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Pulmonology, Lung function, Lung

Abigail C Cowley, David J Thornton, David W Denning, Alexander Horsley
The prevalence of aspergillosis in CF patients has until recently been underestimated, but increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the progression of CF lung disease. In healthy airways, Aspergillus fumigatus can be efficiently removed from the lung by mechanisms such as mucociliary clearance and cough. However, these mechanisms are defective in CF, allowing pathogens such as A. fumigatus to germinate and establish chronic infections within the airways. The precise means by which A...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M Joshi, S K Chhabra, Mujeeb-Ur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Spirometry is an essential investigation in pulmonology. The predicted normal spirometry values depend on various physiological parameters. This study was conducted to collect updated information on pulmonary functions in normal adults from western India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Mumbai enrolling healthy subjects, 18-75 years, with ethnic origin from western India. Spirometry measurements were carried out as per ATS/ERS-2005 guidelines using a non-heated Fleish Pneumotachograph spirometer...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Luciano E Busi, Sebastián Restuccia, Ricardo Tourres, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND: Measuring lung function, including bronchodilator response (BDR), is an integral part of asthma management in older children. While spirometry is possible in preschool-aged children, the question remains whether measuring BDR aids in asthma diagnosis in this age group. METHODS: 431 healthy children and 289 children with asthma, aged 3-5 years, were recruited from kindergartens and the pulmonology clinic in Trelew, Argentina. Spirometry was performed at visit 1 and repeated after 15 min, with children randomised to placebo or salbutamol (400 µg)...
October 14, 2016: Thorax
V Lezana, A Gajardo, L Bofill, M Gutierrez, S Mora, J A Castro-Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: To measure lung function by impulse oscillometry (IOS) and spirometry in recurrent wheezer pre-schoolers according to their asthma predictive index (API) condition. METHODS: We performed a case-control study enrolling all pre-schoolers with recurrent wheezing episodes (>3 episodes confirmed by physician) who presented at a paediatric pulmonology clinic. The population was divided according to stringent API criteria into positive or negative. RESULTS: In the nine-month period, 109 pre-schoolers were enrolled...
October 4, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Pedro Pedrosa Rebouças Filho, Paulo César Cortez, Antônio C da Silva Barros, Victor Hugo C Albuquerque, João Manuel R S Tavares
The World Health Organization estimates that 300 million people have asthma, 210 million people have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and, according to WHO, COPD will become the third major cause of death worldwide in 2030. Computational Vision systems are commonly used in pulmonology to address the task of image segmentation, which is essential for accurate medical diagnoses. Segmentation defines the regions of the lungs in CT images of the thorax that must be further analyzed by the system or by a specialist physician...
September 5, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Dirk Skowasch, Andreas Fertl, Björn Schwick, Harald Schäfer, Andreas Hellmann, Felix J F Herth
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials indicate that significant lung volume reduction (ELVR) can be obtained with Zephyr® valves by occluding the target lobe in the absence of collateral ventilation, leading to relevant functional benefits in advanced emphysema patients. OBJECTIVES: To observe the long-term effects of endobronchial valve (EBV) implantation in emphysema patients screened by Chartis assessment in the context of daily pulmonology practice. METHODS: The LIVE Study is a prospective, observational, open-label, single-arm, multicenter trial conducted in Germany...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Margarida Torres Redondo, Elsa Campoa, Luis Ruano, Maria Sucena
BACKGROUND: Measures of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) can help to determine the impact of the disease and provide an important insight into the intervention outcomes. There is few data regarding this issue in the literature. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between HRQoL and gender, functional parameters and history of hospitalizations in patients with AATD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 26 patients with severe AATD recruited in the pulmonology outpatient clinic at a tertiary care medical center...
