liver, especially in inflammation states. Physicochemical properties e.g. viscoelastic was found as strictly dependent from molecular weight of oat β-glucans hence its metabolic activity could also show dependence...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Maurice B Pensaert, Paolo Martelli
A retrospect is given on the emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) during the early seventies in Europe. While, at first, it appeared as a disease affecting feeder pigs, fattening- and adult swine, it later also became pathogenic for neonatal and suckling pigs hereby drastically increasing its economic impact. Isolation of the causative virus revealed a new porcine coronavirus, the origin of which has never been clarified. Pathogenesis studies with the prototype strain CV777 showed severe villous atrophy in neonatal pigs and the virus-animal interactions showed many similarities with transmissible gastro-enteritis virus (TGEV), another porcine coronavirus...
June 14, 2016: Virus Research
Khalid Z Matalka, Nada A Abdulridha, Mujtaba M Badr, Kenza Mansoor, Nidal A Qinna, Fadi Qadan
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Loquat) (EJ) has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were performed on the water extract to investigate specific cytokines' modulation. These earlier studies, however, have shown that EJ leaf water extract (WE) and the water phase (WP) induce cytokines' production in in vitro and in vivo models...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mathilde Guerville, Gaëlle Boudry
The human microbiota consists of 100 trillion microorganisms that provide important metabolic and biological functions benefiting the host. However, the presence in host plasma of a gut-derived bacteria component, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been identified as a causal or complicating factor in multiple serious diseases such as sepsis and septic shock and, more recently, obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Understanding the precise mechanisms by which gut-derived LPS is transported from the gut lumen to the systemic circulation is crucial to advance our knowledge of LPS-associated diseases and elaborate targeted strategies for their prevention...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Pierpaolo Correale, Cirino Botta, Elodia Claudio Martino, Cristina Ulivieri, Giuseppe Battaglia, Tommaso Carfagno, Maria Grazia Rossetti, Antonella Fioravanti, Giacomo Maria Guidelli, Sara Cheleschi, Claudia Gandolfo, Francesco Carbone, Tatiana Cosima Baldari, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Luigi Pirtoli, Maria Grazia Cusi
Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a tumor-associated enzyme critical for DNA replication and main 5'-fluorouracil (5'-FU) target. TSPP/VAC1 is a multi-arm trial phase-Ib trial program aimed to investigate the toxicity and biomodulatory activity of a poly-epitope-peptide vaccine to TS (TSPP) in cancer patients (pts). Here, we present the results of the TSPP/VAC1/arm C trial aimed to evaluate TSPP in combination with chemo-immunotherapy in pretreated metastatic colo-rectal cancer (mCRC) pts. Twenty-nine pts, 14 males and 15 females, received poly-chemotherapy with gemcitabine [GEM; 1,000 mg/sqm, day-1], oxaliplatin [OX; 80 mg/sqm, day-2], levofolinate [100 mg/sqm, days 1-2], bolus/infusional 5'-FU [400 mg/800 mg/sqm, days 1-2], sargramostim [50 μg, days 3-7/q30], and interleukin-2 [sc...
April 2016: Oncoimmunology
M Testini, G Piccinni, G Lissidini, A Gurrado, M Tedeschi, I F Franco, G Di Meo, A Pasculli, G M De Luca, M Ribezzi, M Falconi
Pancreato-duodenectomy (PD) is the treatment of choice for periampullary tumors, and currently, indications have been extended to benign disease, including symptomatic chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal pancreatitis, and benign periampullary tumors that are not amenable to conservative surgery. In spite of a significant decrease in mortality in high volume centers over the last three decades (from>20% in the 1980s to<5% today), morbidity remains high, ranging from 30% to 50%. The most common complications are related to the pancreatic remnant, such as postoperative pancreatic fistula, anastomotic dehiscence, abscess, and hemorrhage, and are among the highest of all surgical complications following intra-abdominal gastro-intestinal anastomoses...
June 2016: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Mirjana Andjelkovic, Varvara Tsilia, Andreja Rajkovic, Koen De Cremer, Joris Van Loco
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important aetiological agents of food intoxications in Europe and can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Due to their stability and ease of production and dissemination, some SEs have also been studied as potential agents for bioterrorism. Therefore, specific and accurate analytical tools are required to detect and quantify SEs. Online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect and quantify two types of SE (A and B) spiked in milk and buffer solution...
April 2016: Toxins
Wenqing Su, Anuraag Kansal, Colin Vicente, Baris Deniz, Sujata Sarda
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes significant disability and diminished quality-of-life. Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) is a new oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) approved in the US, Australia, Canada, and Europe. OBJECTIVES: A cost-effectiveness model was developed to compare the health economic impact of DMF against other disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) as first-line RRMS treatment from a Canadian Ministry of Health perspective...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Gabriella Piatti
Human adenoviruses are frequent cause of slight self-limiting infections in immune competent subjects, while causing life-threatening and disseminated diseases in immunocompromised patients, particularly in the subjects affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in bone marrow and organ transplant recipients. Here, infections interest lungs, liver, encephalon, heart, kidney and gastro enteric tract. To date, human adenoviruses comprise 51 serotypes grouped into seven species, among which species C especially possesses the capability to persist in infected tissues...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
João M S de Barros, Adele Costabile, Dimitrios Charalampopoulos, Vitaliy V Khutoryanskiy, Alexander D Edwards
Gastrointestinal (GI) models that mimic physiological conditions in vitro are important tools for developing and optimizing biopharmaceutical formulations. Oral administration of live attenuated bacterial vaccines (LBV) can safely and effectively promote mucosal immunity but new formulations are required that provide controlled release of optimal numbers of viable bacterial cells, which must survive gastrointestinal transit overcoming various antimicrobial barriers. Here, we use a gastro-small intestine gut model of human GI conditions to study the survival and release kinetics of two oral LBV formulations: the licensed typhoid fever vaccine Vivotif comprising enteric coated capsules; and an experimental formulation of the model vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium SL3261 dried directly onto cast enteric polymer films and laminated to form a polymer film laminate (PFL)...
May 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Carmen D Rietdijk, Lydia de Haan, Richard J A van Wezel, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a complex network of neurons in the gut, regulating many local, vital functions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The ENS is also part of the bidirectional gut-brain axis. The murine immorto fetal enteric neuronal (IM-FEN) cell line was chosen as a model to study enteric neurons. This cell line can be differentiated into cells with a neuronal phenotype, although they do not produce action potentials in vitro. It was concluded that the differentiation process in our laboratory was successful, based on positive staining for neuronal proteins...
February 24, 2016: Cytotechnology
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