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heart and ischemia and mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907091/real-time-fluorescence-measurements-of-ros-and-ca2-in-ischemic-reperfused-rat-hearts-detectable-increases-occur-only-after-mitochondrial-pore-opening-and-are-attenuated-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#1
Tatyana Andrienko, Philippe Pasdois, Andreas Rossbach, Andrew P Halestrap
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is critical for ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury and is associated with increased [Ca2+] and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we employ surface fluorescence to establish the temporal sequence of these events in beating perfused hearts subject to global I/R. A bespoke fluorimeter was used to synchronously monitor surface fluorescence and reflectance of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts at multiple wavelengths, with simultaneous measurements of hemodynamic function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894079/microrna-214-protects-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-cell-damage-and-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-suppression-of-pten-and-bim1-expression
#2
Xiaohui Wang, Tuanzhu Ha, Yuanping Hu, Chen Lu, Li Liu, Xia Zhang, Race Kao, John Kalbfleisch, David Williams, Chuanfu Li
BACKGROUND: Myocardial apoptosis plays an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling protects the myocardium from I/R injury. This study investigated the role of miR-214 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cell damage in vitro and myocardial I/R injury in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: H9C2 cardiomyoblasts were transfected with lentivirus expressing miR-214 (LmiR-214) or lentivirus expressing scrambled miR-control (LmiR-control) respectively, to establish cell lines of LmiR-214 and LmiR-control...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844171/mitochondrial-dynamics-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-treating-cardiac-diseases
#3
Sang-Bing Ong, Derek J Hausenloy
Mitochondria are dynamic in nature and are able to shift their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins - mitofusins 1 and 2 (Mfn1 and 2), and optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) as well as the mitochondrial fission proteins - dynamin-related peptide 1 (Drp1) and fission protein 1 (Fis1). Despite having a unique spatial arrangement, cardiac mitochondria have been implicated in a variety of disorders including ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), heart failure, diabetes, and pulmonary hypertension...
November 15, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832938/keto-acid-metabolites-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-inhibit-oxidative-stress-induced-necrosis-and-attenuate-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Weibing Dong, Meiyi Zhou, Mei Dong, Bangfen Pan, Yunxia Liu, Jing Shao, Xiaoping Gu, Ying Huang, Guangping Li, Yibin Wang, Haipeng Sun
Branched chain α-keto acids (BCKAs) are endogenous metabolites of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAA and BCKA are significantly elevated in pathologically stressed heart and contribute to chronic pathological remodeling and dysfunction. However, their direct impact on acute cardiac injury is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that elevated BCKAs significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and preserved post I/R function in isolated mouse hearts. BCKAs protected cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830583/dynamin-related-protein-1-drp1-mediating-mitophagy-contributes-to-the-pathophysiology-of-nervous-system-diseases-and-brain-injury
#5
REVIEW
Qiong Wu, Cheng-Liang Luo, Lu-Yang Tao
As the main source of energy (celluar ATP) in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are involved in cellular physiology and pathology. The balance of mitochondrial dynamic, fission and fusion regulated by quality control mechanisms, provides a guarantee for maintaining mitochondrial function, even celluar function. Worn out mitochondria would be removed through mitophagy which is regulated by autophagy related proteins and mitochondrial membrane proteins. Drp1, dynamic-related protein 1, is regarded as one of the most important proteins to evaluate mitochondrial fission mediating mitophagy in neurodegenerative diseases (eg...
November 10, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800610/lipocalin-2-ngal-attenuates-autophagy-to-exacerbate-cardiac-apoptosis-induced-by-myocardial-ischemia
#6
Hye Kyoung Sung, Yee Kwan Chan, Meng Han, James Won Suk Jahng, Erfei Song, Danielson Eric, Thorsten Berger, Tak W Mak, Gary Sweeney
Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2; also termed neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)) levels correlate positively with heart failure (HF) yet mechanisms via which Lcn2 contributes to the pathogenesis of HF remian unclear. In this study we used coronary artery ligation surgery to induce ischemia in wild type (wt) mice and this induced a significant increase in myocardial Lcn2. We then compared wt and Lcn2 knockout (KO) mice and observed that wt mice showed greater ischemia-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA damage measured by TUNEL than Lcn2KO mice...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797717/wdr26-promotes-mitophagy-of-cardiomyocytes-induced-by-hypoxia-through-parkin-translocation
#7
Yansheng Feng, Jia Zhao, Huifang Hou, Hui Zhang, Yunjuan Jiao, Jiangang Wang, Yongling Wang, Yinping Sun
Myocardial ischemia is a heart condition caused by reduction of blood flow to the heart, preventing heart from receiving enough oxygen. Myocardial ischemia is the most common cause of death globally. Heart ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has a protective effect against myocardial cell death induced by ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury. WDR26 has recently been identified as a protein that is increased following rat cardiac IPC. WDR26 can promote the proliferation of H9c2 cells and protect cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress through inhibiting apoptosis...
