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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298904/multiple-lines-of-evidence-indicate-that-gliotransmission-does-not-occur-under-physiological-conditions
#1
Todd A Fiacco, Ken D McCarthy
A major controversy persists within the field of glial biology concerning whether or not, under physiological conditions, neuronal activity leads to Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters from astrocytes, a phenomenon known as gliotransmission. Our perspective is that, while we and others can apply techniques to cause gliotransmission, there is considerable evidence gathered using astrocyte-specific and more physiological approaches which suggests that gliotransmission is a pharmacological phenomenon rather than a physiological process...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287955/remodeling-of-ca2-signaling-in-cancer-regulation-of-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors-through-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressors
#2
REVIEW
Hideaki Ando, Katsuhiro Kawaai, Benjamin Bonneau, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular signaling molecule that regulates diverse physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the Ca2+ transport systems. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are IP3-activated Ca2+ release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They play pivotal roles in the regulation of cell death and survival by controlling Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs)...
December 20, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280494/bidirectional-modulation-of-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-by-mglu7-receptors-at-sc-ca1-hippocampal-synapses
#3
Ricardo Martín, José Javier Ferrero, Andrea Collado-Alsina, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Luján, Magdalena Torres, José Sánchez-Prieto
Neurotransmitter release is driven by Ca2+ influx at synaptic boutons that acts on synaptic vesicles ready to undergo exocytosis. Neurotransmitter release is inhibited when mGlu7 receptors provoke a reduction in Ca2+ influx, although the reduced release from synapses lacking this receptor suggests that they may also prime synaptic vesicles for release. These mGlu7 receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC) and generate inositol trisphosphate (IP3 ), which in turn releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores and produces diacylglycerol (DAG), an activator of proteins containing DAG-binding domains like Munc13 and protein kinase C (PKC)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275169/testosterone-induces-hyporesponsiveness-by-interfering-with-ip3-receptors-in-guinea-pig-airway-smooth-muscle
#4
Luis M Montaño, Edgar Flores-Soto, Jorge Reyes-García, Verónica Díaz-Hernández, Abril Carbajal-García, Elías Campuzano-González, G Lizbeth Ramírez-Salinas, Marco A Velasco-Velázquez, Bettina Sommer
Asthma symptoms have been associated with sex steroids. During childhood, this illness seems more frequent in boys than in girls and this tendency reverts in puberty when it is more severe in women. Testosterone (TES), at supraphysiological concentrations, relaxed pre-contracted airway smooth muscle, but its effects at physiological concentrations have not been thoroughly studied. We explored this possibility in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. In myocytes TES (10 nM) abolished carbachol (CCh)-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) increment...
December 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247156/melatonin-promotes-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-expression-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-in-neonatal-hemolytic-hyperbilirubinemia-via-a-phospholipase-plc-mediated-mechanism
#5
Yong Luo, Mei Peng, Hong Wei
BACKGROUND Melatonin therapy shows positive effects on neuroprotective factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and neuronal apoptosis in neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia. We hypothesized that melatonin promotes BDNF expression and anti-apoptotic effects in neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia through a phospholipase (PLC)-mediated mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS A phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ)-induced neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia model was constructed in neonatal rats...
December 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236918/peri-implant-assessment-via-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-digital-periapical-radiography-an-ex-vivo-study
#6
Nicolau Silveira-Neto, Mateus Ericson Flores, João Paulo De Carli, Max Dória Costa, Felipe de Souza Matos, Luiz Renato Paranhos, Maria Salete Sandini Linden
OBJECTIVES: This research evaluated detail registration in peri-implant bone using two different cone beam computer tomography systems and a digital periapical radiograph. METHODS: Three different image acquisition protocols were established for each cone beam computer tomography apparatus, and three clinical situations were simulated in an ex vivo fresh pig mandible: buccal bone defect, peri-implant bone defect, and bone contact. Data were subjected to two analyses: quantitative and qualitative...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228786/oxidative-stress-induces-disruption-of-the-axon-initial-segment
#7
Kareem Clark, Brooke A Sword, Jeffrey L Dupree
The axon initial segment (AIS), the domain responsible for action potential initiation and maintenance of neuronal polarity, is targeted for disruption in a variety of central nervous system pathological insults. Previous work in our laboratory implicates oxidative stress as a potential mediator of structural AIS alterations in two separate mouse models of central nervous system inflammation, as these effects were attenuated following reactive oxygen species scavenging and NADPH oxidase-2 ablation. While these studies suggest a role for oxidative stress in modulation of the AIS, the direct effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) on the stability of this domain remain unclear...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201062/comparative-analysis-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-evoked-calcium-transients-in-proliferating-and-differentiating-human-midbrain-derived-stem-cells
