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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547654/potential-teratogenic-effects-of-clomiphene-citrate
#1
REVIEW
Alessandra Scaparrotta, Francesco Chiarelli, Alberto Verrotti
Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the oldest drug used to regulate the process of ovulation. Considering the great use of CC over the last 40 years, it is important to understand the possible risks associated with its use. The aim of this review was to evaluate the possible teratogenic effects of CC, analyzing results obtained from animal and human studies. The pharmacokinetics of CC and possible mechanisms involved in teratogenesis are examined. Fetal exposure to CC is possible due to the long half-life of CC and its metabolites...
May 25, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545988/impact-of-days-in-milk-at-the-initiation-of-ovulation-synchronization-protocols-on-the-efficiency-of-first-ai-in-multiparous-holstein-cows
#2
Mahmoud S El-Tarabany
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of days in milk (DIM) at the initiation of ovulation synchronization protocols [spontaneous estrus (n=899), Presynch (n=1277), and CIDRsynch (n=978)] on fertility indices of the first AI in multiparous Holstein cows. The days from calving to the initiation of timed-AI (TAI) were categorized into: <50days (D1), 51-65days (D2) and 66-80days (D3). Pregnancy rate (P/AI at day 75) of cows at D2 period was significantly greater than that in the D1 period [OR (odds ratio)=1...
May 17, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544572/inositol-treatment-of-anovulation-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#3
Jyotsna Pundir, Dimitrios Psaroudakis, Prakash Savnur, Priya Bhide, Luca Sabatini, Helena Teede, Arri Coomarasamy, Shakila Thangaratinam
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of anovulation and infertility, and a risk factor for development of metabolic syndrome and endometrial cancer. OBJECTIVES: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of inositol as an ovulation-induction agent. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and ISI conference proceedings, Register and Meta-register for RCTs and WHO trials' search portal...
May 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544226/short-term-rapamycin-treatment-increases-ovarian-lifespan-in%C3%A2-young-and-middle-aged-female-mice
#4
Xiaowei Dou, Yan Sun, Jiazhao Li, Jing Zhang, Dandan Hao, Wenwen Liu, Rui Wu, Feifei Kong, Xiaoxu Peng, Jing Li
Although age-related ovarian failure in female mammals cannot be reversed, recent strategies have focused on improving reproductive capacity with age, and rapamycin is one such intervention that has shown a potential for preserving the ovarian follicle pool and preventing premature ovarian failure. However, the application is limited because of its detrimental effects on follicular development and ovulation during long-term treatment. Herein, we shortened the rapamycin administration to 2 weeks and applied the protocol to both young (8 weeks) and middle-aged (8 months) mouse models...
May 22, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543135/bone-mineral-density-testing-and-bisphosphonate-and-oestrogen-prescribing-associated-with-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-utilization-the-impact-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-boxed-warning
#5
E Eworuke, V Popat, D G Moeny
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) prevents follicular maturation and ovulation, resulting in oestrogen deficiency. Oestrogen deficiency is particularly concerning as it is associated with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) or bone mass. Widespread use of concurrent oestrogen or bisphosphonates with DMPA has been observed in a previous single-centre US study. The authors also reported that more than half of obstetrician-gynaecologists ordered BMD testing solely due to DMPA...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542147/restricting-the-induction-of-ngf-in-ovarian-stroma-engenders-selective-follicular-activation-through-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#6
Yuanlin He, Xiaoxu Peng, Tinghe Wu, Weijie Yang, Wenwen Liu, Jing Zhang, Yiping Su, Feifei Kong, Xiaowei Dou, Jing Li
In mammalian ovaries, primordial follicles remain in a quiescent state until activation by the surrounding microenvironment. Ovarian intervention, for example, ovarian cystectomy, ovarian wedge resection or laser drilling therapies for polycystic ovarian syndrome, has long been reported to change follicular development by an unknown mechanism(s). Herein, we established a murine model with partial ovarian resection of one ovary unilaterally, with the contralateral ovary undamaged. We found the injury accelerated follicular activation and development through the mTORC1 signaling pathway...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538003/use-of-fertility-medications-and-cancer-risk-a-review-and-update
#7
Lindsay Kroener, Daniel Dumesic, Zain Al-Safi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing use of fertility medications for ovulation induction and ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization in the treatment of female infertility. In this review, recent literature regarding the association between fertility medication and cancer risk is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Several important publications have recently addressed the relationship between use of fertility medications and cancer risk. There are methodological limitations to many of these studies, including unique challenges in studying rare cancers that often develop several years after the time of fertility medication exposure...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532838/lactational-oestrus-and-reproductive-performance-following-a-delayed-limited-nursing-schedule-in-primiparous-sows
#8
REVIEW
T Y Chen, D L Turpin, A L Knight, E G Bouwman, N M Soede, R N Kirkwood, P Langendijk