October 19, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747447/cardioprotective-effects-of-mitochondria-targeted-peptide-sbt-20-in-two-different-models-of-rat-ischemia-reperfusion
#8
Wangde Dai, Elissa Cheung, Rick J Alleman, Justin B Perry, Mitchell E Allen, David A Brown, Robert A Kloner
PURPOSE: Dysfunctional mitochondria are considered to be the major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species and play a central role in the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. This study sought to determine effects of mitochondria-targeted cytoprotective peptide SBT-20 on myocardial infarct size in two different models of ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS: For in vivo studies, anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion...
October 17, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742892/the-roles-of-tissue-nitrate-reductase-activity-and-myoglobin-in-securing-nitric-oxide-availability-in-deeply-hypoxic-crucian-carp
#9
Marie N Hansen, Jon O Lundberg, Mariacristina Filice, Angela Fago, Nanna M G Christensen, Frank B Jensen
In mammals, treatment with low doses of nitrite have cytoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion events, due to nitric oxide formation and S-nitrosation of proteins. Interestingly, anoxia-tolerant lower vertebrates possess an intrinsic ability to increase intracellular [nitrite] during anoxia in tissues with high myoglobin and mitochondria contents, such as the heart. Here we test the hypothesis that red and white skeletal muscle develops different nitrite levels in crucian carp exposed to deep hypoxia and whether this correlates with myoglobin concentration...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688871/reduction-of-apoptosis-and-preservation-of-mitochondrial-integrity-under-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-is-mediated-by-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE
#10
Carola Schubert, Valeria Raparelli, Christina Westphal, Elke Dworatzek, George Petrov, Georgios Kararigas, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
BACKGROUND: Estrogen improves cardiac recovery after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Mitochondria play a crucial role in I/R injury through cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis activation. We tested the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol (E2) as well as a specific ERβ agonist improve cardiac recovery through estrogen receptor (ER)β-mediated mechanisms by reducing mitochondria-induced apoptosis and preserving mitochondrial integrity. METHODS: We randomized ovariectomized C57BL/6N mice 24h before I/R to pre-treatment with E2 or a specific ERβ agonist (ERβA)...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679744/critical-role-of-mitochondrial-ros-is-dependent-on-their-site-of-production-on-the-electron-transport-chain-in-ischemic-heart
#11
Ngonidzashe B Madungwe, Netanel F Zilberstein, Yansheng Feng, Jean C Bopassa
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This led to multiple studies on antioxidant therapies to treat cardiovascular diseases but paradoxically, results have so far been mixed as ROS production can be beneficial as a signaling mechanism and in cardiac protection via preconditioning interventions. We investigated whether the differential impact of increased ROS in injury as well as in protection could be explained by their site of production on the mitochondrial electron transport chain...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643552/tanshinone-iia-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-activating-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#12
Qiang Li, Li Shen, Zhen Wang, Hai-Peng Jiang, Li-Xia Liu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanism by which Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) relieves myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received an intravenous injection of Tan IIA and LY294002 and were divided into the sham, control (myocardial ischemia reperfusion), Tan-L (low-dose Tan IIA), Tan-H (high-dose Tan IIA), Tan-L+LY (low-dose Tan IIA+LY294002), Tan-H+LY (high-dose Tan IIA+LY294002) and LY (LY294002) groups...
September 16, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633387/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-roles-in-ischemic-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Xiangwei Liu, Aijun Sun
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity, incurring a major burden of medical care. Even with increasing application of emergent recanalization (PCI and CABG) therapy, ischemia and ischemic reperfusion injury remain as the dominant pathological process that damages cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) is a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of aldehydes. Accumulating data have shown that ALDH2 can help restore mitochondria function by eliminating toxic aldehyde and participating in cellular signaling important for cell adaption and survival...
September 12, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616550/the-novel-h2s-donor-4-carboxyphenyl-isothiocyanate-promotes-cardioprotective-effects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-activation-of-mitokatp-channels-and-reduction-of-oxidative-stress
#14
Lara Testai, Alice Marino, Ilaria Piano, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Kengo Tomita, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Alma Martelli, Valentina Citi, Maria C Breschi, Roberto Levi, Claudia Gargini, Mariarosaria Bucci, Giuseppe Cirino, Carla Ghelardini, Vincenzo Calderone
The endogenous gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an important regulator of the cardiovascular system, particularly of myocardial function. Moreover, H2S exhibits cardioprotective activity against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or hypoxic injury, and is considered an important mediator of "ischemic preconditioning", through activation of mitochondrial potassium channels, reduction of oxidative stress, activation of the endogenous "anti-oxidant machinery" and limitation of inflammatory responses. Accordingly, H2S-donors, i...
