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Canine cancer

Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves, Priscila Emiko Kobayashi, Renée Laufer-Amorim
NKX3.1/C-MYC cross-regulation has been reported in the normal human prostate, and loss of NKX3.1 and gain of C-MYC seem to be important events in prostate cancer development and progression. The dog can be an interesting model for human prostatic disease, and yet only one previous research study has shown deregulation of NKX3.1 and MYC in the canine prostate. To address the expression of NKX3.1 and C-MYC in different canine prostatic lesions, this study verified the gene and protein expression of NKX3.1 and C-MYC in normal canine prostatic tissues...
April 10, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Hyun-Ji Choi, Han-Byul Lee, Hyun-Kyu Park, Sung-Min Cho, Hyo-Jeong Han, Sang-Joon Lee, Ji-Young Lee, Su-Jeong Nam, Eun-Ho Cho, Woo-Chan Son
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) shows upregulated expression in tumors and is an important driver of tumor development and progression. However, the mechanism underlying the mediation of tumor aggressiveness by EZH2 remains unclear. We here investigated the levels of EZH2 in various normal and tumorous dog tissues and compared these patterns with those of the corresponding human tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive staining for EZH2 in 76 of 82 cases of canine tumors, whereas low or negligible staining occurred in normal tissues and other canine tumors, including hepatocellular adenoma and lipoma...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Xiaoli Ren, Bingbing Zhao, Hongjian Chang, Min Xiao, Yuhong Wu, Yun Liu
Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid compound, derived from the pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) berry, which exhibits antineoplastic effects against various types of cancer. However, the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of paclitaxel on canine CHMm cells remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of paclitaxel on CHMm cells and identify relevant signal transduction pathways modulated by paclitaxel using multiple methods including MTT assay, flow cytometry, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, transmission electron microscopy, determination of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondiadehyde (MDA) and western blotting, the data indicated that paclitaxel decreased cell viability, induced G2/M‑phase cell cycle arrest, suppressed the expression of cyclin B1 and induced apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Gianluca Boo, Stefan Leyk, Christopher Brunsdon, Ramona Graf, Andreas Pospischil, Sara Irina Fabrikant
Fitting canine cancer incidences through a conventional regression model assumes constant statistical relationships across the study area in estimating the model coefficients. However, it is often more realistic to consider that these relationships may vary over space. Such a condition, known as spatial non-stationarity, implies that the model coefficients need to be estimated locally. In these kinds of local models, the geographic scale, or spatial extent, employed for coefficient estimation may also have a pervasive influence...
2018: PloS One
Melissa M Ledet, Robyn Anderson, Rebecca Harman, Aaron Muth, Paul R Thompson, Scott A Coonrod, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
BACKGROUND: Mammary cancer is highly prevalent in dogs and cats and results in a poor prognosis due to critically lacking viable treatment options. Recent human and mouse studies have suggested that inhibiting peptidyl arginine deiminase enzymes (PAD) may be a novel breast cancer therapy. Based on the similarities between human breast cancer and mammary cancer in dogs and cats, we hypothesized that PAD inhibitors would also be an effective treatment for mammary cancer in these animals...