With conventional lactation management, sows only conceive after weaning. However, intermittent suckling (IS) enables follicle growth and ovulation during lactation by reducing the suckling-induced inhibition of gonadotrophins. The current study evaluated IS regimes initiated at Day 21 or Day 28 post farrowing compared to conventional weaning on Day 28, in primiparous sows. Sows (Large White and Large White x Landrace) were randomly allocated to Control (C28; n = 44), IS21 (n = 29) and IS28 (n = 34) treatments at Day 20...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532836/follicular-dynamics-ovarian-vascularity-and-luteal-development-in-mares-with-early-or-late-postpartum-ovulation
#9
Kleber Menegon Lemes, Luciano Andrade Silva, Maria Augusta Alonso, Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini, Guilherme Pugliesi, Henrique Fulaneti Carvalho, Fernanda Jordão Affonso, Daniela Franco Silva, Ticiano Guimarães Leite, Rubens Paes de Arruda
Follicular development and deviation processes during the postpartum period are not completely known in horses. Thus, we aimed to study the characteristics of follicular dynamics and ovarian vascular perfusion during the postpartum period in mares that demonstrated estrous behavior and had early (<10 days) or late (≥10 days) postpartum ovulation. Ten mares were scanned daily by transrectal ultrasonography from the first day postpartum (d1) to the sixteenth day after the first postpartum ovulation (D0 = ovulation)...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532826/seasonal-infertility-in-gilts-and-sows-aetiology-clinical-implications-and-treatments
#10
REVIEW
Fabio De Rensis, Adam J Ziecik, Roy N Kirkwood
In gilts and sows, the summer-autumn period often is characterized by reduced fertility. Heat stress and long photoperiods during the warm season can cause a reduction in feed intake and an imbalance of the hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian axis. The increased variability in the interval between oestrus onset and ovulation results in an increased number of poorly timed inseminations. The altered endocrine activity compromises follicular and corpora luteal development, reduces oocyte quality and increases embryo mortality...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532823/effects-of-rumen-protected-methionine-and-choline-supplementation-on-steroidogenic-potential-of-the-first-postpartum-dominant-follicle-and-expression-of-immune-mediators-in-holstein-cows
#11
D A V Acosta, M I Rivelli, C Skenandore, Z Zhou, D H Keisler, D Luchini, M N Corrêa, F C Cardoso
Multiparous Holstein cows were assigned in a randomized complete block design into four treatments from 21 d before calving to 30 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were: MET [n = 19, fed the basal diet + rumen-protected methionine at a rate of 0.08% (w/w) of the dry matter, Smartamine(®) M], CHO (n = 17, fed the basal diet + choline 60 g/d, Reashure(®)), MIX (n = 21, fed the basal diet + Smartamine(®) M at a rate of 0.08% (w/w) of the dry matter and 60 g/d Reashure(®)), and CON (n = 20, no supplementation, fed the close-up and fresh cow diets)...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532660/bio-equivalent-doses-of-recombinent-hcg-and-recombinent-lh-during-ovarian-stimulation-result-in-similar-oestradiol-output-a-randomized-controlled-study
#12
Birgit Alsbjerg, Helle Olesen Elbaek, Rita Jakubcionyte Laursen, Betina Boel Povlsen, Thor Haahr, Claus Yding Andersen, Peter Humaidan
In nature, HCG is secreted by the implanting embryo from peri-implantation and onwards. In contrast, LH is mandatory for steroidogenesis and follicular development during the follicular phase, working in synergy with FSH. Moreover, LH is mandatory for the function of the corpus luteum. Although LH and HCG bind to the same receptor, significant molecular, structural and functional differences exist, inducing differences in bioactivity. This randomized controlled study compared the effect of recombinent FSH stimulation combined with daily either micro-dose recombinent HCG or recombinent LH supplementation in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio from day 1 of stimulation in a long gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist down regulation protocol...
May 11, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529269/possible-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-negative-regulation-of-ovulatory-cascade-and-luteal-development-in-rats
#13
Ryohei Funahashi, Takanobu Sakamoto, Norihito Taguchi, Ryosuke Naiki, Ryota Terashima, Mitsumori Kawaminami, Shiro Kurusu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of a nuclear receptor family, has been shown to be implicated in various reproductive processes. Here, we evaluated possible roles of PPARγ in ovulation and luteal development in a gonadotropins-primed immature rat model. Immunoreactive PPARγ was expressed in granulosa cells of eCG-stimulated mature follicles, and its expression level decreased following ovulatory hCG stimulus. Intra-bursal treatment with rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) simultaneously with subcutaneously administered hCG blocked the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in preovulatory follicles...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528816/vertical-transmission-of-microcystins-to-nile-crocodile-crocodylus-niloticus-eggs
#14
Alukhethi Singo, Jan G Myburgh, Peter N Laver, Elizabeth A Venter, Gezina C H Ferreira, Gertruida M Rösemann, Christo J Botha
Cyanobacteria or blue green algae are known for their extensive and highly visible blooms in eutrophic, stagnant freshwater bodies. Climate change and global warming have also contributed to a rise in toxic cyanobacterial blooms. One of the most important cyanobacteria is Microcystis aeruginosa, which can synthesize various microcystins that can affect the health of terrestrial and aquatic animals. Commercial Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) farming in South Africa is based on keeping breeders (adult males and females) in big dams on farms (captive-bred approach)...
