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Mao Lin, Mohammed Alnaggar, Shu-Zhen Liang, Jian Shi, Li-Zhi Niu, Ji-Bing Chen, Ke-Cheng Xu
We used circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of pre-irreversible electroporation (IRE) and post-IRE for unresectable pancreatic cancer (PC). Real-time qPCR was used to detect potential biomarker genes in CTCs, and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were performed on 43 patients with PC who underwent IRE. Some patients experienced adverse reactions within 30 days of the operation, including arrhythmia (6.9%), intraoperative transient change of blood pressure (25...
November 15, 2017: Immunologic Research
Wei Chai, Wenlong Zhang, Zhentong Wei, Ying Xu, Jian Shi, Xiaomei Luo, Jianying Zeng, Manhua Cui, Jiannan Li, Lizhi Niu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the uterine cervix in a rabbit model. IRE ablation was performed in the cervices of 48 New Zealand rabbits, with one ablation lesion in each animal. Gross pathology, transmission electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome (MT) stain, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed at pre-set time points (0 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d post-IRE)...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
Alex G Johnson, Alexey N Petrov, Gabriele Fuchs, Karim Majzoub, Rosslyn Grosely, Junhong Choi, Joseph D Puglisi
Human translation initiation relies on the combined activities of numerous ribosome-associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). The largest factor, eIF3, is an ∼800 kDa multiprotein complex that orchestrates a network of interactions with the small 40S ribosomal subunit, other eIFs, and mRNA, while participating in nearly every step of initiation. How these interactions take place during the time course of translation initiation remains unclear. Here, we describe a method for the expression and affinity purification of a fluorescently-tagged eIF3 from human cells...
November 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Chenguo Yao, Yanpeng Lv, Yajun Zhao, Shoulong Dong, Hongmei Liu, Jianhao Ma
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) uses ~100 μs pulsed electric fields to disrupt cell membranes for solid tumor ablation. Although IRE has achieved exciting preliminary clinical results, implementing IRE could be challenging because of volumetric limitations at the ablation region. Combining short high-voltage (SHV: 1600V, 2 μs, 1 Hz, 20 pulses) pulses with long low-voltage (LLV: 240-480 V, 100 μs, 1 Hz, 60-80 pulses) pulses induces a synergistic effect that enhances IRE efficacy. Here, cell cytotoxicity and tissue ablation were investigated...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Nuan Luo, Qin-Qin Song, Jie Yu, Juan Song, Xin-Ling Wang, Dong Xia, Peng Sun, Jun Han
Many studies demonstrated that there are several type bands of prion protein in cells. However, the formation of different prion protein bands is elusive. After several low molecular weight bands of prion protein appeared in SMB-S15 cells infected with scrapie agent Chandler, we think that IRES-dependent translation mechanism induced by prion is involved in the formation of prion protein bands. Then we designed a series of pPrP-GFP fusing plasmids and bicistronic plasmids to identify the IRES sites of prion protein gene and found 3 IRES sites inside of PrP mRNA...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Fuai Cui, Xiuli Wang, Wei Wang, Peng Xiao, Yuan Ma, Lindong Jiang
The induced EPCs were transfected by Ad-BMP-2-IRES-HIF-1αmu, and then transplanted into femoral head necrotic zone, the effect on osteogenesis and agiogenesis of necrosis zone was detected. The Ad-BMP-2-IRES-HIF-1α was transfected into induced EPCs and then transplanted into avascular necrotic parts of the femoral head (ANFH).Afterwards, the promotion effect on angiogenic and osteogenic capabilities of the necrosis parts from Ad-BMP-2-IRES-HIF-1α was detected. Rabbit bone marrow MNCs were obtained by density gradient centrifugation method, and were induced into EPCs by M199 medium; EPCs were identified in accordance with the cell morphology, specific surface markers and uptake abilities...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gideon Grogan
Chiral amines feature in a large number of small molecule pharmaceuticals, and thus methods for their asymmetric synthesis are of considerable interest. Biocatalytic approaches have come to the fore in recent years as these offer advantages of superior atom economy, mild reaction conditions and excellent stereoselectivity. Advances in redox cofactor process technology have meant that oxidoreductase enzymes in particular now have growing potential as industrial catalysts for amine formation. In this review we survey recent developments in the discovery and application of oxidoreductase enzymes for amine production, including Monoamine Oxidases (MAOs), engineered and natural Amine Dehydrogenases (AmDHs), Imine Reductases (IREDs) and Reductive Aminases (RedAms), in addition to their application in enzyme cascades...