#8
Torben Johansen, Christina Krabbe, Sissel Ida Schmidt, Alberto Martínez Serrano, Morten Meyer
Spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients and oscillations have been reported in various tissues of nonhuman and human origin but not in human midbrain-derived stem cells. Using confocal microfluorimetry, we studied spontaneous calcium transients and calcium-regulating mechanisms in a human ventral mesencephalic stem cell line undergoing proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Spontaneous calcium transients were detected in a large fraction of both proliferating (>50%) and differentiating (>55%) cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200910/comparative-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-and-angiotensin-4-8-on-blood-pressure-and-anp-secretion-in-rats
#9
Hoang Thi Ai Phuong, Lamei Yu, Byung Mun Park, Suhn Hee Kim
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is metabolized from N-terminal by aminopeptidases and from C-terminal by Ang converting enzyme (ACE) to generate several truncated angiotensin peptides (Angs). The truncated Angs have different biological effects but it remains unknown whether Ang-(4-8) is an active peptide. The present study was to investigate the effects of Ang-(4-8) on hemodynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion using isolated beating rat atria. Atrial stretch caused increases in atrial contractility by 60% and in ANP secretion by 70%...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187363/trpv4-heats-up-ano1-dependent-exocrine-gland-fluid-secretion
#10
Sandra Derouiche, Yasunori Takayama, Masataka Murakami, Makoto Tominaga
Several ion channels and transporters regulate fluid secretion in salivary and lacrimal glands. In salivary glands, the major anion channel involved in fluid secretion is the calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1). Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily regulate ANO1 activity. Here, we report a functional interaction between thermosensitive TRP vanilloid (TRPV)4 and ANO1 in acinar cells isolated from mouse salivary and lacrimal glands. TRPV4 activation induced chloride currents and shrinkage of acinar cells by increasing intracellular calcium concentrations...
November 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186133/mutational-analysis-of-itpr1-in-a-taiwanese-cohort-with-cerebellar-ataxias
#11
Cheng-Tsung Hsiao, Yo-Tsen Liu, Yi-Chu Liao, Ting-Yi Hsu, Yi-Chung Lee, Bing-Wen Soong
BACKGROUND: The inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor type 1 gene (ITPR1) encodes the IP3 receptor type 1 (IP3R1), which modulates intracellular calcium homeostasis and signaling. Mutations in ITPR1 have been implicated in inherited cerebellar ataxias. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ITPR1 mutations, including both large segmental deletion and single nucleotide mutations, in a Han Chinese cohort with inherited cerebellar ataxias in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three unrelated individuals with molecularly unassigned spinocerebellar ataxia selected from 585 pedigrees with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, were recruited into the study with elaborate clinical evaluations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176940/ultrafast-near-infrared-light-triggered-intracellular-uncaging-to-probe-cell-signaling
#12
Xiuying Li, Zifan Che, Khadijah Mazhar, Theodore J Price, Zhenpeng Qin
The possibility of regulating cell signaling with high spatial and temporal resolution within individual cells and complex cellular networks has important implications in biomedicine. In this report, we demonstrate a general strategy that uses near-infrared tissue-penetrating laser pulses to uncage biomolecules from plasmonic gold-coated liposomes, i.e. plasmonic liposomes, to activate cell signaling in a non-thermal, ultrafast and highly controllable fashion. Near-infrared picosecond laser pulse induces transient nanobubbles around plasmonic liposomes...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176553/notoginsenoside-r1-alleviates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-injury-by-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-release-via-plc
#13
Yan Wang, Liu Tu, Yingbo Li, Di Chen, Zhao Liu, Xuelian Hu, Shali Wang
As documented in our previous study, notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) can inhibit neuron apoptosis and the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pro-apoptotic proteins in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Recent evidence indicates that the Phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is important for the regulation of Ca2+ release in the ER. Ca2+ imbalance can stimulate ER stress, CAMKII, and cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the neuroprotective effect of NGR1 and elucidate how NGR1 regulates ER stress and cell apoptosis in the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174396/plc%C3%AE-1-potential-arbitrator-of-cancer-progression
#14
REVIEW
Hyun-Jun Jang, Pann-Ghill Suh, Yu Jin Lee, Kyeong Jin Shin, Lucio Cocco, Young Chan Chae
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an essential mediator of cellular signaling. PLC regulates multiple cellular processes by generating bioactive molecules such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These products propagate and regulate cellular signaling via calcium (Ca2+) mobilization and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), other kinases, and ion channels. PLCγ1, one of the primary subtypes of PLC, is directly activated by membrane receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and adhesion receptors such as integrin...
