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Pulmonology, Lung function, Lung

Harm A W M Tiddens, Wieying Kuo, Marcel van Straten, Pierluigi Ciet
Until recently, functional tests were the most important tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases in the paediatric population. Chest imaging has gained considerable importance for paediatric pulmonology as a diagnostic and monitoring tool to evaluate lung structure over the past decade. Since January 2016, a large number of papers have been published on innovations in chest computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, acquisition techniques, image analysis strategies and their application in different disease areas...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Myriam Calle Rubio, Juan Luis Rodríguez Hermosa, Juan José Soler-Cataluña, José Luis López-Campos, Bernardino Alcazar Navarrete, Joan B Soriano, José Miguel Rodríguez Gónzalez-Moro, Manuel E Fuentes Ferrer, Marc Miravitlles
INTRODUCTION: EPOCONSUL is the first national audit to analyze medical care for COPD in pulmonology departments in Spain. The main objective was to perform a retrospective analysis to determine the distribution of GesEPOC 2017 COPD risk levels and to evaluate clinical activity according to the new recommendations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional clinical audit in which consecutive COPD cases were recruited over one year. The study evaluated risk and clinical phenotype according to GesEPOC 2017, and their correlation with the clinical interventions employed...
January 17, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Kelly M Latimer
In the absence of screening, most patients with lung cancer are not diagnosed until later stages, when the prognosis is poor. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnea, but the most specific symptom is hemoptysis. Digital clubbing, though rare, is highly predictive of lung cancer. Symptoms can be caused by the local tumor, intrathoracic spread, distant metastases, or paraneoplastic syndromes. Clinicians should suspect lung cancer in symptomatic patients with risk factors. The initial study should be chest x-ray, but if results are negative and suspicion remains, the clinician should obtain a computed tomography scan with contrast...
January 2018: FP Essentials
Milena Adina Man, Sorin Claudiu Man, Nicoleta Ştefania Motoc, Carmen Monica Pop, Antigona Carmen Trofor
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; extrinsic allergic alveolitis) is a rare non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated inflammatory lung disease caused by inhalation exposure (occupational, recreational or ordinary home exposure). A 36-year-old female patient, without significant medical history, is referred to an outpatient pulmonology clinic for dry cough, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue and weight loss. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed, and significant lung fibrosis (especially centrilobular and interlobular in bilateral "thick lines"), traction bronchiectasis and alveolitis in both superior lobes are described...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
C Robalo-Cordeiro, P Campos, L Carvalho, A Borba, S Clemente, S Freitas, S Furtado, J M Jesus, C Leal, A Marques, N Melo, C Souto-Moura, S Neves, V Sousa, A Santos, A Morais
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal lung disease that up to now has been associated with a poor prognosis. However, the results of the INPULSIS and ASCEND trials and the approval of nintedanib and pirfenidone have marked the beginning of a new era for IPF patients. Questions remain, however. Should these drugs be used earlier? What effect will they have on more severe disease? Will their effects last beyond the trial period? This manuscript is the outcome of a multidisciplinary meeting between pulmonology, radiology, and pathology clinicians on the use of antifibrotic agents in IPF...
September 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
Natasha Y Matsunaga, Marina S Oliveira, André M Morcillo, José D Ribeiro, Maria A G O Ribeiro, Adyléia A D C Toro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by a muscle contraction with increased energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity, asthma control level, spirometric measurements and quality of life in children and adolescents with asthma. METHODS: We included all children and adolescents aged 7-17 years who had a diagnosis of atopic asthma and who attended the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas, Brazil...
November 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Sebnem Ozdogan, Gizem Sari, Ibrahim Hakki Aktan, Belma Aydin, Canan Irmak, Sabanur Cavdar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels and pulmonary function test outcomes and atopy in children with asthma. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic and pediatric outpatient clinic, from December 2012 to March 2013. METHODOLOGY: Atotal of 71 asthmatic children and 77 healthy controls aged 7-17 years were recruited...
May 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Shahar Geva, Moria Yaakoby, Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Aya Talmor-Gozlan, Roi Westreich, Nimrod Maimon
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, with major respiratory and systemic expressions. Obesity is defined as a BMI>30 kg/ m2 and its prevalence has doubled in recent decades. The possible relationship of obesity to COPD, and its influence on respiratory pathophysiology, is considered a mystery. Studies show obesity to be a survival advantage among COPD patients, unlike in the general population, in which obesity correlates to decreased life expectancy...
September 2016: Harefuah
Richard Auten, Clement Ren, Ozge Yilmaz, Terry L Noah
Pediatric Pulmonology continues to publish research and clinical topics related to the entire range of children's respiratory disorders. As we have done annually in recent years, we here summarize some of the past year's publications in our major topic areas, as well as selected literature in these areas from other core journals relevant to our discipline. This review (Part 2) covers selected articles on neonatology, asthma, physiology and lung function testing, and infectious diseases.
