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Jennifer Hawley, Tal Yaaran, Sarah Maurice, Michael R Lappin
We compared a qualitative in-clinic (IC)-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma haemofelis DNA with the results of a commercial qualitative laboratory-based, conventional (c)PCR. In order to determine the specificity of both tests, Bartonella spp. samples were included. Forty-three previously tested blood samples with known PCR results for hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. were selected. The samples were split between 2 laboratories. At the first laboratory, DNA was purified and run on 2 cPCR assays for the detection of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Fernando Henrique Antunes Murata, Marina Neves Ferreira, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco Spegiorin, Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Ricardo Gava, Aparecida Perpétuo Silveira-Carvalho, Luiz Carlos de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos
Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can have severe consequences. The use of sensitive and specific serological and molecular methods is extremely important for the correct diagnosis of the disease. We compared the ELISA and ELFA serological methods, conventional PCR (cPCR), Nested PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women without clinical suspicion of toxoplasmosis (G1=94) and with clinical suspicion of toxoplasmosis (G2=53). The results were compared using the Kappa index, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated...
June 17, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
P Ikeda, M C Seki, A O T Carrasco, L V Rudiak, J M D Miranda, S M M Gonçalves, E G L Hoppe, A C A Albuquerque, M M G Teixeira, C E Passos, K Werther, R Z Machado, M R André
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals' species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil...
July 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo, Silvia Maria Di Santi, Wilson Gómez Manrique, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
BACKGROUND: Considering the diversity of feeding habits that females of some species of anophelines present, it is important to understand which vertebrates are part of blood food sources and how important is the role of each in the ecoepidemiology of malaria. There are many vector species for Plasmodium spp. in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. In São Luís Island, Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector for human malaria; this species is abundant in areas with primates that are positive for Plasmodium...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Sneha Sudhakara, Anju Chadha
Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330, a rich source of highly stereospecific oxidoreductases, catalyzes oxidation-reduction of a plethora of compounds yielding industrially important intermediates. An (S)-specific carbonyl reductase (SRED) purified and characterized from this yeast is reported here. (R)-Specific carbonyl reductase (CpCR) was reported by us earlier. SRED asymmetrically reduces ketones with excellent enantiospecificity (ee > 99%) and α-ketoesters with higher catalytic activity but moderate enantiospecificity (ee 70%) in the presence of NADPH...
May 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Julia Cristina Benassi, Graziella U Benvenga, Helena Lage Ferreira, Vanessa F Pereira, Lara B Keid, Rodrigo Soares, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira
Although some studies have investigated the potential role of cats as a reservoir for Leishmania, their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still poorly understood. Molecular diagnostic techniques are an important tool in VL diagnosis, and PCR shows high sensitivity and specificity for Leishmania spp. detection. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a method that permits quantitative analysis of a large number of samples, resulting in more sensitive, accurate, and reproducible measurements of specific DNA present in the sample...
June 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Rebecca J Stoll, Grace R Thompson, Mohammad D Samy, George Blanck
Human mutagenesis is largely random, thus large coding regions, simply on the basis of probability, represent relatively large mutagenesis targets. Thus, we considered the possibility that large cytoskeletal-protein related coding regions (CPCRs), including extra-cellular matrix (ECM) coding regions, would have systemic nucleotide variants that are not present in common SNP databases. Presumably, such variants arose recently in development or in recent, preceding generations. Using matched breast cancer and blood-derived normal datasets from the cancer genome atlas, CPCR single nucleotide variants (SNVs) not present in the All SNPs(142) or 1000 Genomes databases were identified...
February 2017: Biomedical Reports
Pavlo Maksimov, Gereon Schares, Sebastian Press, Andreas Fröhlich, Walter Basso, Mandy Herzig, Franz J Conraths
Effective and sensitive methods for the molecular detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in faecal samples of final hosts are crucial for the prevention and control of human alveolar echinococcosis and for studies on the epidemiology of the parasite. Little is known about the suitability of commercial test kits for isolating DNA of E. multilocularis from fox faeces and the performance of standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocols in relation to the quality of DNA extracted by these kits. We compared four different kits: ZR Faecal DNA MiniPrep™ (Zymo Research), FastDNA(®) SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals), QIAamp(®) Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN) and NucleoSpin(®) Soil Kit (Macherey-Nagel) for the extraction of DNA from E...
