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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725768/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-and-%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-do-not-affect-tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-myofibroblast-differentiation
#1
Bram Piersma, Olaf Y Wouters, Ruud A Bank
Mechanosensing of fibroblasts plays a key role in the development of fibrosis. So far, no effective treatments are available to treat this devastating disorder. Spectrins regulate cell morphology and are potential mechanosensors in a variety of non-erythroid cells, but little is known about the role of spectrins in fibroblasts. We investigate whether αII- and βII-spectrin are required for the phenotypic properties of adult human dermal (myo)fibroblasts. Knockdown of αII- or βII-spectrin in fibroblasts did not affect cell adhesion, cell size and YAP nuclear/cytosolic localization...
May 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723037/celecoxib-treatment-improves-muscle-function-in-mdx-mice-and-increases-utrophin-a-expression
#2
Christine Péladeau, Nadine J Adam, Bernard J Jasmin
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic and progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations and deletions in the dystrophin gene. Although there is currently no cure, one promising treatment for DMD is aimed at increasing endogenous levels of utrophin A to compensate functionally for the lack of dystrophin. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that heparin treatment of mdx mice activates p38 MAPK, leading to an upregulation of utrophin A expression and improvements in the dystrophic phenotype...
May 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720572/endospanin-2-enhances-skeletal-muscle-energy-metabolism-and-running-endurance-capacity
#3
Steve Lancel, Matthijs Kc Hesselink, Estelle Woldt, Yves Rouillé, Emilie Dorchies, Stephane Delhaye, Christian Duhem, Quentin Thorel, Alicia Mayeuf-Louchart, Benoit Pourcet, Valérie Montel, Gert Schaart, Nicolas Beton, Florence Picquet, Olivier Briand, Jean Pierre Salles, Hélène Duez, Patrick Schrauwen, Bruno Bastide, Bernard Bailleul, Bart Staels, Yasmine Sebti
Metabolic stresses such as dietary energy restriction or physical activity exert beneficial metabolic effects. In the liver, endospanin-1 and endospanin-2 cooperatively modulate calorie restriction-mediated (CR-mediated) liver adaptations by controlling growth hormone sensitivity. Since we found CR to induce endospanin protein expression in skeletal muscle, we investigated their role in this tissue. In vivo and in vitro endospanin-2 triggers ERK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle through an autophagy-dependent pathway...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704886/physiological-role-of-kv%C3%AE-2-akr6-in-murine-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-regulation
#4
Kalyan C Chapalamadugu, Jared Tur, Sachin L Badole, Rakesh C Kukreja, Marco Brotto, Srinivas M Tipparaju
AIM: Potassium channel accessory subunits (Kvβ) play a key role in cardiac electrical activity through ion channel modulation. In the present study we hypothesize that Kvβ2 regulates skeletal muscle growth and fiber phenotype via protein-protein interactions. METHODS: Kvβ2 knockout mouse model was used for morphometric, immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis to evaluate the role of Kvβ2 in skeletal muscle physiology. RESULTS: Deletion of Kvβ2 gene in mice (Kvβ2 knockout, KO) leads to significant decrease in body weight along with skeletal muscle size...
April 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582107/effects-of-stimulus-pair-orientation-and-hand-switching-on-reaction-time-estimates-of-interhemispheric-transfer
#5
Yanick Leblanc-Sirois, Claude M J Braun, Jonathan Elie-Fortier
Two behavioral estimates of interhemispheric transfer time, the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) and the unilateral field advantage (UFA), are thought to, respectively, index transfer of premotor and visual information across the corpus callosum in neurotypical participants. However, no attempt to manipulate visual and motor contingencies in a set of tasks while measuring the CUD and the UFA has yet been reported. In two go/no-go comparison experiments, stimulus pair orientations were manipulated. The hand of response changed after each correct response in the second, but not the first experiment...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514634/multi-tissue-transcriptomic-study-reveals-the-main-role-of-liver-in-the-chicken-adaptive-response-to-a-switch-in-dietary-energy-source-through-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-lipogenesis
#6
C Desert, E Baéza, M Aite, M Boutin, A Le Cam, J Montfort, M Houee-Bigot, Y Blum, P F Roux, C Hennequet-Antier, C Berri, S Metayer-Coustard, A Collin, S Allais, E Le Bihan, D Causeur, F Gondret, M J Duclos, S Lagarrigue
BACKGROUND: Because the cost of cereals is unstable and represents a large part of production charges for meat-type chicken, there is an urge to formulate alternative diets from more cost-effective feedstuff. We have recently shown that meat-type chicken source is prone to adapt to dietary starch substitution with fat and fiber. The aim of this study was to better understand the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to changes in dietary energy sources through the fine characterization of transcriptomic changes occurring in three major metabolic tissues - liver, adipose tissue and muscle - as well as in circulating blood cells...