May 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528496/artificial-insemination-of-holstein-heifers-with-sex-sorted-semen-during-the-hot-season-in-a-subtropical-region
#15
Lian-Ben Chang, Chih-Jen Chou, Jia-Shian Shiu, Po-An Tu, Shi-Xuan Gao, Shao-Yu Peng, Shinn-Chih Wu
Our aim was to investigate insemination techniques in order to improve pregnancy rates of artificial insemination (AI) using sex-sorted semen (sexed AI) in cattle in tropical and subtropical (T/ST) regions. In T/ST regions, the pregnancy rates by sexed AI are reportedly the lowest in the hottest months of the year, with less than 15% in cows and 35-40% in heifers (PMID 24048822). We compared sexed AI by depositing the semen into the uterine body (UB-AI, n = 12) versus the unilateral uterine horn (UUH-AI, n = 14) of pre-ovulation heifers...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#16
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526728/genetic-subtraction-profiling-identifies-candidate-mirnas-involved-in-rice-female-gametophyte-abortion
#17
Liyu Yang, Ya Wu, Wenliang Wang, Bigang Mao, Bingran Zhao, Jianbo Wang
Female gametophyte is an important participant in sexual reproduction of plants. The molecular mechanism of its development has received much attention in recent years. As important regulators of gene expression, miRNAs have been certified to play a significant role in many biological processes of plants including sexual reproduction. In this study, to investigate the potential regulatory effects of miRNAs on rice female gametophytes abortion, we used the high-throughput sequencing method to compare the miRNA transcriptome in ovules of a high frequency female-sterile line (fsv1) and a rice wild-type line (Gui 99) during ovule development...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521851/regulation-of-interleukin-11-expression-in-ovulatory-follicles-of-the-rat-ovary
#18
You-Jee Jang, You-Jee Jang, Jae-Il Park, Jae-Il Park, Seong-Eun Jeong, Seong-Eun Jeong, You-Mi Seo, You-Mi Seo, Phuong T M Dam, Phuong T M Dam, Young-Woo Seo, Young-Woo Seo, Bum-Chae Choi, Bum-Chae Choi, Sang-Jin Song, Sang-Jin Song, Sang-Young Chun, Sang-Young Chun, Moon-Kyoung Cho, Moon-Kyoung Cho
The aim of the present study was to examine the regulation of interleukin (IL)-11 expression, as well as the role of IL-11, during ovulation in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), followed by human CG (hCG) to induce superovulation stimulated expression of the Il11 gene in theca cells within 6h, as revealed by northern blot and in situ hybridisation analyses. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the IL-11 receptor, α subunit gene was expressed in granulosa and theca cells and that injection of hCG had no effect on its expression...
May 19, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520915/ovary-specific-depletion-of-the-nuclear-receptor-nr5a2-compromises-expansion-of-the-cumulus-oophorus-but-not-fertilization-by-icsi
#19
Kalyne Bertolin, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, João Suzuki, Jan Gossen, Kristina Schoonjans, Rajesha Duggavathi, Bruce D Murphy
The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1 (Nr5a2) is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, its ovarian expression is restricted to granulosa cells of activated follicles. We employed the floxed Nr5a2 (Nr5a2f/f) mutant mouse line and two granulosa-specific Cre lines, Amhr2Cre and tgCyp19Cre, to develop two tissue- and time-specific Nr5a2 depletion models, Nr5a2Amhr2-/- and Nr5a2Cyp19-/-. In the Nr5a2Cyp19-/- ovaries, Nr5a2 was depleted in mural granulosa, but not cumulus cells. We induced follicular development in mutant and wild type (control, CON) mice with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed 44h later treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce ovulation...
May 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520870/defining-the-role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-the-regulation-of-female-fertility
#20
Ma Karim Rumi, Prabhakar Singh, Katherine F Roby, Xiao Zhao, Khursheed Iqbal, Anamika Ratri, Tianhua Lei, Wei Cui, Shaon Borosha, Pramod Dhakal, Kaiyu Kubota, Damayanti Chakraborty, Jay L Vivian, Michael W Wolfe, Michael J Soares
Estrogens are essential hormones for the regulation of fertility. Cellular responses to estrogens are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2). In mouse and rat models, disruption of Esr1 causes infertility in both males and females. However, the role of ESR2 in reproductive function remains undecided due to a wide variation in phenotypic observations among Esr2 mutant mouse strains. Regulatory pathways independent of ESR2 binding to its cognate DNA response element have also been implicated in ESR2 signaling...
May 16, 2017: Endocrinology
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