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Jingqi Tian, Houjuan Zhu, Jie Chen, Xinting Zheng, Hongwei Duan, Kanyi Pu, Peng Chen
Ultra-broadband light-absorbing materials are highly desired for effective solar-energy harvesting. Herein, novel cobalt phosphide double-shelled nanocages (CoP-NCs) are synthesized. Uniquely, these CoP-NCs are able to nonselectively absorb light spanning the full solar spectrum, benefiting from its electronic properties and hollow nanostructure. They promise a wide range of applications involving solar energy utilization. As proof-of-concept demonstrations, CoP-NCs are employed here as effective photothermal agents to ablate cancer cells by utilizing their ability of near-infrared heat conversion, and as photoactive material for self-powered photoelectrochemical sensing by taking advantage of their ability of photon-to-electricity conversion...
April 26, 2017: Small
Andrew G Mark, Emmanuel Suraniti, Jérôme Roche, Harald Richter, Alexander Kuhn, Nicolas Mano, Peer Fischer
A variety of diagnostic and therapeutic medical technologies rely on long term implantation of an electronic device to monitor or regulate a patient's condition. One proposed approach to powering these devices is to use a biofuel cell to convert the chemical energy from blood nutrients into electrical current to supply the electronics. We present here an enzymatic microbiofuel cell whose electrodes are directly integrated into a digital electronic circuit. Glucose oxidizing and oxygen reducing enzymes are immobilized on microelectrodes of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) using redox hydrogels to produce an enzymatic biofuel cell, capable of harvesting electrical power from just a single droplet of 5 mM glucose solution...
April 26, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Itthipon Jeerapan, Juliane R Sempionatto, Adriana Pavinatto, Jung-Min You, Joseph Wang
Highly stretchable textile-based biofuel cells (BFCs), acting as effective self-powered sensors, have been fabricated using screen-printing of customized stress-enduring inks. Due to synergistic effects of nanomaterial-based engineered inks and the serpentine designs, these printable bioelectronic devices endure severe mechanical deformations, e.g., stretching, indentation, or torsional twisting. Glucose and lactate BFCs with the single enzyme and membrane-free configurations generated the maximum power density of 160 and 250 µW cm(-2) with the open circuit voltages of 0...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Tiefeng Li, Guorui Li, Yiming Liang, Tingyu Cheng, Jing Dai, Xuxu Yang, Bangyuan Liu, Zedong Zeng, Zhilong Huang, Yingwu Luo, Tao Xie, Wei Yang
Soft robots driven by stimuli-responsive materials have unique advantages over conventional rigid robots, especially in their high adaptability for field exploration and seamless interaction with humans. The grand challenge lies in achieving self-powered soft robots with high mobility, environmental tolerance, and long endurance. We are able to advance a soft electronic fish with a fully integrated onboard system for power and remote control. Without any motor, the fish is driven solely by a soft electroactive structure made of dielectric elastomer and ionically conductive hydrogel...
April 2017: Science Advances
Levent Beker, Arnau Benet, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Ben Eovino, Albert P Pisano, Liwei Lin
In this paper, a novel method to generate electrical energy by converting available mechanical energy from pressure fluctuations of the cerebrospinal fluid within lateral ventricles of the brain is presented. The generated electrical power can be supplied to the neural implants and either eliminate their battery need or extend the battery lifespan. A diaphragm type harvester comprised of piezoelectric material is utilized to convert the pressure fluctuations to electrical energy. The pressure fluctuations cause the diaphragm to bend, and the strained piezoelectric materials generate electricity...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
Weeseong Seo, Wuyang Yu, Tianlin Tan, Babak Ziaie, Byunghoo Jung
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in humans. UTI is easily treatable using antibiotics if identified in early stage. However, without early identification and treatment, UTI can be a major source of serious complications in geriatric patients, in particular, those suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Also, for infants who have difficulty in describing their symptoms, UTI may lead to serious development of the disease making early identification of UTI crucial. In this paper, we present a diaper-embedded, wireless, self-powered, and autonomous UTI monitoring sensor module that allows an early detection of UTI with minimal effort...
