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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625538/a-strong-contractile-actin-fence-and-large-adhesions-direct-human-pluripotent-colony-morphology-and-adhesion
#1
Elisa Närvä, Aki Stubb, Camilo Guzmán, Matias Blomqvist, Diego Balboa, Martina Lerche, Markku Saari, Timo Otonkoski, Johanna Ivaska
Cell-type-specific functions and identity are tightly regulated by interactions between the cell cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have ultimate differentiation capacity and exceptionally low-strength ECM contact, yet the organization and function of adhesion sites and associated actin cytoskeleton remain poorly defined. We imaged hPSCs at the cell-ECM interface with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and discovered that adhesions at the colony edge were exceptionally large and connected by thick ventral stress fibers...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590761/proteome-wide-adaptations-of-mouse-skeletal-muscles-during-a-full-month-in-space
#2
Georg Tascher, Thomas Brioche, Pauline Maes, Angèle Chopard, Donal O'Gorman, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stephane Blanc, Fabrice Bertile
The safety of space flight is challenged by a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and endurance that may compromise the health and performance of astronauts. The molecular mechanisms underpinning muscle atrophy and decreased performance have been studied mostly after short duration flights, and are still not fully elucidated. By deciphering the muscle proteome changes elicited in mice after a full month aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite, we observed that the antigravity soleus incurred the greatest changes compared to locomotor muscles...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559374/tarp-%C3%AE-2-is-required-for-inflammation-associated-ampa-receptor-plasticity-within-lamina-ii-of-the-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#3
Steve J Sullivan, Mark Farrant, Stuart G Cull-Candy
In the brain, transmembrane AMPA receptor (AMPAR) regulatory proteins (TARPs) critically influence the distribution, gating, and pharmacology of AMPARs, but the contribution of these auxiliary subunits to AMPAR-mediated signaling in the spinal cord remains unclear. We found that the type I TARP γ-2 (stargazin) is present in lamina II of the superficial dorsal horn (SDH), an area involved in nociception. Consistent with the notion that γ-2 is associated with surface AMPARs, CNQX, a partial agonist at AMPARs associated with type I TARPs, evoked whole-cell currents in lamina II neurons, but such currents were severely attenuated in γ-2-lacking stargazer (stg/stg) mice...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456765/the-skeletal-and-heart-muscle-triacylglycerol-lipolysis-revisited
#4
M Knapp, J Gorski
For 40 years, the enzyme hormone sensitive lipase was considered to hydrolyze the first ester bond of the triacylglycerol moiety and thus initiate hydrolysis. However, 12 years ago a new lipolytic enzyme, termed adipose triglyceride lipase was discovered. It was further shown that the process of lipolysis of triacylglycerol to diacylglycerol and fatty acid is initiated by adipose triglyceride lipase and not by hormone sensitive lipase, responsible for hydrolysis of diacylglycerol to monoacyglycerol and fatty acid...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441012/rgb-switchable-porous-electrospun-nanofiber-chemoprobe-filter-prepared-from-multifunctional-copolymers-for-versatile-sensing-of-ph-and-heavy-metals
#5
Fang-Cheng Liang, Chi-Ching Kuo, Bo-Yu Chen, Chia-Jung Cho, Chih-Chien Hung, Wen-Chang Chen, Redouane Borsali
Novel red-green-blue (RGB) switchable probes based on fluorescent porous electrospun (ES) nanofibers exhibiting high sensitivity to pH and mercury ions (Hg(2+)) were prepared with one type of copolymer (poly(methyl methacrylatete-co-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives-co-rhodamine derivative); poly(MMA-co-BNPTU-co-RhBAM)) by using a single-capillary spinneret. The MMA, BNPTU, and RhBAM moieties were designed to (i) permit formation of porous fibers, (ii) fluoresce for Hg(2+) detection, and (iii) fluoresce for pH, respectively...
May 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381495/dietary-reversal-of-neuropathy-in-a-murine-model-of-prediabetes-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Lucy M Hinder, Phillipe D O'Brien, John M Hayes, Carey Backus, Andrew P Solway, Catrina Sims-Robinson, Eva L Feldman
Patients with the metabolic syndrome, defined as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), can develop the same macro- and microvascular complications as patients with type 2 diabetes, including peripheral neuropathy. In type 2 diabetes, glycemic control has little effect on the development and progression of peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that other metabolic syndrome components may contribute to the presence of neuropathy. A parallel phenomenon is observed in patients with prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome, where improvement in weight and dyslipidemia more closely correlates with restoration of nerve function than improvement in glycemic status...