October 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Hilda H T Au, Valentina M Elspass, Eric Jan
All viruses must successfully harness the host translational apparatus and divert it towards viral protein synthesis. Dicistroviruses use an unusual internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanism whereby the IRES adopts a three-pseudoknot structure that accesses the ribosome tRNA binding sites to directly recruit the ribosome and initiate translation from a non-AUG start site. A subset of dicistroviruses, including the honey bee Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), encode an extra stem-loop (SLVI) 5' -adjacent to the IGR IRES...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Jessna H M Yeo, Steven C L Ho, Mariati Mariati, Esther Koh, Shi Jie Tay, Susanto Woen, Peiqing Zhang, Yuansheng Yang
There are several selection markers which are suitable for generating stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Due to their different modes of action, each selection marker has its own optimal selection stringency in different host cells for obtaining high productivity. Using an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated tricistronic vector and a set of IRES variants with different strengths, the expression of five antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in CHO-K1 cells and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in CHO DG44 cells is optimized to enhance the stringency of selection for high producing cells...
September 25, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Nicholas Labarbera, Corina Drapaca
BACKGROUND: One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. METHOD: It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software...
November 1, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
M Alizadeh Zarei, M A Takhshid, A Behzad Behbahani, S Y Hosseini, M A Okhovat, Gh R Rafiee Dehbidi, M A Mosleh Shirazi
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is among the most conventional cancer therapeutic modalities with effective local tumor control. However, due to the development of radio-resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis often occur following radiation therapy. In recent years, combination of radiotherapy and gene therapy has been suggested to overcome this problem. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential synergistic effects of N-Myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 2 (NDRG2) overexpression, a newly identified candidate tumor suppressor gene, with radiotherapy against proliferation of prostate LNCaP cell line...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Rachel Stubbington, Richard Chadd, Núria Cid, Zoltán Csabai, Marko Miliša, Manuela Morais, Antoni Munné, Petr Pařil, Vladimir Pešić, Iakovos Tziortzis, Ralf C M Verdonschot, Thibault Datry
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are typically poorly represented in biomonitoring programmes implemented to characterize EU Water Framework Directive ecological status. We report the results of a survey completed by representatives from 20 European countries to identify current challenges to IRES status assessment, examples of best practice, and priorities for future research...
October 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Margaret M Willcocks, Salmah Zaini, Nathalie Chamond, Nathalie Ulryck, Delphine Allouche, Noemie Rajagopalan, Nana A Davids, Ulrik Fahn E, Johanne Hadsbjerg, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Lisa O Roberts, Bruno Sargueil, Graham J Belsham, Nicolas Locker
Viral internal ribosomes entry site (IRES) elements coordinate the recruitment of the host translation machinery to direct the initiation of viral protein synthesis. Within hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES elements, the sub-domain IIId(1) is crucial for recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit. However, some HCV-like IRES elements possess an additional sub-domain, termed IIId2, whose function remains unclear. Herein, we show that IIId2 sub-domains from divergent viruses have different functions. The IIId2 sub-domain present in Seneca valley virus (SVV), a picornavirus, is dispensable for IRES activity, while the IIId2 sub-domains of two pestiviruses, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV), are required for 80S ribosomes assembly and IRES activity...
