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fiber type switching

C Desert, E Baéza, M Aite, M Boutin, A Le Cam, J Montfort, M Houee-Bigot, Y Blum, P F Roux, C Hennequet-Antier, C Berri, S Metayer-Coustard, A Collin, S Allais, E Le Bihan, D Causeur, F Gondret, M J Duclos, S Lagarrigue
BACKGROUND: Because the cost of cereals is unstable and represents a large part of production charges for meat-type chicken, there is an urge to formulate alternative diets from more cost-effective feedstuff. We have recently shown that meat-type chicken source is prone to adapt to dietary starch substitution with fat and fiber. The aim of this study was to better understand the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to changes in dietary energy sources through the fine characterization of transcriptomic changes occurring in three major metabolic tissues - liver, adipose tissue and muscle - as well as in circulating blood cells...
March 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
G Vesentini, G Marini, F Piculo, D C Damasceno, S M M Matheus, S L Felisbino, I M P Calderon, A Hijaz, A M P Barbosa, M V C Rudge
The urethral muscle of diabetic pregnant rats is affected by long-term mild diabetes and short-term severe diabetes, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pelvic floor disorders. We hypothesized that muscles outside the pelvis are subject to similar changes. The current study aimed at analyzing the effects of long-term mild and short-term severe diabetes on the structure and ultrastructure of fiber muscles and collagen in rats' rectus abdominis (RA) muscle. Therefore, the RA muscle of virgin, pregnant, long-term mild diabetic, short-term severe diabetic, long-term mild diabetic pregnant and short-term severe diabetic pregnant 3-month-old Wistar rats were collected...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Armen O Simonyan, Vladimir V Sirenko, Olga E Karpicheva, Katarzyna Robaszkiewicz, Małgorzata Śliwinska, Joanna Moraczewska, Zoya I Krutetskaya, Yurii S Borovikov
Using the polarized photometry technique we have studied the effects of two amino acid replacements, E240K and R244G, in tropomyosin (Tpm1.1) on the position of Tpm1.1 on troponin-free actin filaments and the spatial arrangement of actin monomers and myosin heads at various mimicked stages of the ATPase cycle in the ghost muscle fibers. E240 and R244 are located in the C-terminal, seventh actin-binding period, in f and b positions of the coiled-coil heptapeptide repeat. Actin, Tpm1.1, and myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were fluorescently labeled: 1...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Shi Min Yuan, Ning Wu
OBJECTIVE: The is to report immunohistochemical observations of aortic α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expressions in patients with aortic aneurysm, acute aortic dissection, and coronary artery disease and to discuss phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of these lesions. METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive patients scheduled for surgical treatment for acute type A aortic dissection (20 patients), aortic aneurysm (9 patients), and coronary artery disease (20 patients) were included...
January 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Jiang-Ping Liu, Yong-Tao He, Xing-Lian Duan, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
The δ subunit-containing γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are located at extrasynaptic sites and persistently active in the control of neuronal excitability. Here we recorded primary afferent C fiber-evoked field potentials in the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cords in vivo and investigated the possible influence of δ-GABAA Rs activities on nociceptive synaptic transmission. We found that δ-GABAA Rs-preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolol [4,5-c] pyridine-3-ol (THIP), when topically applied onto spinal cord dorsum, inhibited the basal synaptic responses in a dose-dependent manner...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Wei Shan, Taku Nagai, Motoki Tanaka, Norimichi Itoh, Yoko Furukawa-Hibi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Masahiro Sokabe, Kiyofumi Yamada
Neuronal intrinsic homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapse has been implicated in epilepsy pathogenesis to prevent the neuronal circuits from hyperexcitability. Recent findings suggest a role for neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), an activity-dependent neuron-specific transcription factor in epileptogenesis, however, the underlying mechanism by which Npas4 regulates epilepsy remains unclear. We herein propose that limbic seizure activity up-regulates Npas4-homer1a signaling in the hippocampus, thereby contributing to epileptogenesis in mice...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Michael J Rynkiewicz, Thavanareth Prum, Stephen Hollenberg, Farooq A Kiani, Patricia M Fagnant, Steven B Marston, Kathleen M Trybus, Stefan Fischer, Jeffrey R Moore, William Lehman