March 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513796/morphological-changes-in-rat-rectus-abdominis-muscle-induced-by-diabetes-and-pregnancy
#7
G Vesentini, G Marini, F Piculo, D C Damasceno, S M M Matheus, S L Felisbino, I M P Calderon, A Hijaz, A M P Barbosa, M V C Rudge
The urethral muscle of diabetic pregnant rats is affected by long-term mild diabetes and short-term severe diabetes, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pelvic floor disorders. We hypothesized that muscles outside the pelvis are subject to similar changes. The current study aimed at analyzing the effects of long-term mild and short-term severe diabetes on the structure and ultrastructure of fiber muscles and collagen in rats' rectus abdominis (RA) muscle. Therefore, the RA muscle of virgin, pregnant, long-term mild diabetic, short-term severe diabetic, long-term mild diabetic pregnant and short-term severe diabetic pregnant 3-month-old Wistar rats were collected...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510086/the-primary-cause-of-muscle-disfunction-associated-with-substitutions-e240k-and-r244g-in-tropomyosin-is-aberrant-behavior-of-tropomyosin-and-response-of-actin-and-myosin-during-atpase-cycle
#8
Armen O Simonyan, Vladimir V Sirenko, Olga E Karpicheva, Katarzyna Robaszkiewicz, Małgorzata Śliwinska, Joanna Moraczewska, Zoya I Krutetskaya, Yurii S Borovikov
Using the polarized photometry technique we have studied the effects of two amino acid replacements, E240K and R244G, in tropomyosin (Tpm1.1) on the position of Tpm1.1 on troponin-free actin filaments and the spatial arrangement of actin monomers and myosin heads at various mimicked stages of the ATPase cycle in the ghost muscle fibres. E240 and R244 are located in the C-terminal, seventh actin-binding period, in f and b positions of the coiled-coil heptapeptide repeat. Actin, Tpm1.1, and myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were fluorescently labeled: 1...
April 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339694/aortic-%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-expressions-in-aortic-disorders-and-coronary-artery-disease-an-immunohistochemical-study
#9
Shi Min Yuan, Ning Wu
OBJECTIVE: The is to report immunohistochemical observations of aortic α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expressions in patients with aortic aneurysm, acute aortic dissection, and coronary artery disease and to discuss phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of these lesions. METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive patients scheduled for surgical treatment for acute type A aortic dissection (20 patients), aortic aneurysm (9 patients), and coronary artery disease (20 patients) were included...
January 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229558/enhanced-activities-of-%C3%AE-subunit-containing-gaba-a-receptors-blocked-spinal-long-term-potentiation-and-attenuated-formalin-induced-spontaneous-pain
#10
Jiang-Ping Liu, Yong-Tao He, Xing-Lian Duan, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
The δ subunit-containing γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are located at extrasynaptic sites and persistently active in the control of neuronal excitability. Here we recorded primary afferent C fiber-evoked field potentials in the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cords in vivo and investigated the possible influence of δ-GABAA Rs activities on nociceptive synaptic transmission. We found that δ-GABAA Rs-preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolol [4,5-c] pyridine-3-ol (THIP), when topically applied onto spinal cord dorsum, inhibited the basal synaptic responses in a dose-dependent manner...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222951/neuronal-pas-domain-protein-4-npas4-controls-neuronal-homeostasis-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-through-the-induction-of-homer1a
#11
Wei Shan, Taku Nagai, Motoki Tanaka, Norimichi Itoh, Yoko Furukawa-Hibi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Masahiro Sokabe, Kiyofumi Yamada
Neuronal intrinsic homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapse has been implicated in epilepsy pathogenesis to prevent the neuronal circuits from hyperexcitability. Recent findings suggest a role for neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), an activity-dependent neuron-specific transcription factor in epileptogenesis, however, the underlying mechanism by which Npas4 regulates epilepsy remains unclear. We herein propose that limbic seizure activity up-regulates Npas4-homer1a signaling in the hippocampus, thereby contributing to epileptogenesis in mice...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211998/tropomyosin-must-interact-weakly-with-actin-to-effectively-regulate-thin-filament-function
#12
Michael J Rynkiewicz, Thavanareth Prum, Stephen Hollenberg, Farooq A Kiani, Patricia M Fagnant, Steven B Marston, Kathleen M Trybus, Stefan Fischer, Jeffrey R Moore, William Lehman
Elongated tropomyosin, associated with actin-subunits along the surface of thin filaments, makes electrostatic interactions with clusters of conserved residues, K326, K328, and R147, on actin. The association is weak, permitting low-energy cost regulatory movement of tropomyosin across the filament during muscle activation. Interestingly, acidic D292 on actin, also evolutionarily conserved, lies adjacent to the three-residue cluster of basic amino acids and thus may moderate the combined local positive charge, diminishing tropomyosin-actin interaction and facilitating regulatory-switching...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165030/in-mammalian-skeletal-muscle-phosphorylation-of-tomm22-by-protein-kinase-csnk2-ck2-controls-mitophagy
#13
Bojana Kravic, Angelika B Harbauer, Vanina Romanello, Luca Simeone, F-Nora Vögtle, Tobias Kaiser, Marion Straubinger, Danyil Huraskin, Martin Böttcher, Cristina Cerqua, Eva Denise Martin, Daniel Poveda-Huertes, Andreas Buttgereit, Adam J Rabalski, Dieter Heuss, Rüdiger Rudolf, Oliver Friedrich, David Litchfield, Michael Marber, Leonardo Salviati, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Winfried Neuhuber, Marco Sandri, Chris Meisinger, Said Hashemolhosseini
In yeast, Tom22, the central component of the TOMM (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane) receptor complex, is responsible for the recognition and translocation of synthesized mitochondrial precursor proteins, and its protein kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation is mandatory for TOMM complex biogenesis and proper mitochondrial protein import. In mammals, the biological function of protein kinase CSNK2/CK2 remains vastly elusive and it is unknown whether CSNK2-dependent phosphorylation of TOMM protein subunits has a similar role as that in yeast...
