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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092638/mr-elastography-to-measure-the-effects-of-cancer-and-pathology-fixation-on-prostate-biomechanics-and-comparison-with-t-1-t-2-and-adc
#1
Deirdre M McGrath, Jenny Lee, Warren D Foltz, Navid Samavati, Theo van der Kwast, Michael A S Jewett, Peter Chung, Cynthia Ménard, Kristy K Brock
MRI is under evaluation for image-guided intervention for prostate cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters is determined via correlation with the gold-standard of histopathology. Whole-mount histopathology of prostatectomy specimens can be digitally registered to in vivo imaging for correlation. When biomechanical-based deformable registration is employed to account for deformation during histopathology processing, the ex vivo biomechanical properties are required. However, these properties are altered by pathology fixation, and vary with disease...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088915/evaluation-of-microrna-stability-in-plasma-and-serum-from-healthy-dogs
#2
Lars Enelund, Lise Nikolic Nielsen, Susanna Cirera
BACKGROUND: Early and specific detection of cancer is of great importance for successful treatment of the disease. New biomarkers, like microRNAs, could improve treatment efficiency and survival ratio. In human medicine, deregulation of microRNA profiles in circulation has shown great potential as a new type of biomarker for cancer diagnostics. There are, however, few studies of circulating microRNAs in dogs. Extracellular circulating microRNAs have shown a high level of stability in human blood and other body fluids...
January 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081183/circulating-cell-free-dna-in-dogs-with-mammary-tumors-short-and-long-fragments-and-integrity-index
#3
Giorgia Beffagna, Alessandro Sammarco, Chiara Bedin, Chiara Romualdi, Marta Mainenti, Antonio Mollo, Laura Cavicchioli, Silvia Ferro, Davide Trez, Raffaella De Maria, Donato Nitti, Andrea Saccani, Michelangelo Campanella, Marco Agostini, Valentina Zappulli
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been considered an interesting diagnostic/prognostic plasma biomarker in tumor-bearing subjects. In cancer patients, cfDNA can hypothetically derive from tumor necrosis/apoptosis, lysed circulating cells, and some yet unrevealed mechanisms of active release. This study aimed to preliminarily analyze cfDNA in dogs with canine mammary tumors (CMTs). Forty-four neoplastic, 17 non-neoplastic disease-bearing, and 15 healthy dogs were recruited. Necrosis and apoptosis were also assessed as potential source of cfDNA on 78 CMTs diagnosed from the 44 dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078601/inhibition-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-by-combined-tgfbeta-knockdown-and-metformin-treatment-in-a-canine-mammary-cancer-xenograft-model
#4
Camila Leonel, Thaiz Ferraz Borin, Lívia de Carvalho Ferreira, Marina Gobbe Moschetta, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Alicia M Viloria-Petit, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos Zuccari
Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal properties, generating metastases. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is associated with this malignancy by having the ability to induce EMT. Metformin, has been shown to inhibit EMT in breast cancer cells. Based on this evidence we hypothesize that treatment with metformin and the silencing of TGF-β, inhibits the EMT in cancer cells. Canine metastatic mammary tumor cell line CF41 was stably transduced with a shRNA-lentivirus, reducing expression level of TGF-β1...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077715/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#5
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074628/s100a4-metastasin-positive-mesenchymal-canine-mammary-tumour-spheroids-reduce-tenascin-c-synthesis-under-dmso-exposure-in-vitro
#6
S Kau, I Miller, A Tichy, C Gabriel
In breast cancer research S100A4-positive tumour-associated stromal cells are assumed as primary source of Tenascin C (TNC) in the metastatic environment. Aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize S100A4/TNC positive stromal canine mammary tumour (CMT) cells. Cells grown as scaffold-free spheroids were investigated for S100A4, TNC, and proliferative activity under 1.8% DMSO stimulation by means of Western blot and immunohistochemistry. DMSO is a commonly used drug solvent despite well-known side effects on cells including TNC expression...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068367/cell-surface-integrins-and-car-are-both-essential-for-adenovirus-type-5-transduction-of-canine-cells-of-lymphocytic-origin
#7
Payal Agarwal, Elizabeth A Gammon, Abdul Mohin Sajib, Maninder Sandey, Bruce F Smith
Adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in cancer gene therapy. Adenoviruses vectors are well characterized and are easily manipulated. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most commonly used human serotype. Ad5 internalization into host cells is a combined effect of binding of Ad5 fiber knob with the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and binding of RGD motifs in viral penton to cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5). Ad5's wide range of host-cell transduction and lack of integration into the host genome have made it an excellent choice for cancer therapeutics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068294/canine-olfaction-as-an-alternative-to-analytical-instruments-for-disease-diagnosis-understanding-dog-personality-to-achieve-reproducible-results
#8
Klaus Hackner, Joachim Pleil
Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all the way to essentially random results. This disparity is not likely to be a detection issue; dogs have been shown to have extremely sensitive noses as proven by their use for tracking, bomb detection and search and rescue. However, in contrast to analytical instruments, dogs are subject to boredom, fatigue, hunger and external distractions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068084/molecular-modeling-evaluation-of-the-enantiomers-of-a-novel-adenylyl-cyclase-2-inhibitor
#9
Neha Rana, Jason M Conley, Monica Soto-Velasquez, Francisco Leon, Stephen J Cutler, Val J Watts, Markus A Lill
Adenylyl cyclase 2 (AC2) is one of nine membrane-bound isoforms of adenylyl cyclase that converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP), an important second messenger molecule. Up-regulation of AC2 is linked to cancers like pancreatic and small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The structures of the various isoforms of adenylyl cyclases are highly homologous, posing a significant challenge to drug discovery efforts for an effective, isoform-selective modulator of AC2. In a previous study, a screen identified a potential isoform-selective and non-competitive inhibitor of AC2, SKF83566...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058543/genomic-profiling-of-canine-mast-cell-tumors-identifies-dna-copy-number-aberrations-associated-with-kit-mutations-and-high-histological-grade
#10
Hiroyuki Mochizuki, Rachael Thomas, Scott Moroff, Matthew Breen
Mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common skin malignancy of domestic dogs and presents with a widely variable clinical behavior. Although activating KIT mutations are present in approximately 20% of canine MCTs, molecular etiology is largely unknown for the majority of this cancer. Characterization of genomic alterations in canine MCTs may identify genomic regions and/or genes responsible for their development and progression, facilitating the discovery of new therapeutic targets and improved clinical management of this heterogeneous cancer...
January 5, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053569/synthesis-of-n-mannich-bases-of-berberine-linking-piperazine-moieties-revealing-anticancer-and-antioxidant-effects
#11
Bhupendra Mistry, Rahul V Patel, Young-Soo Keum, Doo Hwan Kim
A new Mannich base series of piperazine linked berberine analogues was furnished in this study to screen the antioxidant and anticancer potential of the resultant analogues. Alkoxy group at a C-9 position of berberine was converted to hydroxyl functionality to enhance the ability of final scaffolds binding to the target of drug action mainly through hydrophobic effect, conjugation effect, whereas Mannich base functionality was introduced on the C-12 position of berberine. Scaffolds were investigated for their free radical scavenging antioxidant potential in FRAP and DPPH assay, whereas tested to check their Fe(+3) reducing power in ABTS assay...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052524/cross-species-analysis-of-the-canine-and-human-bladder-cancer-transcriptome-and-exome
#12
Stephen A Ramsey, Tanjin Xu, Cheri Goodall, Adelaide C Rhodes, Amita Kashyap, Jun He, Shay Bracha
We investigated the correspondence between transcriptome and exome alterations in canine bladder cancer and the correspondence between these alterations and cancer-driving genes and transcriptional alterations in human bladder cancer. We profiled canine bladder tumors using mRNA-seq and exome-seq and used a comparative oncology approach to investigate: (i) the similarity of transcriptional alterations in bladder cancer vs. normal bladder, in humans and canines, at the levels of gene functions, pathways, and cytogenetic regions; and (ii) the extent to which genic mutations in canine bladder cancer are associated with known cancer mutations (from human) as well as alterations in transcript levels in the canine tumor...
