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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166607/kdm2b-regulates-somatic-reprogramming-through-variant-prc1-complex-dependent-function
#1
Zhiwei Zhou, Xuejie Yang, Jiangping He, Jing Liu, Fang Wu, Shengyong Yu, Yuting Liu, Runxia Lin, He Liu, Yuanbin Cui, Chunhua Zhou, Xiaoshan Wang, Jian Wu, Shangtao Cao, Lin Guo, Lihui Lin, Tao Wang, Xiaozhong Peng, Boqing Qiang, Andrew P Hutchins, Duanqing Pei, Jiekai Chen
Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) plays essential roles in cell-fate determination. Recent studies have found that the composition of mammalian PRC1 is particularly varied and complex; however, little is known about the functional consequences of these variant PRC1 complexes on cell-fate determination. Here, we show that Kdm2b promotes Oct4-induced somatic reprogramming through recruitment of a variant PRC1 complex (PRC1.1) to CpG islands (CGIs). Furthermore, we find that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) represses Oct4/Kdm2b-induced somatic reprogramming selectively...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158494/mrg15-stimulates-ash1-h3k36-methyltransferase-activity-and-facilitates-ash1-trithorax-group-protein-function-in-drosophila
#2
Chang Huang, Fu Yang, Zhuqiang Zhang, Jing Zhang, Gaihong Cai, Lin Li, Yong Zheng, She Chen, Rongwen Xi, Bing Zhu
Ash1 is a Trithorax group protein that possesses H3K36-specific histone methyltransferase activity, which antagonizes Polycomb silencing. Here we report the identification of two Ash1 complex subunits, Mrg15 and Nurf55. In vitro, Mrg15 stimulates the enzymatic activity of Ash1. In vivo, Mrg15 is recruited by Ash1 to their common targets, and Mrg15 reinforces Ash1 chromatin association and facilitates the proper deposition of H3K36me2. To dissect the functional role of Mrg15 in the context of the Ash1 complex, we identify an Ash1 point mutation (Ash1-R1288A) that displays a greatly attenuated interaction with Mrg15...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153392/polycomb-repressive-complex-2-methylates-elongin-a-to-regulate-transcription
#3
M Behfar Ardehali, Anthony Anselmo, Jesse C Cochrane, Sharmistha Kundu, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Robert E Kingston
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2-EZH2) methylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27) and is required to maintain gene repression during development. Misregulation of PRC2 is linked to a range of neoplastic malignancies, which is believed to involve methylation of H3K27. However, the full spectrum of non-histone substrates of PRC2 that might also contribute to PRC2 function is not known. We characterized the target recognition specificity of the PRC2 active site and used the resultant data to screen for uncharacterized potential targets...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152663/microrna%C3%A2-137-has-a-suppressive-role-in-liver-cancer-via-targeting-ezh2
#4
Shichang Cui, Yanlei Sun, Yang Liu, Chengbiao Liu, Jinbao Wang, Guang Hao, Qidong Sun
A variety of microRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to be associated with the development and malignant progression of human cancer; however, the regulatory mechanism of miR‑137 underlying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth and metastasis still remains to be fully revealed. In the present study, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to examine mRNA and protein expression. MTT assay, wound healing assay and Transwell assay were performed to determine cell proliferation, migration and invasion...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148857/update-on-the-role-and-therapeutic-potential-of-polycomb-repressive-complexes-in-biliary-tract-cancer
#5
Daniel Neureiter, Tobias Kiesslich, Markus Ritter, Christian Mayr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148109/notch-signaling-controls-transdifferentiation-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cells-in-response-to-lung-injury
#6
Erica Yao, Chuwen Lin, Qingzhe Wu, Kuan Zhang, Hai Song, Pao-Tien Chuang
Production of an appropriate number of distinct cell types in precise locations during embryonic development is critical for proper tissue function. Homeostatic renewal or repair of damaged tissues in adults also requires cell expansion and transdifferentiation to replenish lost cells. However, the responses of diverse cell types to tissue injury are not fully elucidated. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. This knowledge is essential for harnessing the regenerative potential of individual cell types...