Elongated tropomyosin, associated with actin-subunits along the surface of thin filaments, makes electrostatic interactions with clusters of conserved residues, K326, K328, and R147, on actin. The association is weak, permitting low-energy cost regulatory movement of tropomyosin across the filament during muscle activation. Interestingly, acidic D292 on actin, also evolutionarily conserved, lies adjacent to the three-residue cluster of basic amino acids and thus may moderate the combined local positive charge, diminishing tropomyosin-actin interaction and facilitating regulatory-switching...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Bojana Kravic, Angelika B Harbauer, Vanina Romanello, Luca Simeone, F-Nora Vögtle, Tobias Kaiser, Marion Straubinger, Danyil Huraskin, Martin Böttcher, Cristina Cerqua, Eva Denise Martin, Daniel Poveda-Huertes, Andreas Buttgereit, Adam J Rabalski, Dieter Heuss, Rüdiger Rudolf, Oliver Friedrich, David Litchfield, Michael Marber, Leonardo Salviati, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Winfried Neuhuber, Marco Sandri, Chris Meisinger, Said Hashemolhosseini
In yeast, Tom22 the central component of the TOMM (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane) receptor complex is responsible for the recognition and translocation of synthesized mitochondrial precursor proteins, and its protein kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation is mandatory for TOMM complex biogenesis and proper mitochondrial protein import. In mammals, the biological function of protein kinase CSNK2/CK2 remains vastly elusive and it is unknown whether CSNK2-dependent phosphorylation of TOMM protein subunits has a similar role as that in yeast...
November 22, 2017: Autophagy
D O Velez, B Tsui, T Goshia, C L Chute, A Han, H Carter, S I Fraley
The topographical organization of collagen within the tumor microenvironment has been implicated in modulating cancer cell migration and independently predicts progression to metastasis. Here, we show that collagen matrices with small pores and short fibers, but not Matrigel, trigger a conserved transcriptional response and subsequent motility switch in cancer cells resulting in the formation of multicellular network structures. The response is not mediated by hypoxia, matrix stiffness, or bulk matrix density, but rather by matrix architecture-induced β1-integrin upregulation...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Hanna Schotola, Samuel T Sossalla, André Renner, Jan Gummert, Bernhard C Danner, Peter Schott, Karl Toischer
AIMS: The Frank-Starling mechanism (rapid response (RR)) and the secondary slow response (SR) are known to contribute to increases contractile performance. The contractility of the heart muscle is influenced by pre-load and after-load. Because of the effect of pre-load vs. after-load on these mechanisms in not completely understood, we studied the effect in isolated muscle strips. METHODS AND RESULTS: Progressive stretch lead to an increase in shortening/force development under isotonic (only pre-load) and isometric conditions (pre- and after-load)...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0 ° for 60 min 5 consecutive d/wk for 4-wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2 knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca(2+) signals when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, due to a defect in Ca(2+) influx...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Lin Zhang, Ying Zhou, Wangjun Wu, Liming Hou, Hongxing Chen, Bo Zuo, Yuanzhu Xiong, Jinzeng Yang
Individual skeletal muscles in the animal body are heterogeneous, as each is comprised of different fiber types. Type I muscle fibers are rich with mitochondria, and have high oxidative metabolisms while type IIB fibers have few mitochondria and high glycolytic metabolic capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional co-activator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function, is implicated in muscle fiber-type switching. Over-expression of PGC-1α in transgenic mice increased the proportion of red/oxidative type I fiber...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
María-José Sandí, Christopher B Marshall, Marc Balan, Étienne Coyaud, Ming Zhou, Daniel M Monson, Noboru Ishiyama, Arun A Chandrakumar, José La Rose, Amber L Couzens, Anne-Claude Gingras, Brian Raught, Wei Xu, Mitsuhiko Ikura, Deborah K Morrison, Robert Rottapel
The PAR-1-MARK pathway controls cell polarity through the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins. Rho-Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (ARHGEF2), which activates Ras homolog family member A (RHOA), is anchored to the microtubule network and sequestered in an inhibited state through binding to dynein light chain Tctex-1 type 1 (DYNLT1). We showed in mammalian cells that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activated the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3 (MARK3), which in turn phosphorylated ARHGEF2 at Ser(151) This modification disrupted the interaction between ARHGEF2 and DYNLT1 by generating a 14-3-3 binding site in ARHGEF2, thus causing ARHGEF2 to dissociate from microtubules...