February 24, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Sharon C Clouthier, Carol McClure, Tamara Schroeder, Megan Desai, Laura Hawley, Sunita Khatkar, Melissa Lindsay, Geoff Lowe, Jon Richard, Eric D Anderson
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease in koi and common carp. The disease is notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Three tests-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), conventional PCR (cPCR) and virus isolation by cell culture (VI)-were validated to assess their fitness as diagnostic tools for detection of CyHV-3. Test performance metrics of diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp). Repeatability and reproducibility were measured to assess diagnostic precision...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
John M Yavorski, George Blanck
Cancer from smoking tobacco is considered dependent on mutagens, but significant molecular aspects of smoking-specific, cancer development remain unknown. We defined sets of coding regions for oncoproteins, tumor suppressor proteins, and cytoskeletal-related proteins that were compared between nonsmokers and smokers, for mutation occurrences, in the lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC), bladder carcinoma (BLCA), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma ( PAAD) datasets from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA)...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
Marwa A Ghieth, Magd A Kotb, Enas Y Abu-Sarea, Ayman A El-Badry
Giardiasis is a prevailing intestinal disease in children. This study aimed to determine molecular prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in children attending Cairo University Pediatrics Hospitals, using copro-PCR assays, conventional methods and to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of used tests. 229 fecal samples were collected from children suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and examined for Giardia by microscopy, Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), copro-DNA using two PCR assays targeting tpi [nested-PCR (nPCR)] and 18S [conventional-PCR (cPCR)] genes...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Rodrigo C Silva, Virgínia B Richini-Pereira, Mariana Kikuti, Pâmela M Marson, Helio Langoni
BACKGROUND: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum around the world. Canids are the definitive hosts and sand flies the intermediate hosts. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a new species-specific primers (Lch14:Lch15, targeting a multiple alignment for L. infantum kDNA minicircle) is an efficient diagnostic tool for L. infantum. METHODS: The presence of L. infantum DNA was assessed in blood samples of 69 stray dogs using the conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
Carolina Hernández, Zulma Cucunubá, Carolina Flórez, Mario Olivera, Carlos Valencia, Pilar Zambrano, Cielo León, Juan David Ramírez
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tegene Negesse, Chander Datt, S S Kundu
A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collection. Heifers were grouped into low (RFI-I) and high (RFI-II) feed efficiency groups by regressing DMI (g head(-1) day(-1)) on BWG (g head(-1) day(-1)) and mid-test MBW (kg). RFI-II heifers had slightly higher DMI (g head(-1) day(-1) and expressed per unit of BW, %BW, MBW, mid-test BW, and mid-test MBW) and all associated nutrient intakes, BWG, feed efficiency traits (FCR, CPCR), digestibility of nutrients, and retentions of crude protein and fat over RFI-I heifers...
December 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Candice Sant, Roger d'Abadie, Indira Pargass, Asoke K Basu, Zinora Asgarali, Roxanne A Charles, Karla C Georges
Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi is endemic in Trinidad and Tobago. Transmission occurs by ticks of the family Ixodidae. T. equi can also be transmitted transplacentally; however transplacental transmission of B. caballi is unknown. This study aims to investigate transplacental transmission of equine piroplasmosis from thoroughbred mares naturally infected via the tick vector. Whole blood and serum samples were collected from 117 mares in the fifth month of pregnancy. Blood samples were also collected from each of their foals (89 in total) within the first 36h of birth...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
R Ryan McNally, Carol A Ishimaru, Dean K Malvick
Goss's leaf blight and wilt of maize (corn) is a significant and reemerging disease caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. Despite its importance, molecular tools for diagnosing and studying this disease remain limited. We report the identification of CMN_01184 as a novel gene target and its use in conventional PCR (cPCR) and SYBR green-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for specific detection and quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. The cPCR and qPCR assays based on primers targeting CMN_01184 specifically amplified only C...
December 2016: Phytopathology
Shahram Bolandparvaz, Hamid Mohajer, Mansoor Masjedi, Ehsan Mohammadhoseini, Leila Shayan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between the success rates of the cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) and the team's leader education and skill level in Shiraz, southern Iran. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 6-month period from October 2007 to March 2008 in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz. We included all the patients who underwent CPCR due to cardiopulmonary arrest in emergency room of Nemazee hospital during the study period...
October 2015: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Jinfeng Wang, Wei Ma, Yuping Xie, Peilin Hui, Lijun Zhao, Xiaoquan Wei, Liya Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the curative effect of continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) combined with modified oral appliance (MOA) in the treatment of severe OSAHS. METHOD: The research chose 120 male patients with severe OSAHS. They were treated with CPAP and MOA (30 cases), CPAP (30 cases), and MOA (30 cases) respectively. At the same time, the rest 30 cases without any treatment were in control group (matching factors: age, gender, IBM). After 3 months treatment, the characteristics of PSG and respiratory machine wear condition were observated in four groups...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Shinichiro Mori, Takuji Furukawa
To shorten treatment time in pencil beam scanning irradiation, we developed rapid phase-controlled rescanning (rPCR), which irradiates two or more isoenergy layers in a single gating window. Here, we evaluated carbon-ion beam dose distribution with rapid and conventional PCR (cPCR). 4 dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) imaging was performed on 12 subjects with lung or liver tumors. To compensate for intrafractional range variation, the field-specific target volume (FTV) was calculated using 4DCT within the gating window (T20-T80)...
May 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jung Lo, Po-Chiung Fang, Chun-Chih Chien, Chang-Chun Hsiao, Shin-Ling Tseng, Yu-Hsuan Lai, Ming-Tse Kuo
PURPOSE: To develop a PCR gel analysis method for assessing the bacterial bioburden in orthokeratology contact lens (OK) case fluid determined by culture. METHODS: A prospective study with the participation of 41 OK wearers (20 girls, 21 boys) was performed. The mean OK-wearing experience was 3.5±1.9 years. PCR was used to assess the bacterial bioburden (colony-forming units per milliliter) of OK after removal and soaking in the storage case for 6 h. The signal intensity of the PCR bands was analyzed after grayscale image transformation...
2016: Molecular Vision
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