April 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Amad Ud Din, Seneke Chamith Chandrathna, Jong-Wook Lee
Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
Fei Wu, Ping Yu, Lanqun Mao
Real-time in vivo analysis of neurochemical dynamics has great physiological and pathological implications for a full understanding of the brain. Self-powered electrochemical systems (SPESs) built on galvanic cell configurations bear the advantages of easy miniaturization for implantation and no interference to electric activities of neurons over traditional externally-powered electrochemical sensors for self-triggered in vivo analysis. However, this is still a new concept for in vivo neurochemical sensing with few implanted examples reported so far...
April 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Hengyu Guo, Min-Hsin Yeh, Yunlong Zi, Zhen Wen, Jie Chen, Guanlin Liu, Chenguo Hu, Zhong Lin Wang
The development of lightweight, superportable, and sustainable power sources has become an urgent need for most modern personal electronics. Here, we report a cut-paper-based self-charging power unit (PC-SCPU) that is capable of simultaneously harvesting and storing energy from body movement by combining a paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and a supercapacitor (SC), respectively. Utilizing the paper as the substrate with an assembled cut-paper architecture, an ultralight rhombic-shaped TENG is achieved with highly specific mass/volume charge output (82 nC g(-1)/75 nC cm(-3)) compared with the traditional acrylic-based TENG (5...
April 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Wenbo Peng, Xingfu Wang, Ruomeng Yu, Yejing Dai, Haiyang Zou, Aurelia C Wang, Yongning He, Zhong Lin Wang
Self-powered photodetectors (PDs) have long been realized by utilizing photovoltaic effect and their performances can be effectively enhanced by introducing the piezo-phototronic effect. Recently, a novel pyro-phototronic effect is invented as an alternative approach for performance enhancement of self-powered PDs. Here, a self-powered organic/inorganic PD is demonstrated and the influences of externally applied strain on the pyro-phototronic and the photovoltaic effects are thoroughly investigated. Under 325 nm 2...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
Dengbin Yu, Lu Bai, Junfeng Zhai, Yizhe Wang, Shaojun Dong
In this work, a self-powered microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor was developed for detecting toxicity in water containing heavy metal ions. Experimental conditions containing concentration of potassium ferricyanide, load resistor and glucose concentration were optimized. Six heavy metal ions (2mg/L, Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and Cr(3+)) were tested by this biosensor and the inhibition ratios obtained were 12.56%, 13.99%, 8.81%, 9.29%, 5.59% and 1.95%, respectively. The inhibition ratios of 28...
June 1, 2017: Talanta
I-Chen Wu, Yu-Hsin Weng, Ming-Yen Lu, Chun-Ping Jen, Vladimir E Fedorov, Wei Chung Chen, Ming Tsang Wu, Chie-Tong Kuo, Hsiang-Chen Wang
The p-n heterojunction photoelectrochemical biosensor, which comprises a p-type Cu<sub>2</sub>O film formed by electrochemical deposition and n-type ZnO nanorods formed by the hydrothermal method, is prone to photoelectrochemical reactions and self-powered. Four types of human esophageal cancer cells (ECCs) were detected by this biosensor without requiring an extra bias voltage. The measured photocurrent values of high invasion capacity cancer cells was consistently 2 times higher than those measured by a slight invasion capacity cancer cells...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
Shuyan Gao, Ye Chen, Jingzhen Su, Miao Wang, Xianjun Wei, Tao Jiang, Zhong Lin Wang
Carbon electrode materials are fabricated from bean curd to replace costly Pt-based electrodes to degrade methyl red (MR) as self-driven by a multilayer linkage triboelectric nanogenerator (ML-TENG). With the sponge as the buffer layer and precharge injection, the peak open-circuit voltage, Voc, short-circuit current, Isc, and maximum power density of the ML-TENG can reach and remain stable at 1300 V, 1.2 mA, and 7.4 W m(-2) (load resistance = 500 KΩ), respectively. Using the electric power generated by such an updated TENG, highly toxic and carcinogenic MR can be indirectly degraded to CO2 through an oxidation process induced by active chlorine produced at the as-obtained carbon-based electrode interface...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
Litty V Thekkekara, Min Gu
Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10(-3) Whcm(-3)...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chun-Chang Wu, Wen-Yu Chuang, Ching-Da Wu, Yu-Cheng Su, Yung-Yang Huang, Yang-Jing Huang, Sheng-Yu Peng, Shih-An Yu, Chih-Ting Lin, Shey-Shi Lu
A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO₂ detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO₂ sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively...