July 25, 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Erhan Ugurlu, Gokhan Pekel, Goksel Altinisik, Kerem Bozkurt, Ilknur Can, Fatma Evyapan
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has multisystemic implications and comorbidities. Hypoxia and systemic inflammation are thought to involve oculary structures. In this study, our aim is to evaluate retinal nerve fiber and choroidal thickness and retinal vessel diameter using the Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in COPD subjects. METHODS: 43 subjects diagnosed with COPD according to the Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria at the Pulmonology Department of Pamukkale University were enrolled in the study...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Felipe Villar Álvarez, Ignacio Muguruza Trueba, José Belda Sanchis, Laureano Molins López-Rodó, Pedro Miguel Rodríguez Suárez, Julio Sánchez de Cos Escuín, Esther Barreiro, M Henar Borrego Pintado, Carlos Disdier Vicente, Javier Flandes Aldeyturriaga, Pablo Gámez García, Pilar Garrido López, Pablo León Atance, José Miguel Izquierdo Elena, Nuria M Novoa Valentín, Juan José Rivas de Andrés, Íñigo Royo Crespo, Ángel Salvatierra Velázquez, Luís M Seijo Maceiras, Segismundo Solano Reina, David Aguiar Bujanda, Régulo J Avila Martínez, Jose Ignacio de Granda Orive, Eva de Higes Martinez, Vicente Diaz-Hellín Gude, Raúl Embún Flor, Jorge L Freixinet Gilart, María Dolores García Jiménez, Fátima Hermoso Alarza, Samuel Hernández Sarmiento, Antonio Francisco Honguero Martínez, Carlos A Jimenez Ruiz, Iker López Sanz, Andrea Mariscal de Alba, Primitivo Martínez Vallina, Patricia Menal Muñoz, Laura Mezquita Pérez, María Eugenia Olmedo García, Carlos A Rombolá, Iñigo San Miguel Arregui, María de Valle Somiedo Gutiérrez, Ana Isabel Triviño Ramírez, Joan Carles Trujillo Reyes, Carmen Vallejo, Paz Vaquero Lozano, Gonzalo Varela Simó, Javier J Zulueta
The Thoracic Surgery and Thoracic Oncology groups of the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) have backed the publication of a handbook on recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Due to the high incidence and mortality of this disease, the best scientific evidence must be constantly updated and made available for consultation by healthcare professionals. To draw up these recommendations, we called on a wide-ranging group of experts from the different specialties, who have prepared a comprehensive review, divided into 4 main sections...
July 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Bożena Karczmarek-Borowska, Monika Tobiasz, Agnieszka Bukała
UNLABELLED: Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second frequent in women. Cancer is not without consequences on the life and functioning of a patient. The process of adopting the disease is based on restoring the patient's psychological balance, reduction of the emotional discomfort and self-confidence. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the acceptance of lung cancer in patients with this diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 73 patients treated at the Pulmonology Ward of Podkarpackie Center for Lung Diseases, Department of Clinical Oncology of Podkarpackie Oncology Centre in Rzeszów and at the Department of Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncological Surgery of Podkarpackie Oncological Center in Brzozów...
February 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Silvia Montella, Eugenio Baraldi, Salvatore Cazzato, Raffaele Aralla, Mariangela Berardi, Luigia Maria Brunetti, Fabio Cardinale, Renato Cutrera, Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Emanuela di Palmo, Sabrina Di Pillo, Grazia Fenu, Stefania La Grutta, Enrico Lombardi, Giorgio Piacentini, Francesca Santamaria, Nicola Ullmann, Franca Rusconi
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have explored the distinguishing features of severe asthma in childhood in Europe, and only one study was conducted in Southern Europe. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characterization of children with severe asthma treated in specialized pediatric asthma centers across Italy. METHODS: We conducted a web-based data collection of family, environmental, clinical and laboratory characteristics of 41 patients aged 6-17 years with severe asthma, defined according to the recent guidelines of the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society, and 78 age-matched peers with non-severe persistent asthma...