2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162797/3d-collagen-architecture-induces-a-conserved-migratory-and-transcriptional-response-linked-to-vasculogenic-mimicry
#14
D O Velez, B Tsui, T Goshia, C L Chute, A Han, H Carter, S I Fraley
The topographical organization of collagen within the tumor microenvironment has been implicated in modulating cancer cell migration and independently predicts progression to metastasis. Here, we show that collagen matrices with small pores and short fibers, but not Matrigel, trigger a conserved transcriptional response and subsequent motility switch in cancer cells resulting in the formation of multicellular network structures. The response is not mediated by hypoxia, matrix stiffness, or bulk matrix density, but rather by matrix architecture-induced β1-integrin upregulation...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154423/the-contractile-adaption-to-preload-depends-on-the-amount-of-afterload
#15
Hanna Schotola, Samuel T Sossalla, André Renner, Jan Gummert, Bernhard C Danner, Peter Schott, Karl Toischer
AIMS: The Frank-Starling mechanism (rapid response (RR)) and the secondary slow response (SR) are known to contribute to increases contractile performance. The contractility of the heart muscle is influenced by pre-load and after-load. Because of the effect of pre-load vs. after-load on these mechanisms in not completely understood, we studied the effect in isolated muscle strips. METHODS AND RESULTS: Progressive stretch lead to an increase in shortening/force development under isotonic (only pre-load) and isometric conditions (pre- and after-load)...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146687/exercise-induces-muscle-fiber-type-switching-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-dependent-ca-2-signaling
#16
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber-type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0° for 60 min for 5 consecutive days/wk for 4 wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2-knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca2+ signals when compared with wild-type (WT) mice due to a defect in Ca2+ influx...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104506/skeletal-muscle-specific-overexpression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-induces-fiber-type-conversion-through-enhanced-mitochondrial-respiration-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-mice-and-pigs
#17
Lin Zhang, Ying Zhou, Wangjun Wu, Liming Hou, Hongxing Chen, Bo Zuo, Yuanzhu Xiong, Jinzeng Yang
Individual skeletal muscles in the animal body are heterogeneous, as each is comprised of different fiber types. Type I muscle fibers are rich with mitochondria, and have high oxidative metabolisms while type IIB fibers have few mitochondria and high glycolytic metabolic capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional co-activator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function, is implicated in muscle fiber-type switching. Over-expression of PGC-1α in transgenic mice increased the proportion of red/oxidative type I fiber...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089450/mark3-mediated-phosphorylation-of-arhgef2-couples-microtubules-to-the-actin-cytoskeleton-to-establish-cell-polarity
#18
María-José Sandí, Christopher B Marshall, Marc Balan, Étienne Coyaud, Ming Zhou, Daniel M Monson, Noboru Ishiyama, Arun A Chandrakumar, José La Rose, Amber L Couzens, Anne-Claude Gingras, Brian Raught, Wei Xu, Mitsuhiko Ikura, Deborah K Morrison, Robert Rottapel
The PAR-1-MARK pathway controls cell polarity through the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins. Rho-Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (ARHGEF2), which activates Ras homolog family member A (RHOA), is anchored to the microtubule network and sequestered in an inhibited state through binding to dynein light chain Tctex-1 type 1 (DYNLT1). We showed in mammalian cells that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activated the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3 (MARK3), which in turn phosphorylated ARHGEF2 at Ser(151) This modification disrupted the interaction between ARHGEF2 and DYNLT1 by generating a 14-3-3 binding site in ARHGEF2, thus causing ARHGEF2 to dissociate from microtubules...
October 31, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067009/an-investigation-into-rumen-fungal-and-protozoal-diversity-in-three-rumen-fractions-during-high-fiber-or-grain-induced-sub-acute-ruminal-acidosis-conditions-with-or-without-active-dry-yeast-supplementation
#19
Suzanne L Ishaq, Ousama AlZahal, Nicola Walker, Brian McBride
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041069/generation-of-vector-dissipative-and-conventional-solitons-in-large-normal-dispersion-regime
#20
Ling Yun
We report the generation of both polarization-locked vector dissipative soliton and group velocity-locked vector conventional soliton in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber ring laser with large normal dispersion, for the first time to our best knowledge. Depending on the polarization-depended extinction ratio of the fiber-based Lyot filter, the two types of vector solitons can be switched by simply tuning the polarization controller. In the case of low filter extinction ratio, the output vector dissipative soliton exhibits steep spectral edges and strong frequency chirp, which presents a typical pulse duration of ~23...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
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