March 29, 2017: Sensors
A Mepham, J D Besant, A W Weinstein, I B Burgess, E H Sargent, S O Kelley
There is a growing need for power-free methods to manipulate small volumes of liquids and thereby enable use of diagnostic assays in resource-limited settings. Most existing self-powered devices provide analog manipulation of fluids using paper, capillary or pressure-driven pumps. These strategies are well-suited to manipulating larger micro- and milliliter-scale volumes at constant flow rates; however, they fail to enable the manipulation of nanoliter and picoliter volumes required in assays using droplets, capillary sampling (e...
April 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
A Young Choi, Chang Jun Lee, Jiwon Park, Dogyun Kim, Youn Tae Kim
Triboelectric energy harvesting has been applied to various fields, from large-scale power generation to small electronics. Triboelectric energy is generated when certain materials come into frictional contact, e.g., static electricity from rubbing a shoe on a carpet. In particular, textile-based triboelectric energy-harvesting technologies are one of the most promising approaches because they are not only flexible, light, and comfortable but also wearable. Most previous textile-based triboelectric generators (TEGs) generate energy by vertically pressing and rubbing something...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lyanne Valdez, Henry Shum, Isamar Ortiz-Rivera, Anna C Balazs, Ayusman Sen
Immobilized enzymes generate net fluid flow when exposed to specific reagents in solution. Thus, they function as self-powered platforms that combine sensing and on-demand fluid pumping. To uncover the mechanism of pumping, we examine the effects of solutal and thermal buoyancy on the behavior of phosphatase-based micropumps, using a series of reactants with known thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. By combining modeling and experiments, we perform the first quantitative comparison of thermal and solutal effects in an enzyme micropump system...
April 12, 2017: Soft Matter
Erh-Chia Yeh, Chi-Cheng Fu, Lucy Hu, Rohan Thakur, Jeffrey Feng, Luke P Lee
Portable, low-cost, and quantitative nucleic acid detection is desirable for point-of-care diagnostics; however, current polymerase chain reaction testing often requires time-consuming multiple steps and costly equipment. We report an integrated microfluidic diagnostic device capable of on-site quantitative nucleic acid detection directly from the blood without separate sample preparation steps. First, we prepatterned the amplification initiator [magnesium acetate (MgOAc)] on the chip to enable digital nucleic acid amplification...
March 2017: Science Advances
Xiaoxue Song, Fei Hui, Keith Gilmore, Bingru Wang, Guangyin Jing, Zhongchao Fan, Enric Grustan-Gutierrez, Yuanyuan Shi, Lucia Lombardi, Stephen A Hodge, Andrea C Ferrari, Mario Lanza
The development of piezoelectric layered materials may be one of the key elements enabling expansion of nanotechnology, as they offer a solution for the construction of efficient transducers for a wide range of applications, including self-powered devices. Here, we investigate the piezoelectric effect in multilayer (ML) stepped MoS2 flakes obtained by liquid-phase exfoliation, which is especially interesting because it may allow the scalable fabrication of electronic devices using large area deposition techniques (e...
March 24, 2017: Nanoscale
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