January 3, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048581/su-c-204-06-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-for-kilovoltage-x-ray-psoralen-activated-cancer-therapy-x-pact-preliminary-results
#13
S Mein, R Gunasingha, M Nolan, M Oldham, J Adamson
PURPOSE: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046380/we-fg-202-06-the-use-of-hybrid-pet-mri-for-identifying-the-presence-of-cardiac-inflammation-following-external-beam-irradiation
#14
O El-Sherif, I Xhaferllari, J Sykes, J Butler, J Battista, G Wisenberg, F Prato, S Gaede
PURPOSE: To monitor the evolution of radiation-induced cardiac inflammation in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Research ethics approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET-MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess changes in cardiac inflammation using (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) PET tracer...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009075/assessment-of-sentinel-lymph-node-metastasis-in-canine-mammary-gland-tumors-using-computed-tomographic-indirect-lymphography
#15
Christina Soultani, Michail N Patsikas, Maria Karayannopoulou, Samuel Jakovljevic, Ioannis Chryssogonidis, Lysimachos Papazoglou, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Paraskevi Papadopoulou, Kyriaki Pavlidou, Georgia M Ilia, Dimitrios G Kaitzis, Tatiana M Ilia
In the staging process of the breast cancer, demonstrating metastasis of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) has an important prognostic value, in both humans and animals. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to determine the diagnostic value of computed tomographic indirect lymphography (CT-LG) for detecting SLN metastasis in dogs with mammary cancer. Thirty-three female dogs with tumors in the abdominal and inguinal mammary glands were prospectively selected and subjected to CT-LG, 1 and 5 min after injection of 1 ml of contrast agent (iopamidol) in the subareolar tissue of the neoplastic and the contralateral normal mammary glands...
December 23, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993142/identification-and-characterization-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-canine-mammary-tumors
#16
REVIEW
Agata Rybicka, Magdalena Król
Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in diverse types of cancer, including breast cancer. Spontaneously occurring mammary tumors in canines share clinical and molecular similarities with the human counterpart, making the dog a potentially powerful model for the study of human breast cancer and clinical trials...
December 19, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990487/tuning-hydrogel-properties-to-promote-the-assembly-of-salivary-gland-spheroids-in-3d
#17
Tugba Ozdemir, Eric W Fowler, Shuang Liu, Daniel A Harrington, Robert L Witt, Mary C Farach-Carson, Swati Pradhan-Bhatt, Xinqiao Jia
Current treatments for chronic xerostomia, or "dry mouth", do not offer long-term therapeutic benefits for head and neck cancer survivors previously treated with curative radiation. Towards the goal of creating tissue-engineered constructs for the restoration of salivary gland functions, we developed new hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels using thiolated HA (HA-SH) and acrylated HA (HA-AES) with a significant molecular weight mismatch. Four hydrogel formulations with varying HA concentration, (1-2.4 wt%) and thiol/acrylate ratios (2/1 to 36/1) and elastic moduli (G': 35 to 1897 Pa, 2 h post-mixing) were investigated...
December 12, 2016: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936234/cell-density-dependent-increase-in-tyrosine-monophosphorylated-erk2-in-mdck-cells-expressing-active-ras-or-raf
#18
Noriyuki Kawabata, Michiyuki Matsuda
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the principal hub proteins that transmit growth signals from upstream oncogene products including Ras and BRaf to downstream effector proteins. However, there are both reports supporting and refuting the increase in ERK activity in cancer tissues expressing the active Ras and BRaf proteins. We considered that the cell density might account for this discrepancy. To examine this possibility, we prepared Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that expressed an active HRas, NRas, KRas, or BRaf and an ERK biosensor based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933061/ncr1-expression-identifies-canine-natural-killer-cell-subsets-with-phenotypic-similarity-to-human-natural-killer-cells
#19
Jennifer A Foltz, Srinivas S Somanchi, Yanwen Yang, Arianexys Aquino-Lopez, Erin E Bishop, Dean A Lee
Canines spontaneously develop many cancers similar to humans - including osteosarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma - offering the opportunity to study immune therapies in a genetically heterogeneous and immunocompetent environment. However, a lack of antibodies recognizing canine NK cell markers has resulted in suboptimal characterization and unknown purity of NK cell products, hindering the development of canine models of NK cell adoptive immunotherapy. To this end, we generated a novel antibody to canine NCR1 (NKp46), the putative species-wide marker of NK cells, enabling purification of NK cells for further characterization...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918691/podoplanin-expression-in-canine-melanoma
#20
Satoshi Ogasawara, Ryusuke Honma, Mika K Kaneko, Yuki Fujii, Yumiko Kagawa, Satoru Konnai, Yukinari Kato
A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues...
December 2016: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
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