October 24, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Zhi Dong Zhou, Eng-King Tan
The homeostasis of iron is vital to human health, and iron dyshomeostasis can lead to various disorders. Iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) and the iron-responsive element (IRE) signaling pathway. IRPs can bind to RNA stem-loops containing an IRE in the untranslated region (UTR) to manipulate translation of target mRNA. However, iron can bind to IRPs, leading to the dissociation of IRPs from the IRE and altered translation of target transcripts. Recently an IRE is found in the 5'-UTR of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and α-synuclein (α-Syn) transcripts...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
M Farzan Rashid, Elizabeth M Hecht, Jonathan A Steinman, Michael D Kluger
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is increasingly used for the ablation of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Unlike other ablation technologies that cannot be safely used around critical vasculature or ducts for risk of thermal damage, IRE uses high-voltage pulses to disrupt cellular membranes. This causes cell death by apoptosis and inflammation. IRE has been deployed by both open and percutaneous approaches. Generator parameters are the same for both approaches, and settings are pancreas specific...
October 19, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
Lei Yu, Tianxiang Gu, Yu Liu, Xuan Jiang, Enyi Shi
OBJECTIVES: Cold-inducible ribonucleic acid-binding protein (CIRP) has been identified to play a role in the antiapoptotic effect of hypothermia. We sought to investigate the renoprotection of CIRP in a rat model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. METHODS: Overexpression and knockdown of CIRP were achieved in vivo by directly injecting lentivirus vectors containing packaging lentivirus (pL)/internal ribosome entry site (IRES)/green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CIRP or pL/short hairpin RNA (shRNA)/F-cold inducible RNA binding protein (F-CIRP)-A into the renal parenchyma of rats 7 days before deep hypothermic circulatory arrest under the ultrasound guidance...
August 14, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Wen-Qing Gao, Jing Ma, Liu-Liu Sun, Qi Li, Rui-Yu Zhu, Jian Jin
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is best known in mediating the toxicities of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. AHR is activated by a variety of endogenous ligands and participating in tumor development. Thus, it will provide a new approach for cancer prevention and treatment to study the translation mechanism of AHR in tumor cells. In this study, we show that the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of AHR mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). After mapping the entire AHR 5'-UTR, we determined that the full-length 5'-UTR is indispensable for the highest IRES activity...
September 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
Esra Yilmaz, Sabrina Ramünke, Janina Demeler, Jürgen Krücken
Benzimidazoles (BZs) remain amongst the most widely used anthelmintic drug classes against gastro-intestinal nematode infections, although their efficacy is increasingly compromised by resistance. The primary underlying mechanisms for BZ resistance are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene causing the substitutions F167Y, E198A or F200Y. However, resistance is believed to be multi-genic and previous studies have shown that isolates carrying 90-100% F200Y can vary considerably in their resistance level in the egg hatch assay (EHA)...
October 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Christoph Gmeiner, Georg Dorn, Frédéric H T Allain, Gunnar Jeschke, Maxim Yulikov
A combined method, employing NMR and EPR spectroscopies, has demonstrated its strength in solving structures of protein/RNA and other types of biomolecular complexes. This method works particularly well when the large biomolecular complex consists of a limited number of rigid building blocks, such as RNA-binding protein domains (RBDs). A variety of spin labels is available for such studies, allowing for conventional as well as spectroscopically orthogonal double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements in EPR...
October 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Steffi J E Rombouts, Willemijn P M van Dijck, Maarten W Nijkamp, Tyche C Derksen, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Frederik J H Hoogwater, Maarten S van Leeuwen, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Richard van Hillegersberg, Fred H Wittkampf, Izaak Q Molenaar
BACKGROUND: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) by inserting needles around the tumor as treatment for locally advanced pancreatic cancer entails several disadvantages, such as incomplete ablation due to field inhomogeneity, technical difficulties in needle placement and a risk of pancreatic fistula development. This experimental study evaluates outcomes of IRE using paddles in a porcine model. METHODS: Six healthy pigs underwent laparotomy and were treated with 2 separate ablations (in head and tail of the pancreas)...
October 10, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
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