April 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
P Cruz, F Reyes, C G Torres
The presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) within canine mammary tumors, may explain partly local recurrence and spreading, since their ability to resist conventional antitumor treatments as chemo and radiotherapy. It has been recently described that simvastatin - a drug that inhibits synthesis of cholesterol - attenuates the proliferation of canine mammary CSC derived from CF41.Mg canine mammary carcinoma cells, promoting their chemosensitizing and apoptosis. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is usually activated at CSC and up-regulates multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), triggering chemoresistance...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
P Jack Hoopes, Robert J Wagner, Kayla Duval, Kevin Kang, David J Gladstone, Karen L Moodie, Margaret Crary-Burney, Hugo Ariaspulido, Frank A Veliz, Nicole F Steinmetz, Steven Fiering
The presence and benefit of a radiation therapy-associated immune reaction is of great interest as the overall interest in cancer immunotherapy expands. Radiation therapy (RT) pathology studies have rarely demonstrated a consistent immune or inflammatory response following conventional RT. More recent information, primarily associated with the "abscopal effect", suggests a subtle radiation-based systemic immune response may be more common and have more therapeutic potential than previously believed...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
R A Prudic, C F Saba, B N Lourenço, A C Bugbee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the point prevalence of proteinuria in dogs presenting to the University of Georgia Oncology Service for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 60 client-owned dogs with a confirmed cancer diagnosis were included but those with lower urinary tract neoplasia were excluded. Each dog's signalment, cancer diagnosis, previous cancer treatments, current medications and travel history were recorded. Renal values, electrolytes, packed cell volume, total solids, systolic blood pressure, urinalysis, urine protein:urine creatinine and retinal examinations were recorded...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Alessia Pallaoro, Rustin Y Mirsafavi, William T N Culp, Gary B Braun, Carl D Meinhart, Martin Moskovits
Canine lower urinary tract neoplasia is a clinically important disease process that has high mortality due to late stage diagnosis and poorly durable response to treatment. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques (e.g. dipstick test, urine cytology) currently have poor diagnostic value, while more invasive tests (e.g. cystoscopy and biopsy) are costly and often require general anesthesia. We have developed and herein describe a quantitative cytological analysis method based on the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), for identifying cancerous transitional cells in urine using SERS biotags (SBTs) carrying the peptide PLZ4 (amino acid sequence cQDGRMGFc) that targets malignant transitional cells...
March 26, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Shiwanthi L Ranasinghe, Donald P McManus
Whereas a number of parasites are well recognized risk factors for a number of different cancers in mammalian hosts, there is limited information on the ability of parasitic organisms to induce anticancer effects. There are conflicting reports that echinococcosis, caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus , can decrease or increase cancer risk. This review considers both indirect anticancer effects as the result of adaptive immunity generated against certain echinococcal antigens and the direct effect of molecules released by E ...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Alejandro Parrales, Peter McDonald, Megan Ottomeyer, Anuradha Roy, Frank J Shoenen, Melinda Broward, Tyce Bruns, Douglas H Thamm, Scott J Weir, Kathleen A Neville, Tomoo Iwakuma, Joy M Fulbright
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is an orphan disease for which little improvement in survival has been made since the late 1980s. New drug discovery for orphan diseases is limited by the cost and time it takes to develop new drugs. Repurposing already approved FDA-drugs can help overcome this limitation. Another limitation of cancer drug discovery is the lack of preclinical models that accurately recapitulate what occurs in humans. For OS using dogs as a model can minimize this limitation as OS in canines develops spontaneously, is locally invasive and metastasizes to the lungs as it does in humans...
2018: PloS One
Yuki Nemoto, Kazuha Shosu, Masaru Okuda, Shunsuke Noguchi, Takuya Mizuno
Recent research has focused on immunotherapy, particularly with regard to cancer treatment. Programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway blockade is a central topic of the promising immunotherapy field. In veterinary medicine, observations of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, including the relationship between immune cells and diseases, have increased. In this study, monoclonal antibodies specific to canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were developed, and the antibodies against PD-1 and PD-L1 bind to PD-1 and PD-L1 overexpressing cells, respectively...
April 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yara de Oliveira Brandão, Mariana Busato Toledo, Andressa Chequin, Thierry Grima Cristo, Renato Silva Sousa, Edneia Amancio Souza Ramos, Giseli Klassen
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, prognosis, and treatment. In human and canine mammary cancer, the most aggressive tumors show loss of ERα expression, which in human breast cancer has been attributed to methylation of the cytosine followed by guanine (CpG) island within the estrogen receptor α gene ( ESR1) promoter. This study aimed to investigate the role of ESR1 CpG island (CGI) methylation in ERα expression in canine mammary tumors. Twenty-one canine mammary samples were sorted into three groups: malignant tumor (n = 9), benign tumor (n = 8), and normal gland (n = 4)...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Dalibor Pacik, Mariana Plevova, Lucie Urbanova, Zuzana Lackova, Vladislav Strmiska, Alois Necas, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
The hypothesis that dogs can detect malignant tumours through the identification of specific molecules is nearly 30 years old. To date, several reports have described the successful detection of distinct types of cancer. However, is still a lack of data regarding the specific molecules that can be recognized by a dog's olfactory apparatus. Hence, we performed a study with artificially prepared, well-characterized urinary specimens that were enriched with sarcosine, a widely reported urinary biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa)...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aleksandra Pawlak, Witold Gładkowski, Justyna Kutkowska, Marcelina Mazur, Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz, Andrzej Rapak
For many years, studies focused on developing new natural or synthetic compounds with antineoplastic activity have attracted the attention of researchers. An interesting group of such compounds seem to be those with both lactone moiety and an aromatic ring which, in addition to antimicrobial or antiviral activity, also exhibit antitumor properties. The study shows antitumor activity of two enantiomeric trans isomers of 5-(1-iodoethyl)-4-(2',5'-dimethylphenyl)dihydrofuran-2-one. Our aim was to determine their antitumor activity manifested as an ability to induce apoptosis in selected canine cancer cell lines as well as to evaluate differences in their strength depending on the configuration of their stereogenic centers...