September 9, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604998/elucidating-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-supercomplexes-in-the-heart-during-ischemia-reperfusion
#15
Sehwan Jang, Taber S Lewis, Corey Powers, Zaza Khuchua, Christopher P Baines, Peter Wipf, Sabzali Javadov
AIMS: Mitochondrial supercomplexes (SCs) are the large supramolecular assembly of individual electron transport chain (ETC) complexes that apparently provide highly efficient ATP synthesis and reduce electron leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Oxidative stress during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) can result in degradation of SCs through oxidation of cardiolipin (CL). Also, IR induces calcium overload and enhances reactive oxygen species (mitROS) in mitochondria that result in the opening of the nonselective permeability transition pores (PTP)...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574574/optical-cryoimaging-reveals-a-heterogeneous-distribution-of-mitochondrial-redox-state-in-ex-vivo-guinea-pig-hearts-and-its-alteration-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#16
Mahsa Ranji, Mohammad Masoudi Motlagh, Fahimeh Salehpour, Reyhaneh Sepehr, James S Heisner, Ranjan K Dash, Amadou K S Camara
Oxidation of substrates to generate ATP in mitochondria is mediated by redox reactions of NADH and FADH2. Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury compromises mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We hypothesize that IR alters the metabolic heterogeneity of mitochondrial redox state of the heart that is only evident in the 3-D optical cryoimaging of the perfused heart before, during, and after IR. The study involved four groups of hearts: time control (TC: heart perfusion without IR), global ischemia (Isch), global ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) and TC with PCP (a mitochondrial uncoupler) perfusion...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516569/biochemistry-and-therapeutic-potential-of-hydrogen-sulfide-reality-or-fantasy
#17
Paulina Brodek, Beata Olas
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling gasotransmitter, involved in different physiological and pathological processes. H2S regulates apoptosis, the cell cycle and oxidative stress. H2S exerts powerful effects on smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclear transcription factors. H2S is known to be produced from L-cysteine, D-cysteine and L-homocysteine in the body. Four enzymes - cystathionine-b synthase (CBS), mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT) - are involved in H2S synthesis...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500955/intracoronary-delivery-of-mitochondria-to-the-ischemic-heart-for-cardioprotection
#18
Douglas B Cowan, Rouan Yao, Vamsidhar Akurathi, Erin R Snay, Jerusha K Thedsanamoorthy, David Zurakowski, Maria Ericsson, Ingeborg Friehs, Yaotang Wu, Sidney Levitsky, Pedro J Del Nido, Alan B Packard, James D McCully
We have previously shown that transplantation of autologously derived, respiration-competent mitochondria by direct injection into the heart following transient ischemia and reperfusion enhances cell viability and contractile function. To increase the therapeutic potential of this approach, we investigated whether exogenous mitochondria can be effectively delivered through the coronary vasculature to protect the ischemic myocardium and studied the fate of these transplanted organelles in the heart. Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and then reperfused for 10 minutes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500468/melatonin-as-an-antioxidant-under-promises-but-over-delivers
#19
REVIEW
Russel J Reiter, Juan C Mayo, Dun-Xian Tan, Rosa M Sainz, Moises Alatorre-Jimenez, Lilian Qin
Melatonin is uncommonly effective in reducing oxidative stress under a remarkably large number of circumstances. It achieves this action via a variety of means: direct detoxification of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species and indirectly by stimulating antioxidant enzymes while suppressing the activity of pro-oxidant enzymes. In addition to these well-described actions, melatonin also reportedly chelates transition metals, which are involved in the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reactions; in doing so, melatonin reduces the formation of the devastatingly toxic hydroxyl radical resulting in the reduction of oxidative stress...
October 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453526/cardiac-myocyte-specific-knock-out-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-ipla2%C3%AE-decreases-oxidized-fatty-acids-during-ischemia-reperfusion-and-reduces-infarct-size
#20
Sung Ho Moon, David J Mancuso, Harold F Sims, Xinping Liu, Annie L Nguyen, Kui Yang, Shaoping Guan, Beverly Gibson Dilthey, Christopher M Jenkins, Carla J Weinheimer, Attila Kovacs, Dana Abendschein, Richard W Gross
Calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is a mitochondrial enzyme that produces lipid second messengers that facilitate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and contribute to the production of oxidized fatty acids in myocardium. To specifically identify the roles of iPLA2γ in cardiac myocytes, we generated cardiac myocyte-specific iPLA2γ knock-out (CMiPLA2γKO) mice by removing the exon encoding the active site serine (Ser-477). Hearts of CMiPLA2γKO mice exhibited normal hemodynamic function, glycerophospholipid molecular species composition, and normal rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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