April 5, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380729/semiconductor-saturable-absorber-q-switching-of-a-holmium-micro-laser
#7
Ruijun Lan, Xavier Mateos, Yicheng Wang, Josep Maria Serres, Pavel Loiko, Jiang Li, Yubai Pan, Uwe Griebner, Valentin Petrov
We report on a Holmium micro-laser passively Q-switched by a semiconductor saturable absorber (SSA), for the first time to the best of our knowledge. It is based on a 1 at.% Ho:YAG ceramic with good energy storage capability and several commercial transmission-type SSAs with 0.24% modulation depth. Under in-band pumping by a Tm fiber laser at 1910 nm, the Ho micro-laser generated 450 mW at 2089 nm with 37% slope efficiency. Stable 89 ns, 3.2 μJ pulses are achieved at a repetition rate of 141 kHz. Further shortening of the laser pulses is feasible with the increase of the modulation depth of the SSA while power scaling may lead to Q-switching at MHz-range repetition rates...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315675/low-intensity-training-and-the-c5a-complement-antagonist-nox-d21-rescue-the-mdx-phenotype-through-modulation-of-inflammation
#8
Janek Hyzewicz, Jun Tanihata, Mutsuki Kuraoka, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Teiva Beylier, Urs T Ruegg, Axel Vater, Shin'ichi Takeda
Inflammatory events occurring in dystrophic muscles contribute to the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Low-intensity training (LIT) attenuates the phenotype of mdx mice, an animal model for DMD. Therefore, we postulated that LIT could have anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed levels of inflammatory cytokines and infiltrated immune cells in gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice after LIT. We detected high levels of complement component C5a, chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages, and proinflammatory M1 macrophages in muscles of mdx mice...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287512/preparation-and-culture-of-myogenic-precursor-cells-primary-myoblasts-from-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-and-aged-humans
#9
Ana Soriano-Arroquia, Peter D Clegg, Andrew P Molloy, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268770/evaluation-of-a-variable-resistance-orthotic-knee-joint
#10
Andrew Herbert-Copley, Edward D Lemaire, Natalie Baddour
Knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) are full leg braces for individuals with knee extensor weakness, designed to support the person during weight bearing activities by preventing knee flexion. KAFOs typically result in an unnatural gait pattern and are primarily used for level ground walking. A novel variable resistance orthotic knee joint, the Ottawalk-Variable Speed (OWVS), was designed to address these limitations. This paper presents a pilot test to evaluate the OWVS functional performance during walking and stair descent...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226959/evaluation-of-a-variable-resistance-orthotic-knee-joint
#11
Andrew Herbert-Copley, Edward D Lemaire, Natalie Baddour, Andrew Herbert-Copley, Edward D Lemaire, Natalie Baddour, Andrew Herbert-Copley, Natalie Baddour, Edward D Lemaire
Knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) are full leg braces for individuals with knee extensor weakness, designed to support the person during weight bearing activities by preventing knee flexion. KAFOs typically result in an unnatural gait pattern and are primarily used for level ground walking. A novel variable resistance orthotic knee joint, the Ottawalk-Variable Speed (OWVS), was designed to address these limitations. This paper presents a pilot test to evaluate the OWVS functional performance during walking and stair descent...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220058/semg-sensor-using-polypyrrole-coated-nonwoven-fabric-sheet-for-practical-control-of-prosthetic-hand
#12
Yinlai Jiang, Masami Togane, Baoliang Lu, Hiroshi Yokoi
One of the greatest challenges of using a myoelectric prosthetic hand in daily life is to conveniently measure stable myoelectric signals. This study proposes a novel surface electromyography (sEMG) sensor using polypyrrole-coated nonwoven fabric sheet as electrodes (PPy electrodes) to allow people with disabilities to control prosthetic limbs. The PPy electrodes are sewn on an elastic band to guarantee close contact with the skin and thus reduce the contact electrical impedance between the electrodes and the skin...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167607/a-key-regulator-of-cell-adhesion-identification-and-characterization-of-important-n-glycosylation-sites-on-integrin-%C3%AE-5-for-cell-migration
#13
Qinglei Hang, Tomoya Isaji, Sicong Hou, Yuqin Wang, Tomohiko Fukuda, Jianguo Gu
The N-glycosylation of integrin α5β1 is thought to control many fundamental aspects of cell behavior, including cell adhesion and migration. However, the mechanism of how N-glycans function remains largely obscure. Here, we used a loss-of-function approach. Wild-type (WT) integrin α5 and N-glycosylation mutant S3-5 (sites 3 to 5) integrin α5, which contains fewer N-glycans, were stably reconstituted in α5 knockout cancer cells. We found that the migration ability of S3-5 cells was decreased in comparison with that of the WT...