October 31, 2017: Science Signaling
Suzanne L Ishaq, Ousama AlZahal, Nicola Walker, Brian McBride
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ling Yun
We report the generation of both polarization-locked vector dissipative soliton and group velocity-locked vector conventional soliton in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber ring laser with large normal dispersion, for the first time to our best knowledge. Depending on the polarization-depended extinction ratio of the fiber-based Lyot filter, the two types of vector solitons can be switched by simply tuning the polarization controller. In the case of low filter extinction ratio, the output vector dissipative soliton exhibits steep spectral edges and strong frequency chirp, which presents a typical pulse duration of ~23...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Matthew Dale, Matthew P Fitzgerald, Zhibo Liu, Trevor Meisinger, Andrew Karpisek, Laura N Purcell, Jeffrey S Carson, Paul Harding, Haili Lang, Panagiotis Koutakis, Rishi Batra, Constance J Mietus, George Casale, Iraklis Pipinos, B Timothy Baxter, Wanfen Xiong
Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection are life-threatening complications of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Studies of human and mouse aortic samples from late stage MFS demonstrate increased TGF-β activation/signaling and diffuse matrix changes. However, the role of the aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype in early aneurysm formation in MFS has yet to be fully elucidated. As our objective, we investigated whether an altered aortic SMC phenotype plays a role in aneurysm formation in MFS. We describe previously unrecognized concordant findings in the aortas of a murine model of MFS, mgR, during a critical and dynamic phase of early development...
2017: PloS One
Karl-Heinz Herzig, Juhani Leppäluoto, Jari Jokelainen, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Sandra Pesenti, Harri Selänne, Kari A Mäkelä, Riikka Ahola, Timo Jämsä, Hubert Vidal, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Our objectives were to determine if there are quantitative associations between amounts and intensities of physical activities (PA) on NMR biomarkers and changes in skeletal muscle gene expressions in subjects with high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) performing a 3-month PA intervention. We found that PA was associated with beneficial biomarker changes in a factor containing several VLDL and HDL subclasses and lipids in principal component analysis (P = <0.01). Division of PA into quartiles demonstrated significant changes in NMR biomarkers in the 2nd - 4th quartiles compared to the 1st quartile representing PA of less than 2850 daily steps (P = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bram Piersma, Olaf Y Wouters, Saskia de Rond, Miriam Boersema, Rutger A F Gjaltema, Ruud A Bank
l-Ascorbic acid (AA), generally known as vitamin C, is a crucial cofactor for a variety of enzymes, including prolyl-3-hydroxylase (P3H), prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H), and lysyl hydroxylase (LH)-mediated collagen maturation. Here, we investigated whether AA has additional functions in the regulation of the myofibroblast phenotype, besides its function in collagen biosynthesis. We found that AA positively influences TGFβ1-induced expression of COL1A1, ACTA2, and COL4A1 Moreover, we demonstrated that AA promotes αSMA stress fiber formation as well as the synthesis and deposition of collagens type I and IV Additionally, AA amplified the contractile phenotype of the myofibroblasts, as seen by increased contraction of a 3D collagen lattice...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
Zhiyuan Zhang, Yong-Ling Ruan, Na Zhou, Fang Wang, Xueying Guan, Lei Fang, Xiaoguang Shang, Wangzhen Guo, Shuijin Zhu, Tianzhen Zhang
Plasmodesmata (PDs) play vital roles in cell-to-cell communication and plant development. Emerging evidence suggests that sterols are involved in PD activity during cytokinesis. However, whether sterols contribute to PD gating between established cells remains unknown. Here, we isolated GhSCP2D, a putative sterol carrier protein gene from elongating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers. In contrast to wild-type fiber PDs, which opened at 5 to 10 d postanthesis (DPA) and closed only at 15 to 25 DPA, plants with suppressed GhSCP2D expression had reduced sterol contents and closed PDs at 5 through 25 DPA The GhSCP2D-suppressed fibers exhibited callose deposition at the PDs, likely due to reduced expression of GhPdBG3-2A/D, which encodes a PD-targeting β-1,3-glucanase...
August 2017: Plant Cell
Eric C Lin, Crescent L Combe, Sonia Gasparini
Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures in one or both temporal lobes of the brain; some in vitro models show that epileptiform discharges initiate in entorhinal layer V neurons and then spread into other areas of the temporal lobe. We previously found that, in the presence of GABAA receptor antagonists, stimulation of afferent fibers, terminating both at proximal and distal dendritic locations, initiated hyperexcitable bursts in layer V medial entorhinal neurons. We investigated the differential contribution of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms to the plateaus underlying these bursts at proximal and distal synapses...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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