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fiber type switching

Grzegorz Wiera, Daria Nowak, Inge Van Hove, Piotr Dziegiel, Lieve Moons, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely perceived as a memory substrate and in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway, distinct forms of LTP depend on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (nmdaLTP) or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (vdccLTP). Long-term potentiation is also known to be effectively regulated by extracellular proteolysis that is mediated by various enzymes. Herein, we investigated whether in mice hippocampal slices these distinct forms of LTP are specifically regulated by different metalloproteinases (MMPs)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
Ruiqin Zhong, Quincy Teng, Marziyeh Haghighat, Youxi Yuan, Samuel T Furey, Robert L Dasher, Zheng-Hua Ye
Xylan and xyloglucan are the two major cell wall hemicelluloses in plants, and their biosynthesis requires a steady supply of the sugar donor, UDP-xylose. UDP-xylose is synthesized through conversion of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by the activities of UDP-xylose synthase (UXS). There exist six UXS genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome; three of them (UXS1, UXS2 and UXS4) encode Golgi-localized enzymes and the other three (UXS3, UXS5 and UXS6) encode cytosol-localized enzymes. In this report, we investigated the contributions of these UXS genes in supplying UDP-xylose for the biosynthesis of xylan and xyloglucan...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shinichiro Yamada, Atsushi Hashizume, Yasuhiro Hijikata, Tomonori Inagaki, Keisuke Suzuki, Naohide Kondo, Kaori Kawai, Seiya Noda, Hirotaka Nakanishi, Haruhiko Banno, Akihiro Hirakawa, Haruki Koike, Katherine Halievski, Cynthia L Jordan, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory function profile of subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and to explore the underlying pathological mechanism by comparing the clinical and biochemical indices of this disease with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We enrolled male subjects with SBMA (n = 40) and ALS (n = 25) along with 15 healthy control subjects, and assessed their respiratory function, motor function, and muscle strength. Predicted values of peak expiratory flow (%PEF) and forced vital capacity were decreased in subjects with SBMA compared with controls...
2016: PloS One
Manuela Chiper, Nassera Tounsi, Ryszard Kole, Antoine Kichler, Guy Zuber
Efficiency of polyethylenimine (PEI) for nucleic acid delivery is affected by the size of the carrier and length of the nucleic acids. For instance, PEIs with molecular weights between 10-30kDa provide optimal DNA delivery activity whereas PEIs with molecular weights below 1.8kDa are ineffective. The activity of PEI is also severely diminished by substitution of DNA for shorter nucleic acids such as mRNA or siRNA. Here, through chemical modification of the primary amines to aromatic domains we achieved nucleic acid delivery by the 1...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Shuo Wang, Bonnie Seaberg, Ximena Paez-Colasante, Mendell Rimer
To test the role of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in slow-twitch, type 1 skeletal muscle fibers, we studied the soleus muscle in mice genetically deficient for myofiber ERK1/2. Young adult mutant soleus was drastically wasted, with highly atrophied type 1 fibers, denervation at most synaptic sites, induction of "fetal" acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit (AChRγ), reduction of "adult" AChRε, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In weanlings, fiber morphology and mitochondrial markers were mostly normal, yet AChRγ upregulation and AChRε downregulation were observed...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Valentina Taglietti, Giovanni Maroli, Solei Cermenati, Stefania Monteverde, Andrea Ferrante, Giuliana Rossi, Giulio Cossu, Monica Beltrame, Graziella Messina
Sox6 belongs to the Sox gene family and plays a pivotal role in fiber type differentiation, suppressing transcription of slow-fiber-specific genes during fetal development. Here, we show that Sox6 plays opposite roles in MyHC-I regulation, acting as a positive and negative regulator of MyHC-I expression during embryonic and fetal myogenesis, respectively. During embryonic myogenesis, Sox6 positively regulates MyHC-I via transcriptional activation of Mef2C, whereas during fetal myogenesis, Sox6 requires and cooperates with the transcription factor Nfix in repressing MyHC-I expression...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
Joschka Bauer, Daniel Schaal, Lukas Eisoldt, Kristian Schweimer, Stephan Schwarzinger, Thomas Scheibel
Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Feng Pan, Jing-Yi Mi, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Yun Pan, Yong-Jun Rui
The failure to accept reinnervation is considered to be one of the reasons for the poor motor functional recovery of intrinsic hand muscles (IHMs) after nerve injury. Rat could be a suitable model to be used in simulating motor function recovery of the IHMs after nerve injury as to the similarities in function and anatomy of the muscles between human and rat. However, few studies have reported the muscle fiber types composition and endplate morphologic characteristics of intrinsic forepaw muscles (IFMs) in the rat...