January 22, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Hirsh Koyi, Leif Johansson, Jesper From, Sven Nyrén
BACKGROUND: Correct diagnosis and staging are required for optimal treatment choice in lung cancer patients. This retrospective, patient medical records study investigated the clinical practice of lung cancer biopsy procedures and testing in Sweden. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a recorded inoperable, malignant tumour of bronchus and lung were retrospectively identified at geographically widespread pulmonology clinics (NCT01139619). Data, including diagnostic sampling methodology [bronchoscopy, biopsy by pulmonologist and computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy], were collected for patients diagnosed between 1 June 2009-31 May 2010, and analysed using descriptive statistics...
December 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Coenraad F N Koegelenberg, Johan Theron, Keertan Dheda, J Willie Bruwer, Brian W Allwood, Morné J Vorster, Florian von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Dirk-Jan Slebos, Pallav L Shah, Felix J F Herth
Emphysema is a very common cause of morbidity and mortality in South Africa (SA). Therapeutic options in severe emphysema are limited. Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) is increasingly being used internationally for the treatment of advanced emphysema in a subset of patients with advanced disease, aiming to obtain the same functional advantages as surgical lung volume reduction while reducing risks and costs. In addition to endobronchial valves, ELVR using endobronchial coils is now available in SA. The high cost of these interventions underscores the need for careful patient selection to best identify those who may or may not benefit from ELVR-related procedures...
October 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Raffaele Scala, Uberto Maccari, Chiara Madioni, Duccio Venezia, Lidia Calogera La Magra
Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients' clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012...
July 2015: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Jeong Eun Shin, Jae Won Shim, Deok Soo Kim, Hae Lim Jung, Moon Soo Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity lung disease due to bronchial colonization of Aspergillus fumigatus that occurs in susceptible patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. A 10-year-old girl was referred to the Department of Pediatric Pulmonology for persistent consolidations on chest radiography. Pulmonary consolidations were observed in the right upper and left lower lobes and were not resolved with a 4-week prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The patient had a history of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis but no history of asthma...
May 2015: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Jürgen Hannig, Rüdiger Siekmeier
The current European system for medical devices is governed by three EC directives: the Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC, the In-Vitro Diagnostic Directive 98/79/EC and the Active Implantable Medical Device Directive 90/385/EEC and regulates marketing and post-market surveillance of medical devices in the European Economic Area. In cases of incidents and field safety corrective actions (FSCA) manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authority, which is the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) and the public by field safety notices (FSN)...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lígia Rodrigues Fernandes, Luis Vaz Rodrigues, Filipa Costa, Yvette Martins
We describe the clinical evolution of the first patient diagnosed with a severe α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency caused by a rare null allele (Q0Ourém), over the past 18 years. We highlight the clinical course of the disease as well as the evolution of the pulmonary function tests from initial diagnosis and the benefits of augmentation therapy for this specific condition. We report the case of a 43-year-old man with exertion dyspnoea who was observed in our pulmonology unit. The unexpected findings in the complementary examinations led us to diagnose AAT deficiency and to the discovery of a new mutation with the SERPIN A1 gene (hence named Q0Ourém) responsible for the disease...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Gilmar Zonzin, Vitório Puntel, Vinicius Agostinho, Silvio Guerra, Priscila Virgens, Mariana Silva, Marina Faria
Bronchology/Interventional Global Case ReportsSESSION TYPE: Global Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Carcinoid tumors belong to the group of neuroendocrine tumors whose cells are part of the APUD system, with the place of origin being most frequently in the gastrointestinal tract (more often the appendix). Pulmonary involvement can be seen in about 0.5 % to 2% with no difference between gender, usually in patients above 60 years old, with no correlation with smoking, radiation or chemicals...
October 1, 2014: Chest
I V Avramenko
The article presents information about the features of violations of respiratory function in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia, who were treated in the Department of Pulmonology (therapy), as well as the Department of intensive care unit and intensive care. It has been shown the correlation between the degree patients severity from the severity of the violation of external breathing. The results can serve as a basis for a more personal approach to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic programs for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia...
March 2014: Likars'ka Sprava
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