May 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157951/fano-resonances-in-cone-shaped-inwall-capillary-based-microsphere-resonator
#14
Xiaobei Zhang, Yong Yang, Haiyang Shao, Huawen Bai, Fufei Pang, Hai Xiao, Tingyun Wang
In this paper, we demonstrate a cone-shaped inwall coupler for excitation of the whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) of a microsphere resonator. The coupler is composed of a single mode fiber (SMF) and a capillary with an inner diameter of 5 μm. After immersing the capillary front end vertically into Hydrofluoric acid to obtain a cone inside the capillary, light in the SMF couples into the capillary efficiently while the hollow core is wide enough for a microsphere to be inserted. Because the front end face of the capillary acts as a reflector, a Fano resonance with an asymmetric line shape and a Q-factor of 2...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155812/human-muscle-precursor-cells-overexpressing-pgc-1%C3%AE-enhance-early-skeletal-muscle-tissue-formation
#15
Deana Haralampieva, Souzan Salemi, Ivana Dinulovic, Tullio Sulser, Simon M Ametamey, Christoph Handschin, Daniel Eberli
Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are activated satellite cells capable of muscle fiber reconstruction. Therefore, autologous MPC transplantation is envisioned for the treatment of muscle diseases. However, the density of MPCs, as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential, gradually declines with age. The goals of this research were to genetically modify human MPCs (hMPCs) to overexpress the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1α), a key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation, and thereby to enhance early skeletal muscle formation and quality...
June 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069922/mechanisms-of-nmda-receptor-and-voltage-gated-l-type-calcium-channel-dependent-hippocampal-ltp-critically-rely-on-proteolysis-that-is-mediated-by-distinct-metalloproteinases
#16
Grzegorz Wiera, Daria Nowak, Inge Van Hove, Piotr Dziegiel, Lieve Moons, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely perceived as a memory substrate and in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway, distinct forms of LTP depend on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (nmdaLTP) or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (vdccLTP). Long-term potentiation is also known to be effectively regulated by extracellular proteolysis that is mediated by various enzymes. Herein, we investigated whether in mice hippocampal slices these distinct forms of LTP are specifically regulated by different metalloproteinases (MMPs)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-release
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals that contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance, and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers, an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
March 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011867/cytosol-localized-udp-xylose-synthases-provide-the-major-source-of-udp-xylose-for-the-biosynthesis-of-xylan-and-xyloglucan
#18
Ruiqin Zhong, Quincy Teng, Marziyeh Haghighat, Youxi Yuan, Samuel T Furey, Robert L Dasher, Zheng-Hua Ye
Xylan and xyloglucan are the two major cell wall hemicelluloses in plants, and their biosynthesis requires a steady supply of the sugar donor, UDP-xylose. UDP-xylose is synthesized through conversion of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by the activities of UDP-xylose synthase (UXS). There exist six UXS genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome; three of them (UXS1, UXS2 and UXS4) encode Golgi-localized enzymes and the other three (UXS3, UXS5 and UXS6) encode cytosol-localized enzymes. In this report, we investigated the contributions of these UXS genes in supplying UDP-xylose for the biosynthesis of xylan and xyloglucan...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005993/decreased-peak-expiratory-flow-associated-with-muscle-fiber-type-switching-in-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy
#19
Shinichiro Yamada, Atsushi Hashizume, Yasuhiro Hijikata, Tomonori Inagaki, Keisuke Suzuki, Naohide Kondo, Kaori Kawai, Seiya Noda, Hirotaka Nakanishi, Haruhiko Banno, Akihiro Hirakawa, Haruki Koike, Katherine Halievski, Cynthia L Jordan, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory function profile of subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and to explore the underlying pathological mechanism by comparing the clinical and biochemical indices of this disease with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We enrolled male subjects with SBMA (n = 40) and ALS (n = 25) along with 15 healthy control subjects, and assessed their respiratory function, motor function, and muscle strength. Predicted values of peak expiratory flow (%PEF) and forced vital capacity were decreased in subjects with SBMA compared with controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956144/self-aggregating-1-8kda-polyethylenimines-with-dissolution-switch-at-endosomal-acidic-ph-are-delivery-carriers-for-plasmid-dna-mrna-sirna-and-exon-skipping-oligonucleotides
#20
Manuela Chiper, Nassera Tounsi, Ryszard Kole, Antoine Kichler, Guy Zuber
Efficiency of polyethylenimine (PEI) for nucleic acid delivery is affected by the size of the carrier and length of the nucleic acids. For instance, PEIs with molecular weights between 10-30kDa provide optimal DNA delivery activity whereas PEIs with molecular weights below 1.8kDa are ineffective. The activity of PEI is also severely diminished by substitution of DNA for shorter nucleic acids such as mRNA or siRNA. Here, through chemical modification of the primary amines to aromatic domains we achieved nucleic acid delivery by the 1...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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