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gastro enteritis

Mei Ling Lim, Bei Yi Paulynn Yong, Mei Qi Maggie Mar, Shin Yuh Ang, Mei Mei Chan, Madeleine Lam, Ngian Choo Janet Chong, Violeta Lopez
BACKGROUND: The number of patients on home enteral nutrition (HEN) is on the increase due to advancement in technology and shift in focus of providing care from acute to community care settings. AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences of community nurses and home carers, in caring for patients on HEN. METHODS: A mixed-method approach was adopted. (i) A face-to-face survey design was used to elicit experience of carers of patients on HEN...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Iddo Vardi, Ortal Barel, Michal Sperber, Michael Schvimer, Moran Nunberg, Michael Field, Jodie Ouahed, Dina Marek-Yagel, Lael Werner, Yael Haberman, Avishay Lahad, Yair Anikster, Gideon Rechavi, Iris Barshack, Joshua J McElwee, Joseph Maranville, Raz Somech, Scott B Snapper, Batia Weiss, Dror S Shouval
BACKGROUND: Advances in genomics have facilitated the discovery of monogenic disorders in patients with unique gastro-intestinal phenotypes. Syndromic diarrhea, also called tricho-hepato-enteric (THE) syndrome, results from deleterious mutations in SKIV2L or TTC37 genes. The main features of this disorder are intractable diarrhea, abnormal hair, facial dysmorphism, immunodeficiency and liver disease. AIM: To report on a patient with THE syndrome and present the genetic analysis that facilitated diagnosis...
February 26, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Ryo Inoue, Saori Kashiwagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Saeko Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Okayama, Osamu Dohi, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Takeshi Ishikawa, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Kayo Okuda, Yoshimasa Tsujimoto, Hiromu Ohnogi, Yoshito Itoh
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat gastro-esophageal reflux and prevent gastric ulcers, and have been considered as low risk. However, recent studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and gut microbiota, suggesting that PPIs use increases the risk of enteric infections, including Clostridium difficile infection. To investigate gut microbiota in Japanese PPIs users, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from PPI users and healthy adults. In total, 36 PPI users and 36 PPI non-users (as control subjects) matched by age and sex were recruited and fecal samples were obtained to analyze the gut microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Soma Kumar, Jose Antonio Quiros, Keshawadhana Balakrishnan, Bradley Barth, Samuel Bitton, John F Eisses, Elsie Jazmin Foglio, Victor Fox, Denease Francis, Alvin Jay Freeman, Tanja Gonska, Amit S Grover, Sohail Z Husain, Rakesh Kumar, Sameer Lapsia, Tom Lin, Quin Y Liu, Asim Maqbool, Zachary M Sellers, Flora Szabo, Aliye Uc, Steven L Werlin, Veronique D Morinville
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) in children is increasing, management recommendations rely on adult published guidelines. Pediatric-specific recommendations are needed. METHODS: The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Pancreas committee performed a MEDLINE review using several preselected key terms relating to management considerations in adult and pediatric AP. The literature was summarized, quality of evidence reviewed, and statements of recommendations developed...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Panagiotis Barmpalexis, Agni Grypioti
The present study describes the development of a new esomeprazole (ESO) delayed release gastro-resistant formulation with improved storage stability. A three step (drug-, sub(seal)- and enteric-) coating process was employed with the aid of a fluid bed coater. Several formulation factors (namely size and quantity of starting non-pareil sugar spheres, binder quantity during drug-layering, sub(seal)-coating polymer type and quantity and enteric coating quantity) were evaluated and the whole process was modelled with the aid of feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANNs)...
December 27, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Sarah Denayer, Laurence Delbrassinne, Yacine Nia, Nadine Botteldoorn
Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Reported enterotoxin dose levels causing food-borne illness are scarce and varying. Three food poisoning outbreaks due to enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains which occurred in 2013 in Belgium are described. The outbreaks occurred in an elderly home, at a barbecue event and in a kindergarten and involved 28, 18, and six cases, respectively...
December 20, 2017: Toxins
Diego Florez-Cuadrado, María Ugarte-Ruiz, Guillaume Meric, Alberto Quesada, M C Porrero, Ben Pascoe, Jose L Sáez-Llorente, Gema L Orozco, Lucas Domínguez, Samuel K Sheppard
Pathogens in the genus Campylobacter are the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. Campylobacteriosis, caused principally by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli , is transmitted to humans by food of animal origin, especially poultry. As for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasing at an alarming rate. Erythromycin prescription is the treatment of choice for clinical cases requiring antimicrobial therapy but this is compromised by mobility of the erythromycin resistance gene erm (B) between strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
William Jm McFadzean, Edward J Hall, Hugo van Oostrom
OBJECTIVE: The effect of premedication with butorphanol or methadone on ease of endoscopic duodenal intubation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. ANIMALS: A group of 20 client-owned dogs. METHODS: Dogs were assigned randomly to be administered intravenous (IV) premedication with either butorphanol (0.4 mg kg-1 ) or methadone (0.3 mg kg-1 ). General anaesthesia was induced with propofol to effect and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen...
