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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146687/exercise-induces-muscle-fiber-type-switching-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-dependent-ca-2-signaling
#1
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0 ° for 60 min 5 consecutive d/wk for 4-wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2 knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca(2+) signals when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, due to a defect in Ca(2+) influx...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104506/skeletal-muscle-specific-overexpression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-induces-fiber-type-conversion-through-enhanced-mitochondrial-respiration-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-mice-and-pigs
#2
Lin Zhang, Ying Zhou, Wangjun Wu, Liming Hou, Hongxing Chen, Bo Zuo, Yuanzhu Xiong, Jinzeng Yang
Individual skeletal muscles in the animal body are heterogeneous, as each is comprised of different fiber types. Type I muscle fibers are rich with mitochondria, and have high oxidative metabolisms while type IIB fibers have few mitochondria and high glycolytic metabolic capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional co-activator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function, is implicated in muscle fiber-type switching. Over-expression of PGC-1α in transgenic mice increased the proportion of red/oxidative type I fiber...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089450/mark3-mediated-phosphorylation-of-arhgef2-couples-microtubules-to-the-actin-cytoskeleton-to-establish-cell-polarity
#3
María-José Sandí, Christopher B Marshall, Marc Balan, Étienne Coyaud, Ming Zhou, Daniel M Monson, Noboru Ishiyama, Arun A Chandrakumar, José La Rose, Amber L Couzens, Anne-Claude Gingras, Brian Raught, Wei Xu, Mitsuhiko Ikura, Deborah K Morrison, Robert Rottapel
The PAR-1-MARK pathway controls cell polarity through the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins. Rho-Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (ARHGEF2), which activates Ras homolog family member A (RHOA), is anchored to the microtubule network and sequestered in an inhibited state through binding to dynein light chain Tctex-1 type 1 (DYNLT1). We showed in mammalian cells that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activated the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3 (MARK3), which in turn phosphorylated ARHGEF2 at Ser(151) This modification disrupted the interaction between ARHGEF2 and DYNLT1 by generating a 14-3-3 binding site in ARHGEF2, thus causing ARHGEF2 to dissociate from microtubules...
October 31, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067009/an-investigation-into-rumen-fungal-and-protozoal-diversity-in-three-rumen-fractions-during-high-fiber-or-grain-induced-sub-acute-ruminal-acidosis-conditions-with-or-without-active-dry-yeast-supplementation
#4
Suzanne L Ishaq, Ousama AlZahal, Nicola Walker, Brian McBride
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041069/generation-of-vector-dissipative-and-conventional-solitons-in-large-normal-dispersion-regime
#5
Ling Yun
We report the generation of both polarization-locked vector dissipative soliton and group velocity-locked vector conventional soliton in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber ring laser with large normal dispersion, for the first time to our best knowledge. Depending on the polarization-depended extinction ratio of the fiber-based Lyot filter, the two types of vector solitons can be switched by simply tuning the polarization controller. In the case of low filter extinction ratio, the output vector dissipative soliton exhibits steep spectral edges and strong frequency chirp, which presents a typical pulse duration of ~23...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040313/premature-aortic-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-contributes-to-matrix-dysregulation-in-marfan-syndrome
#6
Matthew Dale, Matthew P Fitzgerald, Zhibo Liu, Trevor Meisinger, Andrew Karpisek, Laura N Purcell, Jeffrey S Carson, Paul Harding, Haili Lang, Panagiotis Koutakis, Rishi Batra, Constance J Mietus, George Casale, Iraklis Pipinos, B Timothy Baxter, Wanfen Xiong
Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection are life-threatening complications of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Studies of human and mouse aortic samples from late stage MFS demonstrate increased TGF-β activation/signaling and diffuse matrix changes. However, the role of the aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype in early aneurysm formation in MFS has yet to be fully elucidated. As our objective, we investigated whether an altered aortic SMC phenotype plays a role in aneurysm formation in MFS. We describe previously unrecognized concordant findings in the aortas of a murine model of MFS, mgR, during a critical and dynamic phase of early development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924247/low-level-activity-thresholds-for-changes-in-nmr-biomarkers-and-genes-in-high-risk-subjects-for-type-2-diabetes
#7
Karl-Heinz Herzig, Juhani Leppäluoto, Jari Jokelainen, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Sandra Pesenti, Harri Selänne, Kari A Mäkelä, Riikka Ahola, Timo Jämsä, Hubert Vidal, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Our objectives were to determine if there are quantitative associations between amounts and intensities of physical activities (PA) on NMR biomarkers and changes in skeletal muscle gene expressions in subjects with high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) performing a 3-month PA intervention. We found that PA was associated with beneficial biomarker changes in a factor containing several VLDL and HDL subclasses and lipids in principal component analysis (P = <0.01). Division of PA into quartiles demonstrated significant changes in NMR biomarkers in the 2nd - 4th quartiles compared to the 1st quartile representing PA of less than 2850 daily steps (P = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904079/ascorbic-acid-promotes-a-tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-myofibroblast-phenotype-switch
