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Artificial pancreas

Enrique Campos-Náñez, Boris P Kovatchev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Inyoung Lee, Takashi Sode, Noya Loew, Wakako Tsugawa, Christopher Robin Lowe, Koji Sode
An ultimate goal for those engaged in research to develop implantable medical devices is to develop mechatronic implantable artificial organs such as artificial pancreas. Such devices would comprise at least a sensor module, an actuator module, and a controller module. For the development of optimal mechatronic implantable artificial organs, these modules should be self-powered and autonomously operated. In this study, we aimed to develop a microcontroller using the BioCapacitor principle. A direct electron transfer type glucose dehydrogenase was immobilized onto mesoporous carbon, and then deposited on the surface of a miniaturized Au electrode (7mm(2)) to prepare a miniaturized enzyme anode...
September 28, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kevin Enck, John Patrick McQuilling, Giuseppe Orlando, Riccardo Tamburrini, Sittadjody Sivanandane, Emmanuel C Opara
Islet transplantation (IT) has recently been shown to be a promising alternative to pancreas transplantation for reversing diabetes. IT requires the isolation of the islets from the pancreas, and these islets can be used to fabricate a bio-artificial pancreas. Enzymatic digestion is the current gold standard procedure for islet isolation but has lingering concerns. One such concern is that it has been shown to damage the islets due to nonselective tissue digestion. This chapter provides a detailed description of a nonenzymatic method that we are exploring in our lab as an alternative to current enzymatic digestion procedures for islet isolation from human and nonhuman pancreatic tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrew J Krentz, Marcus Hompesch
The clinical utility of diabetes biomarkers can be considered in terms of diagnosis, management and prediction of long-term vascular complications. Glucose satisfies all of these requirements. Thresholds of hyperglycemia diagnostic of diabetes reflect inflections that confer a risk of developing long-term microvascular complications. Degrees of hyperglycemia (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance) that lie below the diagnostic threshold for diabetes identify individuals at risk of progression to diabetes and/or development of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease...
October 13, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Mark D DeBoer, Daniel R Cherñavvsky, Katarina Topchyan, Boris P Kovatchev, Gary L Francis, Marc D Breton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and performance of using a heart rate (HR) monitor to inform an artificial pancreas (AP) system during exercise among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, cross-over trial, adolescents with T1D age 13 - 18 years were enrolled to receive on separate days either the unmodified UVa AP (stdAP) or an AP system connected to a portable HR monitor (AP-HR) that triggered an exercise algorithm for blood glucose (BG) control...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Nature
James Weimer, Sanjian Chen, Amy Peleckis, Michael R Rickels, Insup Lee
BACKGROUND: Fully automated artificial pancreas systems require meal detectors to supplement blood glucose level regulation, where false meal detections can cause unnecessary insulin delivery with potentially fatal consequences, and missed detections may cause the patient to experience extreme hyperglycemia. Most existing meal detectors monitor various measures of glucose rate-of-change to detect meals where varying physiology and meal content complicate balancing detector sensitivity versus specificity...
October 5, 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Nadine Taleb, Ali Emami, Corinne Suppere, Virginie Messier, Laurent Legault, Martin Ladouceur, Jean-Louis Chiasson, Ahmad Haidar, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess whether the dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas reduces hypoglycaemia compared with the single-hormone (insulin alone) artificial pancreas during two types of exercise. METHODS: An open-label randomised crossover study comparing both systems in 17 adults with type 1 diabetes (age, 37.2 ± 13.6 years; HbA1c, 8.0 ± 1.0% [63.9 ± 10.2 mmol/mol]) during two exercise types on an ergocycle and matched for energy expenditure: continuous (60% [Formula: see text] for 60 min) and interval (2 min alternating periods at 85% and 50% [Formula: see text] for 40 min, with two 10 min periods at 45% [Formula: see text] at the start and end of the session)...
October 4, 2016: Diabetologia
J Kropff, J DeJong, S Del Favero, J Place, M Messori, B Coestier, A Farret, F Boscari, S Galasso, A Avogaro, D Bruttomesso, C Cobelli, E Renard, L Magni, J H DeVries
AIM: To assess the impact on fear of hypoglycaemia and treatment satisfaction with an artificial pancreas system used for 2 consecutive months, as well as participant acceptance of the artificial pancreas system. METHODS: In a randomized crossover trial participant-related outcomes associated with an evening-and-night artificial pancreas and sensor-augmented pump therapy were compared. Both intervention periods lasted 8 weeks. The artificial pancreas acceptance questionnaire (range 0-90, higher scores better), Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey II (range 0-72, higher scores worse) and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (range 0-36, higher scores better) were completed by 32 participants...
October 1, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Ravi Gondhalekar, Eyal Dassau, Francis J Doyle
A novel Model Predictive Control (MPC) law for an Artificial Pancreas (AP) to automatically deliver insulin to people with type 1 diabetes is proposed. The MPC law is an enhancement of the authors' zone-MPC approach that has successfully been trialled in-clinic, and targets the safe outpatient deployment of an AP. The MPC law controls blood-glucose levels to a diurnally time-dependent zone, and enforces diurnal, hard input constraints. The main algorithmic novelty is the use of asymmetric input costs in the MPC problem's objective function...