June 2016: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
Duo Zhang, Yan Li, Xuan Yao, Hui Wang, Lei Zhao, Haowen Jiang, Xiaohan Yao, Shengjie Zhang, Cheng Ye, Wei Liu, Hongchao Cao, Shuxian Yu, Yu-Cheng Wang, Qiong Li, Jingjing Jiang, Yi Liu, Ling Zhang, Yun Liu, Naoharu Iwai, Hui Wang, Jingya Li, Jia Li, Xihua Li, Zi-Bing Jin, Hao Ying
Understanding the fiber-type specification and metabolic switch in skeletal muscle provides insights into energy metabolism in physiology and diseases. Here, we show that miR-182 is highly expressed in fast-twitch muscle and negatively correlates with blood glucose level. miR-182 knockout mice display muscle loss, fast-to-slow fiber-type switching, and impaired glucose metabolism. Mechanistic studies reveal that miR-182 modulates glucose utilization in muscle by targeting FoxO1 and PDK4, which control fuel selection via the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC)...
July 19, 2016: Cell Reports
Alexander E Hramov, Alexey A Koronovskii, Olga I Moskalenko, Maksim O Zhuravlev, Rider Jaimes-Reategui, Alexander N Pisarchik
We propose a method for the detection and localization of different types of coexisting oscillatory regimes that alternate with each other leading to multistate intermittency. Our approach is based on consideration of wavelet spectrum energies. The proposed technique is tested in an erbium-doped fiber laser with four coexisting periodic orbits, where external noise induces intermittent switches between the coexisting states. Statistical characteristics of multistate intermittency, such as the mean duration of the phases for every oscillation type, are examined with the help of the developed method...
May 2016: Physical Review. E
H H Chen, J Lu, Y F Guan, S J Li, T T Hu, Z S Xie, F Wang, X H Peng, X Liu, X Xu, F P Zhao, B L Yu, X P Li
Estrogen is related with the low morbidity associated with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) in women, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between OSAS and estrogen related receptor-α (ERR-α). We found that the expression levels of ERR-α and Myh7 were both downregulated in palatopharyngeal tissues from OSAS patients. In addition, we report that ERR-α is dynamically expressed during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Knockdown of ERR-α via instant siRNA resulted in reduced expression of Myh7, but not Myh4...
2016: Scientific Reports
Robert R Salzler, Darshit Shah, Anthony Doré, Roy Bauerlein, Lawrence Miloscio, Esther Latres, Nicholas J Papadopoulos, William C Olson, Douglas MacDonald, Xunbao Duan
Pharmacologic blockade of the myostatin (Mstn)/activin receptor pathway is being pursued as a potential therapy for several muscle wasting disorders. The functional benefits of blocking this pathway are under investigation, in particular given the findings that greater muscle hypertrophy results from Mstn deficiency arising from genetic ablation compared to post-developmental Mstn blockade. Using high-resolution MS coupled with SILAC mouse technology, we quantitated the relative proteomic changes in gastrocnemius muscle from Mstn knockout (Mstn(-/-) ) and mice treated for 2-weeks with REGN1033, an anti-Mstn antibody...
July 2016: Proteomics
Eric J Zaccone, TinaMarie Lieu, Yukiko Muroi, Carl Potenzieri, Blair E Undem, Peisong Gao, Liang Han, Brendan J Canning, Bradley J Undem
The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3) and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4) coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity...
2016: PloS One
Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Hye-Jin Lee, Tuan Anh Vuong, Kyu-Sil Choi, Dahee Choi, Sung-Hoi Koo, Sung Chun Cho, Hana Cho, Jong-Sun Kang
Maintenance of skeletal muscle function is critical for metabolic health and the disruption of which exacerbates many chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Skeletal muscle responds to exercise or metabolic demands by a fiber-type switch regulated by signaling-transcription networks that remains to be fully defined. Here, we report that protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (Prmt7) is a key regulator for skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. Prmt7 is expressed at the highest levels in skeletal muscle and decreased in skeletal muscles with age or obesity...