#8
Bram Piersma, Olaf Y Wouters, Saskia de Rond, Miriam Boersema, Rutger A F Gjaltema, Ruud A Bank
l-Ascorbic acid (AA), generally known as vitamin C, is a crucial cofactor for a variety of enzymes, including prolyl-3-hydroxylase (P3H), prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H), and lysyl hydroxylase (LH)-mediated collagen maturation. Here, we investigated whether AA has additional functions in the regulation of the myofibroblast phenotype, besides its function in collagen biosynthesis. We found that AA positively influences TGFβ1-induced expression of COL1A1, ACTA2, and COL4A1 Moreover, we demonstrated that AA promotes αSMA stress fiber formation as well as the synthesis and deposition of collagens type I and IV Additionally, AA amplified the contractile phenotype of the myofibroblasts, as seen by increased contraction of a 3D collagen lattice...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747422/suppressing-a-putative-sterol-carrier-gene-reduces-plasmodesmal-permeability-and-activates-sucrose-transporter-genes-during-cotton-fiber-elongation
#9
Zhiyuan Zhang, Yong-Ling Ruan, Na Zhou, Fang Wang, Xueying Guan, Lei Fang, Xiaoguang Shang, Wangzhen Guo, Shuijin Zhu, Tianzhen Zhang
Plasmodesmata (PDs) play vital roles in cell-to-cell communication and plant development. Emerging evidence suggests that sterols are involved in PD activity during cytokinesis. However, whether sterols contribute to PD gating between established cells remains unknown. Here, we isolated GhSCP2D, a putative sterol carrier protein gene from elongating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers. In contrast to wild-type fiber PDs, which opened at 5 to 10 d postanthesis (DPA) and closed only at 15 to 25 DPA, plants with suppressed GhSCP2D expression had reduced sterol contents and closed PDs at 5 through 25 DPA The GhSCP2D-suppressed fibers exhibited callose deposition at the PDs, likely due to reduced expression of GhPdBG3-2A/D, which encodes a PD-targeting β-1,3-glucanase...
August 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713246/differential-contribution-of-ca-2-dependent-mechanisms-to-hyperexcitability-in-layer-v-neurons-of-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#10
Eric C Lin, Crescent L Combe, Sonia Gasparini
Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures in one or both temporal lobes of the brain; some in vitro models show that epileptiform discharges initiate in entorhinal layer V neurons and then spread into other areas of the temporal lobe. We previously found that, in the presence of GABAA receptor antagonists, stimulation of afferent fibers, terminating both at proximal and distal dendritic locations, initiated hyperexcitable bursts in layer V medial entorhinal neurons. We investigated the differential contribution of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms to the plateaus underlying these bursts at proximal and distal synapses...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692740/switching-of-%C3%AE-catenin-from-epithelial-to-neuronal-type-during-lens-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#11
Rupalatha Maddala, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao
Purpose: Ocular lens fiber cell elongation, differentiation, and compaction are associated with extensive reorganization of cell adhesive interactions and cytoskeleton; however, our knowledge of proteins critical to these events is still evolving. This study characterizes the distribution pattern of neuronal-specific α-catenin (αN-catenin) and its interaction with the N-cadherin-associated adherens junctions (AJs) and their stability in the mouse lens fibers. Methods: Expression and distribution of αN-catenin in developing mouse and adult human lenses was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625538/a-strong-contractile-actin-fence-and-large-adhesions-direct-human-pluripotent-colony-morphology-and-adhesion
#12
Elisa Närvä, Aki Stubb, Camilo Guzmán, Matias Blomqvist, Diego Balboa, Martina Lerche, Markku Saari, Timo Otonkoski, Johanna Ivaska
Cell-type-specific functions and identity are tightly regulated by interactions between the cell cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have ultimate differentiation capacity and exceptionally low-strength ECM contact, yet the organization and function of adhesion sites and associated actin cytoskeleton remain poorly defined. We imaged hPSCs at the cell-ECM interface with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and discovered that adhesions at the colony edge were exceptionally large and connected by thick ventral stress fibers...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590761/proteome-wide-adaptations-of-mouse-skeletal-muscles-during-a-full-month-in-space
#13
Georg Tascher, Thomas Brioche, Pauline Maes, Angèle Chopard, Donal O'Gorman, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stéphane Blanc, Fabrice Bertile
The safety of space flight is challenged by a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and endurance that may compromise the health and performance of astronauts. The molecular mechanisms underpinning muscle atrophy and decreased performance have been studied mostly after short duration flights and are still not fully elucidated. By deciphering the muscle proteome changes elicited in mice after a full month aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite, we observed that the antigravity soleus incurred the greatest changes compared with locomotor muscles...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559374/tarp-%C3%AE-2-is-required-for-inflammation-associated-ampa-receptor-plasticity-within-lamina-ii-of-the-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#14