November 8, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169174/melatonin-induced-changes-in-cytosolic-calcium-might-be-responsible-for-apoptosis-induction-in-tumour-cells
#15
Barbora Chovancova, Sona Hudecova, Lubomira Lencesova, Petr Babula, Ingeborg Rezuchova, Adela Penesova, Marian Grman, Roman Moravcik, Michal Zeman, Olga Krizanova
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melatonin is a hormone transferring information about duration of darkness to the organism and is known to modulate several signaling pathways in the cells, e.g. generation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative status of the cells, etc. Melatonin has been shown to exert antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on various human cancers. We proposed that this hormone can differently affect tumour cells and healthy cells. METHODS: We compared the effect of 24 h melatonin treatment on calcium transport (by fluorescent probes FLUO-3AM and Rhod-5N), ER stress (determined as changes in the expression of CHOP, XBP1 and fluorescently, using Thioflavin T), ROS formation (by CellROX® Green/Orange Reagent) and apoptosis induction (by Annexin-V-FLUOS/propidiumiodide) in two tumour cell lines - ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and stable cell line DLD1 derived from colorectal carcinoma, with non-tumour endothelial cell line EA...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150934/the-current-status-and-perspectives-regarding-the-clinical-implication-of-intracellular-calcium-in-breast-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Alireza Pasdar, Mehdi Rezaee, Mostafa Fazeli, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Zahra FarshchiyanYazdi, Tayebe Younesi Rad, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan
Calcium ions (Ca2+ ) act as second messengers in intracellular signaling. Ca2+ pumps, channels, sensors, and calcium binding proteins, regulate the concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ as a key regulator of important cellular processes such as gene expression, proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, apoptosis, metastasis, and hormone secretion. Intracellular Ca2+ also influences the functions of several organelles, that include: the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, the Golgi, and cell membrane both in normal and breast cancer cells...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141923/src-family-kinase-inhibitors-blunt-the-pacap-induced-pac1-receptor-endocytosis-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-increase-in-cardiac-neuron-excitability
#17
John D Tompkins, Todd A Clason, Thomas R Buttolph, Beatrice M Girard, Anne K Linden, Jean C Hardwick, Laura A Merriam, Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1) activation of PAC1 receptors (Adcyap1r1) significantly increases excitability of guinea pig cardiac neurons. This modulation of excitability is mediated in part by plasma membrane G protein-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase and downstream signaling cascades. However, additional mechanisms responsible for the enhanced excitability are activated following internalization of the PAC1 receptor and endosomal signaling. Src family kinases play critical roles mediating endocytosis of many trophic factor and G-protein coupled receptors...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138405/ca-2-signals-initiate-at-immobile-ip3-receptors-adjacent-to-er-plasma-membrane-junctions
#18
Nagendra Babu Thillaiappan, Alap P Chavda, Stephen C Tovey, David L Prole, Colin W Taylor
IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) release Ca(2+) from the ER when they bind IP3 and Ca(2+). The spatial organization of IP3Rs determines both the propagation of Ca(2+) signals between IP3Rs and the selective regulation of cellular responses. Here we use gene editing to fluorescently tag endogenous IP3Rs, and super-resolution microscopy to determine the geography of IP3Rs and Ca(2+) signals within living cells. We show that native IP3Rs cluster within ER membranes. Most IP3R clusters are mobile, moved by diffusion and microtubule motors...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136773/the-potential-use-of-melatonin-to-treat-protozoan-parasitic-infections-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Ahmad Daryani, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Abdol Satar Pagheh, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Ramtin Hadighi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Herein, we review the effects of melatonin on the cell biology of protozoan parasites and host's immune response...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131545/a-double-point-mutation-at-residues-ile14-and-val15-of-bcl-2-uncovers-a-role-for-bh4-domain-in-both-protein-stability-and-function
#20
Giovanni Monaco, Rita La Rovere, Spyridoula Karamanou, Kirsten Welkenhuyzen, Hristina Ivanova, Elien Vandermarliere, Marta Di Martile, Donatella Del Bufalo, Humbert De Smedt, Jan B Parys, Anastassios Economou, Geert Bultynck
B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein is the archetype apoptosis suppressor protein. The N-terminal Bcl-2-homology 4 (BH4) domain of Bcl-2 is required for the anti-apoptotic function of this protein at the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The involvement of the BH4 domain in Bcl-2's anti-apoptotic functions has been proposed based on Gly-based substitutions of the Ile14/Val15 amino acids, two hydrophobic residues located in the centre of Bcl-2's BH4 domain. Following this strategy, we recently showed that a BH4-domain-derived peptide in which Ile14 and Val15 have been replaced by Gly residues, was unable to dampen pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) -release events from the ER...
November 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
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