September 2016: Automatica: the Journal of IFAC, the International Federation of Automatic Control
Linda A Gonder-Frederick, Jaclyn A Shepard, Jesse H Grabman, Lee M Ritterband
Use of technology in diabetes management is rapidly advancing and has the potential to help individuals with diabetes achieve optimal glycemic control. Over the past 40 years, several devices have been developed and refined, including the blood glucose meter, insulin pump, and continuous glucose monitor. When used in tandem, the insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor have prompted the Artificial Pancreas initiative, aimed at developing control system for fully automating glucose monitoring and insulin delivery...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Tsutomu Namikawa, Masaya Munekage, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Tomoaki Yatabe, Hiromichi Maeda, Yuuki Tsukamoto, Kenichi Hirano, Takuji Asano, Yoshihiko Kinoshita, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
This clinical study aimed to compare a novel and conventional artificial pancreas (AP) used in surgical patients for perioperative glycemic control, with respect to usability, blood glucose measurements, and glycemic control characteristics. From July in 2010 to March in 2015, 177 patients underwent perioperative glycemic control using a novel AP. Among them, 166 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) targeting a blood glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL was implemented in 82 patients (49 %), and the remaining 84 patients (51 %) received a less-intensive regime of insulin therapy...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Nadine Taleb, Ahmad Haidar, Virginie Messier, Véronique Gingras, Laurent Legault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
The role of glucagon in the pathophysiology of diabetes has long been recognized while its approved clinical use has so far been limited to the emergency treatment of severe hypoglycaemia. A novel use of glucagon as intermittent mini-boluses is proposed in the dual-hormone version (insulin and glucagon) of the external artificial pancreas. Short-term studies suggest that glucagon incorporation has the potential to further decrease the hypoglycaemic risk and improve the overall glucose control. However, long term potential safety and benefits need to be investigated given its recognised systemic effects of glucagon...
September 15, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Florian Reiterer, Philipp Polterauer, Michael Schoemaker, Guenther Schmelzeisen-Redecker, Guido Freckmann, Lutz Heinemann, Luigi Del Re
BACKGROUND: There is a need to assess the accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems for several uses. Mean absolute relative difference (MARD) is the measure of choice for this. Unfortunately, it is frequently overlooked that MARD values computed with data acquired during clinical studies do not reflect the accuracy of the CGM system only, but are strongly influenced by the design of the study. Thus, published MARD values must be understood not as precise values but as indications with some uncertainty...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Naoji Mita, Shinji Kawahito, Tomohiro Soga, Kazumi Takaishi, Hiroshi Kitahata, Munehide Matsuhisa, Mitsuo Shimada, Hiroyuki Kinoshita, Yasuo M Tsutsumi, Katsuya Tanaka
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a closed-loop system (STG-55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), a type of artificial endocrine pancreas for the continuous monitoring and control of intraoperative blood glucose, for preventing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Glucose concentrations were controlled with either a manual injection of insulin based on a commonly used sliding scale (manual insulin group, n = 19) or the programmed infusion of insulin determined by the control algorithm of the artificial endocrine pancreas (programmed insulin group, n = 19)...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
M Rumpler, J K Mader, J P Fischer, R Thar, J M Granger, F Deliane, I Klimant, F Aberer, F Sinner, T R Pieber, M Hajnsek
The combination of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion can be used to improve the treatment of patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to advance an existing preclinical single-port system for clinical application by integrating the sensors of a phosphorescence based CGM system into a standard insulin infusion set. The extracorporeal optical phase fluorimeter was miniaturised and is now comparable with commercial CGM systems regarding size, weight and wear comfort...
August 13, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Timothy Omer
Due to the easier access to information, the availability of low cost technologies and the involvement of well educated, passionate patients, a group of citizen 'Health Hackers', who are building their own medical systems to help them overcome the unmet needs of their conditions, is emerging. This has recently been the case in the type 1 diabetes community, under the movement #WeAreNotWaiting, with innovative use of current medical devices hacked to access data and Open-Source code producing solutions ranging from remote monitoring of diabetic children to producing an Artificial Pancreas System to automate the management and monitoring of a patient's condition...
2016: BMC Medicine
Guilherme Guerra Neto, Marina Galvão Bueno, Rodrigo Otavio Silveira Silva, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Juliana Plácido Guimarães, Gregory D Bossart, Miriam Marmontel
On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding...
August 9, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Lauren Huyett, Eyal Dassau, Jordan E Pinsker, Francis J Doyle, David Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
D Chaimov, L Baruch, S Krishtul, I Meivar-Levy, S Ferber, M Machluf
Cell-based therapies for the treatment of diabetes, generally aim to provide long-term glucose regulated-insulin delivery using insulin producing cells. The delivery platform is crucial for the therapeutic outcome as well as for immunoisolation of the entrapped cells. We have developed a novel artificial pancreas encapsulation platform for the treatment of diabetes that is based on solubilized whole porcine pancreatic extracellular matrix (ECM). These unique capsules were used to entrap human liver cells and mesenchymal stem cells that were induced to differentiate into glucose-regulated insulin-producing cells...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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