Steve J Sullivan, Mark Farrant, Stuart G Cull-Candy
In the brain, transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) critically influence the distribution, gating, and pharmacology of AMPARs, but the contribution of these auxiliary subunits to AMPAR-mediated signaling in the spinal cord remains unclear. We found that the Type I TARP γ-2 (stargazin) is present in lamina II of the superficial dorsal horn, an area involved in nociception. Consistent with the notion that γ-2 is associated with surface AMPARs, CNQX, a partial agonist at AMPARs associated with Type I TARPs, evoked whole-cell currents in lamina II neurons, but such currents were severely attenuated in γ-2-lacking stargazer (stg/stg) mice...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456765/the-skeletal-and-heart-muscle-triacylglycerol-lipolysis-revisited
#15
M Knapp, J Gorski
For 40 years, the enzyme hormone sensitive lipase was considered to hydrolyze the first ester bond of the triacylglycerol moiety and thus initiate hydrolysis. However, 12 years ago a new lipolytic enzyme, termed adipose triglyceride lipase was discovered. It was further shown that the process of lipolysis of triacylglycerol to diacylglycerol and fatty acid is initiated by adipose triglyceride lipase and not by hormone sensitive lipase, responsible for hydrolysis of diacylglycerol to monoacyglycerol and fatty acid...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441012/rgb-switchable-porous-electrospun-nanofiber-chemoprobe-filter-prepared-from-multifunctional-copolymers-for-versatile-sensing-of-ph-and-heavy-metals
#16
Fang-Cheng Liang, Chi-Ching Kuo, Bo-Yu Chen, Chia-Jung Cho, Chih-Chien Hung, Wen-Chang Chen, Redouane Borsali
Novel red-green-blue (RGB) switchable probes based on fluorescent porous electrospun (ES) nanofibers exhibiting high sensitivity to pH and mercury ions (Hg(2+)) were prepared with one type of copolymer (poly(methyl methacrylatete-co-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives-co-rhodamine derivative); poly(MMA-co-BNPTU-co-RhBAM)) by using a single-capillary spinneret. The MMA, BNPTU, and RhBAM moieties were designed to (i) permit formation of porous fibers, (ii) fluoresce for Hg(2+) detection, and (iii) fluoresce for pH, respectively...
May 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381495/dietary-reversal-of-neuropathy-in-a-murine-model-of-prediabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Lucy M Hinder, Phillipe D O'Brien, John M Hayes, Carey Backus, Andrew P Solway, Catrina Sims-Robinson, Eva L Feldman
Patients with metabolic syndrome, which is defined as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), can develop the same macro- and microvascular complications as patients with type 2 diabetes, including peripheral neuropathy. In type 2 diabetes, glycemic control has little effect on the development and progression of peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that other metabolic syndrome components may contribute to the presence of neuropathy. A parallel phenomenon is observed in patients with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome, where improvement in weight and dyslipidemia more closely correlates with restoration of nerve function than improvement in glycemic status...
June 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380729/semiconductor-saturable-absorber-q-switching-of-a-holmium-micro-laser
#18
Ruijun Lan, Xavier Mateos, Yicheng Wang, Josep Maria Serres, Pavel Loiko, Jiang Li, Yubai Pan, Uwe Griebner, Valentin Petrov
We report on a Holmium micro-laser passively Q-switched by a semiconductor saturable absorber (SSA), for the first time to the best of our knowledge. It is based on a 1 at.% Ho:YAG ceramic with good energy storage capability and several commercial transmission-type SSAs with 0.24% modulation depth. Under in-band pumping by a Tm fiber laser at 1910 nm, the Ho micro-laser generated 450 mW at 2089 nm with 37% slope efficiency. Stable 89 ns, 3.2 μJ pulses are achieved at a repetition rate of 141 kHz. Further shortening of the laser pulses is feasible with the increase of the modulation depth of the SSA while power scaling may lead to Q-switching at MHz-range repetition rates...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315675/low-intensity-training-and-the-c5a-complement-antagonist-nox-d21-rescue-the-mdx-phenotype-through-modulation-of-inflammation
#19
Janek Hyzewicz, Jun Tanihata, Mutsuki Kuraoka, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Teiva Beylier, Urs T Ruegg, Axel Vater, Shin'ichi Takeda
Inflammatory events occurring in dystrophic muscles contribute to the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Low-intensity training (LIT) attenuates the phenotype of mdx mice, an animal model for DMD. Therefore, we postulated that LIT could have anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed levels of inflammatory cytokines and infiltrated immune cells in gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice after LIT. We detected high levels of complement component C5a, chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages, and proinflammatory M1 macrophages in muscles of mdx mice...
May 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287512/preparation-and-culture-of-myogenic-precursor-cells-primary-myoblasts-from-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-and-aged-humans
#20
Ana Soriano-Arroquia, Peter D Clegg, Andrew P Molloy, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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