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J Q Shen, Q Ji, W J Ding, L M Xia, K Song, L Wei, Y X Sun, C S Wang
Objective: To evaluate the impacts of an on-pump beating-heart versus an off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) technique for surgical revascularization on the early clinical outcomes in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of 35% or less. Methods: A total of 216 consecutive patients with an echocardiographic estimated EF of 35% or less who underwent non-emergency, primary, isolated CABG from January 2010 to December 2014 at Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University were included in this study and were divided into either an OBCAB group (patients who received on-pump beating-heart CABG surgery, n =88) or an OPCAB group (patients who received off-pump CABG surgery, n =128)...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Motomu Endo, Masayasu Yoshida, Youhei Sasaki, Katsuya Negishi, Kobo Horikawa, Yasufumi Daimon, Ken-Ichi Kurotani, Michitaka Notaguchi, Mitsutomo Abe, Takashi Araki
In many plants, timing of flowering is regulated by day length. In Arabidopsis, florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells in response to long days and is transported to the shoot apical meristem (SAM) through the phloem. The temporal aspects of florigen transportation have been studied in various plants by physiological experiments. Nevertheless, little is known how FT protein transportation is regulated in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed heat-shock based transient FT induction in a single leaf blade and detected the FT protein in shoot apex by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE)...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Daniel G Couch, Henry Maudslay, Brett Doleman, Jonathan N Lund, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
Background: Clinical trials investigating the use of cannabinoid drugs for the treatment of intestinal inflammation are anticipated secondary to preclinical literature demonstrating efficacy in reducing inflammation. Methods: We systematically reviewed publications on the benefit of drugs targeting the endo-cannabinoid system in intestinal inflammation. We collated studies examining outcomes for meta-analysis from EMBASE, MEDLINE and Pubmed until March 2017. Quality was assessed according to mSTAIR and SRYCLE score...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Andrea E Toth, Piotr Siupka, Thomas J P Augustine, Susanne T Venø, Louiza B Thomsen, Torben Moos, Hannes T Lohi, Peder Madsen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Morten S Nielsen
Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Caroline Mosbech, Jesper Holck, Anne S Meyer, Jane Wittrup Agger
Background: Glucuronoyl esterases belong to carbohydrate esterase family 15 and catalyze de-esterification. Their natural function is presumed to be cleavage of ester linkages in lignin-carbohydrate complexes particularly those linking lignin and glucuronoyl residues in xylans in hardwood. Results: Here, we show for the first time a detailed product profile of aldouronic acids released from birchwood lignin by a glucuronoyl esterase from the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor ( Cu GE)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Lauren Mullen, Kim Boerrigter, Nicholas Ferriero, Jeff Rosalsky, Abigail van Buren Barrett, Patrick J Murray, Andrew D Steen
Proteins constitute a particularly bioavailable subset of organic carbon and nitrogen in aquatic environments but must be hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes prior to being metabolized by microorganisms. Activities of extracellular peptidases (protein-degrading enzymes) have frequently been assayed in freshwater systems, but such studies have been limited to substrates for a single enzyme [leucyl aminopeptidase (Leu-AP)] out of more than 300 biochemically recognized peptidases. Here, we report kinetic measurements of extracellular hydrolysis of five substrates in 28 freshwater bodies in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in the Pocono Mountains (PA, United States) and near Knoxville (TN, United States), between 2013 and 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hitoshi Ono, Yasunari Kojima, Hiroshi Harada, Yoshikazu Abe, Takuro Endo, Mamoru Kobayashi
1. The pharmacokinetic and metabolite profiles of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 inhibitor designed to act only in the intestine, were investigated in rats. 2. Mizagliflozin administrated intravenously (0.3 mg/kg) and orally (3 mg/kg) declined with a short half-life (0.23 and 1.14 h, respectively). The absolute bioavailability was only 0.02%. Following intravenous administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (0.3 mg/kg), radioactivity in plasma was also rapidly declined. Up to 24 h after oral administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (1 mg/kg), radioactivity was recovered in the faeces (98...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Elif Bilgic, Madoka Takao, Pepa Kaneva, Satoshi Endo, Toshitatsu Takao, Yusuke Watanabe, Katherine M McKendy, Liane S Feldman, Melina C Vassiliou
BACKGROUND: Needs assessment identified a gap regarding laparoscopic suturing skills targeted in simulation. This study collected validity evidence for an advanced laparoscopic suturing task using an Endo StitchTM device. METHODS: Experienced (ES) and novice surgeons (NS) performed continuous suturing after watching an instructional video. Scores were based on time and accuracy, and Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Surgery. Data are shown as medians [25th-75th percentiles] (ES vs NS)...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Elena Okada, Débora Pérez, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Virginia Aparicio, Héctor Massone, José Luis Costa
We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Mizandari, J Kumar, M Pai, T Chikovani, T Azrumelashvili, I Reccia, N Habib
Background: Malignant biliary and/or pancreatic obstruction has often encountered in the advanced stages of periampullary and cholangicarcinomas. HabibTM Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been successfully used in the management of various cancers of liver and pancreas. Percutaneous HPB probe (EMcision Ltd, London, UK) is a new addition to this class of tools. It is an endoluminal Radiofrequency (RF) catheter which works on the principle of ablation and induces coagulative necrosis to recanalize the obstructed duct...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Sato Suzuki-Muromoto, Keisuke Wakusawa, Takuya Miyabayashi, Ryo Sato, Yukimune Okubo, Wakaba Endo, Takehiko Inui, Noriko Togashi, Atsuko Kato, Hiroshi Oba, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Haginoya