November 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141031/developmental-patterning-of-sub-epidermal-cells-in-the-outer-integument-of-arabidopsis-seeds
#7
Elisa Fiume, Olivier Coen, Wenjia Xu, Loïc Lepiniec, Enrico Magnani
The seed, the reproductive unit of angiosperms, is generally protected by the seed coat. The seed coat is made of one or two integuments, each comprising two epidermal cells layers and, in some cases, extra sub-epidermal cell layers. The thickness of the seed-coat affects several aspects of seed biology such as dormancy, germination and mortality. In Arabidopsis, the inner integument displays one or two sub-epidermal cell layers that originate from periclinal cell divisions of the innermost epidermal cell layer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138857/mir%C3%A2-218-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-human-glioma-cells-through-downregulation-of-yin-yang-1
#8
Yong Gao, Laisheng Sun, Zicheng Wu, Chengmin Xuan, Junxia Zhang, Yongping You, Xincheng Chen
Malignant glioma is the most common cancer type of the nervous system and the mechanisms driving the occurrence and development remain unclear, preventing effective treatment of this disease. Therefore, novel and efficient therapies for glioma are required. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non‑coding RNAs that act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancer. In the present study, it was confirmed that Yin Yang‑1 (YY1), a transcription factor that is part of the polycomb group protein (PcG) family, is a direct target of miR‑218 in human glioma cells...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137925/polycomb-repression-complex-2-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-retinal-progenitor-cells-and-balanced-retinal-differentiation
#9
Naoko Fujimura, Andrea Kuzelova, Anja Ebert, Hynek Strnad, Jitka Lachova, Ondrej Machon, Meinrad Busslinger, Zbynek Kozmik
Polycomb repressive complexes maintain transcriptional repression of genes encoding crucial developmental regulators through chromatin modification. Here we investigated the role of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in retinal development by inactivating its key components Eed and Ezh2. Conditional deletion of Ezh2 resulted in a partial loss of PRC2 function and accelerated differentiation of Müller glial cells. In contrast, inactivation of Eed led to the ablation of PRC2 function at early postnatal stage...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129997/trichloroethylene-induced-alterations-in-dna-methylation-were-enriched-in-polycomb-protein-binding-sites-in-effector-memory-cd4-t-cells
#10
Kathleen M Gilbert, Sarah J Blossom, Brad Reisfeld, Stephen W Erickson, Kanan Vyas, Mary Maher, Brannon Broadfoot, Kirk West, Shasha Bai, Craig A Cooney, Sudeepa Bhattacharyya
Exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) can promote autoimmunity, and expand effector/memory (CD62L) CD4(+) T cells. In order to better understand etiology reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was used to study how a 40-week exposure to TCE in drinking water altered methylation of ∼337 770 CpG sites across the entire genome of effector/memory CD4(+) T cells from MRL+/+ mice. Regardless of TCE exposure, 62% of CpG sites in autosomal chromosomes were hypomethylated (0-15% methylation), and 25% were hypermethylated (85-100% methylation)...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127737/genomic-data-from-arthropods-reveal-high-conservation-but-divergent-evolutionary-pattern-of-polycomb-trithorax-group-genes-in-arthropods
#11
Feng Jiang, Qing Liu, Xiang Liu, Xian-Hui Wang, Le Kang
Epigenetic gene control is maintained by chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) genes, which act antagonistically via the interplay between PcG and TrxG regulation to generate silenced or permissive transcriptional states. In this study, we searched for PcG/TrxG genes in 180 arthropod genomes, covering all the sequenced arthropod genomes at the time of conducting this study, to perform a global investigation of PcG/TrxG genes in a phylogenetic frame. Results of ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed that the ancestor of arthropod species has an almost complete repertoire of PcG/TrxG genes, and most of these genes were seldom lost above order level...
November 11, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126440/chromatin-organization-changes-during-the-establishment-and-maintenance-of-the-postmitotic-state
#12
Yiqin Ma, Laura Buttitta
BACKGROUND: Genome organization changes during development as cells differentiate. Chromatin motion becomes increasingly constrained and heterochromatin clusters as cells become restricted in their developmental potential. These changes coincide with slowing of the cell cycle, which can also influence chromatin organization and dynamics. Terminal differentiation is often coupled with permanent exit from the cell cycle, and existing data suggest a close relationship between a repressive chromatin structure and silencing of the cell cycle in postmitotic cells...
November 10, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126117/dynamic-reorganization-of-open-chromatin-underlies-diverse-transcriptomes-during-spermatogenesis
#13
So Maezawa, Masashi Yukawa, Kris G Alavattam, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo massive cellular reconstruction and dynamic chromatin remodeling to facilitate highly diverse transcriptomes, which are required for the production of functional sperm. However, it remains unknown how germline chromatin is organized to promote the dynamic, complex transcriptomes of spermatogenesis. Here, using ATAC-seq, we establish the varied landscape of open chromatin during spermatogenesis. We identify the reorganization of accessible chromatin in intergenic and intronic regions during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition...