November 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Tetsuro Akashi, Kazuhide Matsumoto, Risa Hashimoto
Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is a common and serious complication in patients receiving enteral nutrition, making continuation of enteral nutrition difficult. Semi-solid enteral nutrients were developed to prevent feeding-related GER. Semi-solid enteral nutrients have high viscosity and, therefore, are typically administered through a large-diameter percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Recently, a new formula (Mermed® , Mermed Plus® ) was introduced that uses alginate, which behaves like a gelatin in acidic conditions...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
Elvia Johanna Osegueda de Rodríguez, Antonio Carlos Hernández-Villegas, Aurora Elizabeth Serralde-Zúñiga, Ana Luz Del Carmen Reyes-Ramírez
INTRODUCTION: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is a rare condition characterized by vascular compression of the duodenum. There is controversy regarding the optimal treatment. CASE REPORT: In case 1, we describe the case of a 21-year-old woman (body mass index -BMI- 16.9 kg/m2) with high-level obstructive symptoms three months prior, with computed tomography scan (TC) showing a superior mesenteric artery aorta angle (SMAA) of 13º and compression of the third portion of the duodenum (D3), for this reason a nasojejunal tube was placed for enteral feeding...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Danielle E Bear, Alice Champion, Katie Lei, Luigi Camporota, Nicholas A Barrett
Post-pyloric feeding is recommended in critically ill patients with gastro-intestinal intolerance. However, traditional placement methods are logistically difficult and carry potential risks. The authors retrospectively compared the position of post-pyloric feeding tubes (PPFTs) using an electromagnetic device that demonstrated by X-ray and analysed the complication rates, proportion of lung placements avoided and the time taken to establish enteral feeding. Forty placements in 37 mechanically ventilated patients were analysed; there was a success rate of 87...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Rajalakshmi Iyer, Karthi Nallasamy
Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Thangaraj Abiramalatha, Niranjan Thomas, Vijay Gupta, Anand Viswanathan, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: Breast milk alone, given at standard recommended volumes (150 to 180 mL/kg/d), is not adequate to meet the protein, energy, and other nutrient requirements of growing preterm or low birth weight infants. One strategy that may be used to address these potential nutrient deficits is to give infants enteral feeds in excess of 200 mL/kg/d ('high-volume' feeds). This approach may increase nutrient uptake and growth rates, but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Soma Kumar, J Antonio Quiros, Keshawadhana Balakrishnan, Bradley Barth, Samuel Bitton, John F Eisses, Elsie Jazmin Foglio, Victor Fox, Denease Francis, A Jay Freeman, Tanja Gonska, Amit S Grover, Sohail Z Husain, Rakesh Kumar, Sameer Lapsia, Tom Lin, Quin Y Liu, Asim Maqbool, Zachary M Sellers, Flora Szabo, Aliye Uc, Steven L Werlin, Veronique D Morinville
BACKGROUND: While the incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) in children is increasing, management recommendations rely on adult published guidelines. Pediatric-specific recommendations are needed. METHODS: The NASPGHAN Pancreas committee performed a MEDLINE review using several pre-selected key terms relating to management considerations in adult and pediatric AP. The literature was summarized, quality of evidence reviewed, and statements of recommendations developed...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Hylke J F Brenkman, Nicole I van der Wielen, Jelle P Ruurda, Maarten S van Leeuwen, Joris J G Scheepers, Donald L van der Peet, Richard van Hillegersberg, Ronald L A W Bleys, Miguel A Cuesta
BACKGROUND: It is imperative for surgeons to have a proper knowledge of the omental bursa in order to perform an adequate dissection during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study aimed to describe (1) the various approaches which can be used to enter the bursa and to perform a complete lymphadenectomy, (2) the boundaries and anatomical landmarks of the omental bursa as seen during MIS, and (3) whether a bursectomy should be performed for oncological reasons in upper GI cancer...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Gijs H Berkelmans, Frans van Workum, Teus J Weijs, Grard A Nieuwenhuijzen, Jelle P Ruurda, Ewout A Kouwenhoven, Marc J van Det, Camiel Rosman, Richard van Hillegersberg, Misha D Luyer
Enhanced recovery programs effectively optimize perioperative care and reduce postoperative morbidity. In esophagectomy, several components of the ERAS program are successfully introduced. However, timing and type of postoperative feeding remain a matter of debate. Adequate nutritional support is essential in patients undergoing an esophagectomy. These patients often present with weight loss and their eating pattern is strongly altered by the procedure and reconstruction. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with severe septic complications and enteral nutrition (EN) does not increase major complications...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Vicente Pérez Díaz, Sandra Sanz Ballesteros, Esther Hernández García, Elena Descalzo Casado, Irene Herguedas Callejo, Cristina Ferrer Perales
The measure of intraperitoneal pressure in peritoneal dialysis is easy and provides clear therapeutic benefits. However it is measured only rarely in adult peritoneal dialysis units. This review aims to disseminate the usefulness of measuring intraperitoneal pressure. This measurement is performed in supine before initiating the drain of a manual exchange with "Y" system, by raising the drain bag and measuring from the mid-axillary line the height of the liquid column that rises from the patient. With typical values of 10-16 cmH2O, intraperitoneal pressure should never exceed 18 cmH2O...
July 21, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Thadiyam Puram Ramees, Kuldeep Dhama, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ramswaroop Singh Rathore, Ashok Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Arcobacter has emerged as an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen, causing sometimes serious infections in humans and animals. Newer species of Arcobacter are being incessantly emerging (presently 25 species have been identified) with novel information on the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic diversity among different Arcobacter species. These have been reported from chickens, domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs), reptiles (lizards, snakes and chelonians), meat (poultry, pork, goat, lamb, beef, rabbit), vegetables and from humans in different countries...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
Julian Cheron, Jacques Deviere, Frederic Supiot, Asuncion Ballarin, Pierre Eisendrath, Emmanuel Toussaint, Vincent Huberty, Carmen Musala, Daniel Blero, Arnaud Lemmers, André Van Gossum, Marianna Arvanitakis
BACKGROUND: Continuous delivery to the jejunum of levodopa-carbidopa is a promising therapy in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, as it reduces motor fluctuation. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and jejunal tube (PEG-J) placement is a suitable option for this. However, studies focused in PEG-J management are lacking. OBJECTIVES: We report our experience regarding this technique, including technical success, adverse events and outcomes, in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease...
February 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
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