Here we report a Japanese patient with new compound heterozygous truncating variants in the PCDH12 gene. As compared to the previously reported families who had congenital microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, intracranial calcification, and neonatal seizure associated with dysplasia of the midbrain-hypothalamus-optic tract, the present patient showed no midbrain-hypothalamus dysplasia or congenital/postnatal microcephaly, but dyskinetic cerebral palsy and severe intellectual disability as well as multifocal epilepsy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Maria Portia B Nagata, Kenji Endo, Kazuko Ogata, Kenichi Yamanaka, Junki Egashira, Naoto Katafuchi, Tadayuki Yamanouchi, Hideo Matsuda, Yuki Goto, Miki Sakatani, Takuo Hojo, Hirofumi Nishizono, Kenji Yotsushima, Naoki Takenouchi, Yutaka Hashiyada, Kenichi Yamashita
Selection of functional spermatozoa plays a crucial role in assisted reproduction. Passage of spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract requires progressive motility to locate the oocyte. This preferential ability to reach the fertilization site confers fertility advantage to spermatozoa. Current routine sperm selection techniques are inadequate and fail to provide conclusive evidence on the sperm characteristics that may affect fertilization. We therefore developed a selection strategy for functional and progressively motile bovine spermatozoa with high DNA integrity based on the ability to cross laminar flow streamlines in a diffuser-type microfluidic sperm sorter (DMSS)...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katsuji Haneda, Takefumi Oishi, Hiroshi Kimura, Toshiyuki Inazu
A microbioreactor immobilized with a synthase-type mutant enzyme, Endo-M-N175Q (glycosynthase) of endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase derived from Mucor hiemalis (Endo-M), was constructed and used for glycoconjugate synthesis. The transglycosylation was performed with a reaction mixture containing an oxazoline derivative of sialo complex-type glycoside (SG), which was prepared from a sialo complex-type glycopeptide SGP derived from hen egg yolk, as a glycosyl donor and N-Fmoc-N-acetylglucosaminyl-l-asparagine [Fmoc-Asn(GlcNAc)-OH] as an acceptor...
March 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Ana Margarida Alho, Clara Lima, Vito Colella, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Domenico Otranto, Luís Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Qatar is one of the wealthiest and fastest growing economies in the world, experiencing a rapid increase in human and pet populations. Given the paucity of data on prophylactic measures against endo- and ectoparasites of pets in Qatar, as well as on the owners' awareness of zoonotic diseases, a questionnaire was conducted. METHODS: From July to November 2017, 150 multiple-choice questionnaires were administered to dog and/or cat owners who attended two veterinary clinics in Doha...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Michelle E Maxson, Xenia Naj, Teresa R O'Meara, Jonathan D Plumb, Leah E Cowen, Sergio Grinstein
Candida albicans hyphae can reach enormous lengths, precluding their internalization by phagocytes. Nevertheless, macrophages engulf a portion of the hypha, generating incompletely sealed tubular phagosomes. These frustrated phagosomes are stabilized by a thick cuff of F-actin that polymerizes in response to non-canonical activation of integrins by fungal glycan. Despite their continuity, the surface and invaginating phagosomal membranes retain a strikingly distinct lipid composition. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is present at the plasmalemma but is not detectable in the phagosomal membrane, while PtdIns(3)P and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 co-exist in the phagosomes yet are absent from the surface membrane...
March 19, 2018: ELife
Naoki Masaki, Yuriko Saiki, Masato Endo, Kay Maeda, Osamu Adachi, Masatoshi Akiyama, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Yoshikatsu Saiki
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is more progressive in trisomy 21 patients. However, pulmonary arteriopathic lesions in these patients have not been fully characterized histopathologically.Methods and Results:A retrospective review of a lung biopsy registry identified 282 patients: 188 patients with trisomy 21 (Group D) and 94 without (Group N). The mean age at lung biopsy was 3 and 7 months (P<0.0001). Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance were similar between the 2 groups...
March 16, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt, Mario Pieper, Charlotte Stehmar, Martin Ahrens, Christian Idel, Barbara Wollenberg, Peter König, Gereon Hüttmann
Intravital microscopy (IVM) offers the opportunity to visualize static and dynamic changes of tissue on a cellular level. It is a valuable tool in research and may considerably improve clinical diagnosis. In contrast to confocal and non-linear microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) with microscopic resolution (mOCT) provides intrinsically cross-sectional imaging. Changing focus position is not needed, which simplifies especially endoscopic imaging. For in-vivo imaging, here we are presenting endo-microscopic OCT (emOCT)...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Anna Mazanova, Ihor Shymanskyi, Olha Lisakovska, Lala Hajiyeva, Yulia Komisarenko, Mykola Veliky
Objectives: Recent prospective studies have found the associations between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and vitamin D deficiency. We investigated the role of vitamin D in the regulation of 25OHD-1 α -hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and VDR expression in different tissues of T1D rats. Design: T1D was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (55 mg/k b.w.). After 2 weeks of T1D, the animals were treated orally with or without vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; 100 IU/rat, 30 days)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Francesco Cosentino, Giuseppe Vizzielli, Luigi Carlo Turco, Anna Fagotti, Stefano Cianci, Virginia Vargiu, Gian Franco Zannoni, Gabriella Ferrandina, Giovanni Scambia
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate near-infrared radiation imaging with intravenous indocyanine green (NIR-ICG) during laparoscopic intervention to identify endometriosis lesions. DESIGN: A single center, prospective, single-arm pilot study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: An academic tertiary care and research center. PATIENTS: Twenty-seven patients with symptomatic endometriosis were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent laparoscopic surgery using a laparoscopic system prototype with NIR-ICG...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
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