September 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Irene Steenbruggen, Frans de Jongh
DL,CO measurements are often used to evaluate and monitor lung diseases as well as cardiovascular diseases. Whether the combination of DL,CO and DL,NO will improve the management of cardiovascular diseases needs to be investigated. It is hoped that the standardization of the DL,NO measurement will facilitate research. Scientific evidence that DL,NO can provide more accurate information than DL,CO alone, can take away the barriers that prevents DL,NO to become a routine test in pulmonology.
July 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Chitra Dinakar, Bradley E Chipps
Asthma affects an estimated 7 million children and causes significant health care and disease burden. The most recent iteration of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute asthma guidelines, the Expert Panel Report 3, emphasizes the assessment and monitoring of asthma control in the management of asthma. Asthma control refers to the degree to which the manifestations of asthma are minimized by therapeutic interventions and the goals of therapy are met. Although assessment of asthma severity is used to guide initiation of therapy, monitoring of asthma control helps determine whether therapy should be maintained or adjusted...
January 2017: Pediatrics
Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Zeynelabidin Öztürk, Ebru Yalçın, Deniz Doğru, Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper
Inflammation is a central contributor to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease; so limiting the excessive production of inflammatory mediators represents a major therapeutic strategy for slowing the decline in lung function and improving survival. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has anti-inflammatory properties and immunomodulatory effects that may be beneficial in CF. The aim of this study was to document the long term use of AZM effect on pulmonary function, nutritional status and number of pulmonary exacerbations in patients with CF...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Abigail C Cowley, David J Thornton, David W Denning, Alexander Horsley
The prevalence of aspergillosis in CF patients has until recently been underestimated, but increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the progression of CF lung disease. In healthy airways, Aspergillus fumigatus can be efficiently removed from the lung by mechanisms such as mucociliary clearance and cough. However, these mechanisms are defective in CF, allowing pathogens such as A. fumigatus to germinate and establish chronic infections within the airways. The precise means by which A...
April 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M Joshi, S K Chhabra, Mujeeb-Ur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Spirometry is an essential investigation in pulmonology. The predicted normal spirometry values depend on various physiological parameters. This study was conducted to collect updated information on pulmonary functions in normal adults from western India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Mumbai enrolling healthy subjects, 18-75 years, with ethnic origin from western India. Spirometry measurements were carried out as per ATS/ERS-2005 guidelines using a non-heated Fleish Pneumotachograph spirometer...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Luciano E Busi, Sebastián Restuccia, Ricardo Tourres, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND: Measuring lung function, including bronchodilator response (BDR), is an integral part of asthma management in older children. While spirometry is possible in preschool-aged children, the question remains whether measuring BDR aids in asthma diagnosis in this age group. METHODS: 431 healthy children and 289 children with asthma, aged 3-5 years, were recruited from kindergartens and the pulmonology clinic in Trelew, Argentina. Spirometry was performed at visit 1 and repeated after 15 min, with children randomised to placebo or salbutamol (400 µg)...
April 2017: Thorax
V Lezana, A Gajardo, L Bofill, M Gutierrez, S Mora, J A Castro-Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: To measure lung function by impulse oscillometry (IOS) and spirometry in recurrent wheezer pre-schoolers according to their asthma predictive index (API) condition. METHODS: We performed a case-control study enrolling all pre-schoolers with recurrent wheezing episodes (>3 episodes confirmed by physician) who presented at a paediatric pulmonology clinic. The population was divided according to stringent API criteria into positive or negative. RESULTS: In the nine-month period, 109 pre-schoolers were enrolled...
March 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Pedro Pedrosa Rebouças Filho, Paulo César Cortez, Antônio C da Silva Barros, Victor Hugo C Albuquerque, João Manuel R S Tavares
The World Health Organization estimates that 300 million people have asthma, 210 million people have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and, according to WHO, COPD will become the third major cause of death worldwide in 2030. Computational Vision systems are commonly used in pulmonology to address the task of image segmentation, which is essential for accurate medical diagnoses. Segmentation defines the regions of the lungs in CT images of the thorax that must be further analyzed by the system or by a specialist physician...
January 2017: Medical Image Analysis
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Dirk Skowasch, Andreas Fertl, Björn Schwick, Harald Schäfer, Andreas Hellmann, Felix J F Herth
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials indicate that significant lung volume reduction (ELVR) can be obtained with Zephyr® valves by occluding the target lobe in the absence of collateral ventilation, leading to relevant functional benefits in advanced emphysema patients. OBJECTIVES: To observe the long-term effects of endobronchial valve (EBV) implantation in emphysema patients screened by Chartis assessment in the context of daily pulmonology practice. METHODS: The LIVE Study is a prospective, observational, open-label, single-arm, multicenter trial conducted in Germany...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Margarida Torres Redondo, Elsa Campoa, Luis Ruano, Maria Sucena
BACKGROUND: Measures of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) can help to determine the impact of the disease and provide an important insight into the intervention outcomes. There is few data regarding this issue in the literature. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between HRQoL and gender, functional parameters and history of hospitalizations in patients with AATD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 26 patients with severe AATD recruited in the pulmonology outpatient clinic at a tertiary care medical center...
February 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
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