March 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xóchitl Zambrano-Estrada, Brianda Landaverde-Quiroz, Andrés A Dueñas-Bocanegra, Marco A De Paz-Campos, Gerardo Hernández-Alberto, Benjamín Solorio-Perusquia, Manuel Trejo-Mandujano, Laura Pérez-Guerrero, Evangelina Delgado-González, Brenda Anguiano, Carmen Aceves
BACKGROUND: Mammary cancer has a high incidence in canines and is an excellent model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Molecular iodine (I2 ) exerts antineoplastic effects on different cancer cells activating re-differentiation pathways. In co-administration with anthracyclines, I2 impairs chemoresistance installation and prevents the severity of side effects generated by these antineoplastic drugs. This study is a random and double-blind protocol that analyzes the impact of I2 (10 mg/day) in two administration schemes of Doxorubicin (DOX; 30 mg/m2) in 27 canine patients with cancer of the mammary gland...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Jessica G Rushton, Reinhard Ertl, Dieter Klein, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Nell
Objectives Feline diffuse iris melanoma (FDIM) is the most common malignant primary intraocular tumour in cats, with reported metastases rates between 19% and 63%. Currently, the only available diagnostic tool for a tentative diagnosis is histopathological examination of the enucleated eye. Therefore, the veterinary ophthalmologist is often faced with the dilemma of whether to enucleate an oftentimes visual eye or to continue monitoring, with the risk of metastases developing. In the past, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) gained more attention in human medicine, especially in the field of oncology...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Priscila E Kobayashi, Carlos E Fonseca-Alves, Luis G Rivera-Calderón, Márcio Carvalho, Hellen Kuasne, Silvia R Rogatto, Renée Laufer-Amorim
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with high levels of clinical and gene heterogeneity, consequently offering several targets for therapy. Dogs with naturally occurring prostate cancer are useful models for molecular investigations and studying new treatment efficacy. Three genes and proteins associated with the WNT pathway (β-catenin, APC and E-cadherin) and Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were evaluated in canine pre-neoplastic proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), prostate cancer and metastatic disease. The APC gene methylation status was also investigated...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Teresa P Raposo, Hugo Arias-Pulido, Nabila Chaher, Steven N Fiering, David J Argyle, Justina Prada, Isabel Pires, Felisbina Luísa Queiroga
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) in humans is the most aggressive form of mammary gland cancer and shares clinical, pathologic, and molecular patterns of disease with canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (CIMC). Despite the use of multimodal therapeutic approaches, including targeted therapies, the prognosis for IBC/CIMC remains poor. The aim of this review is to critically analyze IBC and CIMC in terms of biology and clinical features. While rodent cancer models have formed the basis of our understanding of cancer biology, the translation of this knowledge into improved outcomes has been limited...
August 2017: Seminars in Oncology
Rebecca A Packer, John H Rossmeisl, Michael S Kent, John F Griffin, Christina Mazcko, Amy K LeBlanc
The National Cancer Institute Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium, Patient Outcomes Working Group, propose a consensus document in support of standardized magnetic resonance imaging protocols for canine brain tumor clinical trials. The intent of this manuscript is to address the widely acknowledged need to ensure canine brain tumor imaging protocols are relevant and have sufficient equivalency to translate to human studies such that: (1) multi-institutional studies can be performed with minimal inter-institutional variation, and (2) imaging protocols are consistent with human consensus recommendations to permit reliable translation of imaging data to human clinical trials...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
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