November 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125381/pleiotropy-in-drosophila-organogenesis-mechanistic-insights-from-combgap-and-the-retinal-determination-gene-network
#14
Trevor L Davis, Ilaria Rebay
Master regulatory transcription factors cooperate in networks to shepherd cells through organogenesis. In the Drosophila eye, a collection of master control proteins known as the retinal determination gene network (RDGN) switches the direction and targets of its output to choreograph developmental transitions, but the molecular partners that enable such regulatory flexibility are not known. We recently showed that two RDGN members, Eyes absent (Eya) and Sine oculis (So), promote exit from the terminal cell cycle known as the second mitotic wave (SMW) to permit differentiation...
November 10, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123987/jun-dimerization-protein-2-controls-hypoxia-induced-replicative-senescence-via-both-the-p16-ink4a-prb-and-arf-p53-pathways
#15
Koji Nakade, Chang-Shen Lin, Xiao-Yu Chen, Ming-Ho Tsai, Kenly Wuputra, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Jian-Zhi Pan, Kazunari K Yokoyama
The main regulators of replicative senescence in mice are p16(Ink4a) and Arf, inhibitors of cell cycle progression. Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts are resistant to replicative senescence through recruitment of the Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 to the promoter of the gene that encodes p16(Ink4a) and inhibits the methylation of lysine 27 of the histone H3 locus. However, whether or not JDP2 is able to regulate the chromatin signaling of either p16(Ink4a)-pRb or Arf-p53, or both, in response to oxidative stress remains elusive...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121865/temporally-distinct-transcriptional-regulation-of-myocyte-dedifferentiation-and-myofiber-growth-during-muscle-regeneration
#16
Ke'ale W Louie, Alfonso Saera-Vila, Phillip E Kish, Justin A Colacino, Alon Kahana
BACKGROUND: Tissue regeneration requires a series of steps, beginning with generation of the necessary cell mass, followed by cell migration into damaged area, and ending with differentiation and integration with surrounding tissues. Temporal regulation of these steps lies at the heart of the regenerative process, yet its basis is not well understood. The ability of zebrafish to dedifferentiate mature "post-mitotic" myocytes into proliferating myoblasts that in turn regenerate lost muscle tissue provides an opportunity to probe the molecular mechanisms of regeneration...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120412/bortezomib-induced-mirnas-direct-epigenetic-silencing-of-locus-genes-and-trigger-apoptosis-in-leukemia
#17
Yu-Yi Chu, Chiung-Yuan Ko, Shao-Ming Wang, Pin-I Lin, Han-Ying Wang, Wen-Chi Lin, Dong-Yu Wu, Lu-Hao Wang, Ju-Ming Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to repress transcription via binding the 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs. However, the involvement and details of miRNA-mediated epigenetic regulation, particularly in targeting genomic DNA and mediating epigenetic regulation, remain largely uninvestigated. In the present study, transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) was responsive to the anticancer drug bortezomib, a clinical and highly selective drug for leukemia treatment, and contributed to bortezomib-induced cell death...
November 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118015/anril-regulates-production-of-extracellular-matrix-proteins-and-vasoactive-factors-in-diabetic-complications
#18
Anu Alice Thomas, Biao Feng, Subrata Chakrabarti
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread interest due to their prevailing presence in various diseases. lncRNA ANRIL (a.k.a CDKN2B-AS1) is located on human chromosome 9 (p21.3) and transcribed in opposite direction to INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster. It has been identified as highly susceptible region for diseases such as coronary artery diseases and Type 2 Diabetes. Here we explored its regulatory role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in association with epigenetic modifiers p300 and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) complex...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113297/long-non-coding-rna-profile-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma-identifies-a-functional-lncrna-ror1-as1-associated-with-ezh2-prc2-complex
#19
Guangzhen Hu, Shiv K Gupta, Tammy P Troska, Asha Nair, Mamta Gupta
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by rapid disease progression. The needs for new therapeutic strategies for MCL patients call for further understanding on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of MCL. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized as key regulators of gene expression and disease development, however, the role of lncRNAs in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and specifically in MCL is still unknown. Next generation RNA-sequencing was carried out on MCL patient samples along with normal controls and data was analyzed...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113254/epigenetic-analysis-of-fhl1-tumor-suppressor-gene-in-human-liver-cancer
#20
Jun Wang, Fang Huang, Jian Huang, Jindan Kong, Shenglan Liu, Jun Jin
Liver cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among human malignancies. Four and a half LIM domains 1 (FHL1), as a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently downregulated in multiple types of human cancer. However, the role and specific mechanisms of FHL1 as a tumor suppressor in liver cancer are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role and associated mechanisms of FHL1 in human liver cancer. The level of FHL1 mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue specimens and cell lines derived from the human liver was determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
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