July 2016: Diabetes
Chi-Chang Huang, Ting Wang, Yu-Tang Tung, Wan-Teng Lin
The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway drives the muscular fiber-type switching, and can directly regulate the biophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. To investigate whether 12-week swimming exercise training modulates the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway associated proteins expression in rats of different age. Male 3-month-old (3M), 12-month-old (12M) and 18-month-old (18M) Sprague-Dawley rats were used and assigned to sedentary control (C) or 12-week swimming exercise training (E) and divided into six groups: 3MC (n = 8), 12MC (n = 6), 18MC (n = 8), 3ME (n = 8), 12ME (n = 5) and 18ME (n = 6)...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Chiara Ippolito, Rocchina Colucci, Cristina Segnani, Mariella Errede, Francesco Girolamo, Daniela Virgintino, Amelio Dolfi, Erika Tirotta, Piero Buccianti, Giulio Di Candio, Daniela Campani, Maura Castagna, Gabrio Bassotti, Vincenzo Villanacci, Corrado Blandizzi, Nunzia Bernardini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal fibrosis is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Although fibrostenosis is a rare event in ulcerative colitis [UC], there is evidence that a fibrotic rearrangement of the colon occurs in the later stages. This is a retrospective study aimed at examining the histopathological features of the colonic wall in both short-lasting [SL] and long-lasting [LL] UC. METHODS: Surgical samples of left colon from non-stenotic SL [≤ 3 years, n = 9] and LL [≥ 10 years, n = 10] UC patients with active disease were compared with control colonic tissues from cancer patients without UC [n = 12] to assess: collagen and elastic fibres by histochemistry; vascular networks [CD31/CD105/nestin] by immunofluorescence; parameters of fibrosis [types I and III collagen, fibronectin, RhoA, alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA], desmin, vimentin], and proliferation [proliferating nuclear antigen [PCNA]] by western blot and/or immunolabelling...
October 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Henry G Zot, Javier E Hasbun, Clara A Michell, Maicon Landim-Vieira, Jose R Pinto
Higher affinity for TnI explains how troponin C (TnC) carrying a causative hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation, TnC(A8V), sensitizes muscle cells to Ca(2+). Muscle fibers reconstituted with TnC(A8V) require ∼2.3-fold less [Ca(2+)] to achieve 50% maximum-tension compared to fibers reconstituted with wild-type TnC (TnC(WT)). Binding measurements rule out a significant change in N-terminus Ca(2+)-affinity of isolated TnC(A8V), and TnC(A8V) binds the switch-peptide of troponin-I (TnI(sp)) ∼1.6-fold more strongly than TnC(WT); thus we model the TnC-TnI(sp) interaction as competing with the TnI-actin interaction...
July 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Anna Rocchi, Carmelo Milioto, Sara Parodi, Andrea Armirotti, Doriana Borgia, Matteo Pellegrini, Anna Urciuolo, Sibilla Molon, Valeria Morbidoni, Manuela Marabita, Vanina Romanello, Pamela Gatto, Bert Blaauw, Paolo Bonaldo, Fabio Sambataro, Diane M Robins, Andrew P Lieberman, Gianni Sorarù, Lodovica Vergani, Marco Sandri, Maria Pennuto
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR). The mechanism by which expansion of polyglutamine in AR causes muscle atrophy is unknown. Here, we investigated pathological pathways underlying muscle atrophy in SBMA knock-in mice and patients. We show that glycolytic muscles were more severely affected than oxidative muscles in SBMA knock-in mice. Muscle atrophy was associated with early-onset, progressive glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type switch...
July 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Andrew D Ray, Kirkwood E Personius, David L Williamson, Cory M Dungan, Samjot S Dhillon, Pamela A Hershberger
Recent data support an important role for vitamin D in respiratory health. We tested the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D3 (VD3) intake modulates diaphragm (DIA) strength. Four-week-old female A/J mice (n = 10/group) were randomized to receive diets containing 100 IU VD3/kg (low), 1,000 IU VD3/kg (reference), or 10,000 IU VD3/kg (pharmacologic). After 6 wk of dietary intervention, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) levels, DIA and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) in vitro contractile properties, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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