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T Tian, Z Hua, L Z Wang, X Y Wang, H Y Chen, Z H Liu, Z M Cui
Objective: To elucidate the impact of over-expression of S100A7 on migration, invasion, proliferation, cell cycle, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human cervical cancer HeLa and CaSki cells. Methods: (1) Immunohistochemistry of SP was used to examine the expression of S100A7 in 40 cases of squamous cervical cancer tissues and 20 cases of normal cervical tissues. (2) The vectors of pLVX-IRES-Neo-S100A7 and pLVX-IRES-Neo were used to transfect human cervical cancer HeLa and CaSki cells, and the positive clones were screened and identified...
February 25, 2018: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Rosa M Pintó, Francisco-Javier Pérez-Rodríguez, Lucia D' Andrea, Montserrat de Castellarnau, Susana Guix, Albert Bosch
Codon usage bias is universal to all genomes. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) codon usage is highly biased and deoptimized with respect to its host. Accordingly, HAV is unable to induce cellular translational shutoff and its internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is inefficient. Codon usage deoptimization may be seen as a hawk (host cell) versus dove (HAV) game strategy for accessing transfer RNA (tRNA). HAV avoids use of abundant host cell codons and thereby eludes competition for the corresponding tRNAs. Instead, codons that are abundant or rare in cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are used relatively rarely in its genome, although intermediately abundant host cell codons are abundant in the viral genome...
March 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Dewaele Aurélie, Persuy Marie-Annick, Badonnel Karine, Meunier Nicolas, Durieux Didier, Castille Johan, Favreau-Peigné Angélique, Baly Christine
Exposure to specific odorants in the womb during pregnancy or in the milk during early nursing is known to impact morpho-functional development of the olfactory circuitry of pups. This can be associated with a modification in olfactory sensitivity and behavioural olfactory-based preferences to the perinatally encountered odorants measured at birth, weaning or adult stage. Effects depend on a multitude of factors, such as odorant type, concentration, administration mode and frequency, as well as timing and mice strain...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
O S Nikonov, E S Chernykh, M B Garber, E Yu Nikonova
The genus Enterovirus combines a portion of small (+)ssRNA-containing viruses and is divided into 10 species of true enteroviruses and three species of rhinoviruses. These viruses are causative agents of the widest spectrum of severe and deadly epidemic diseases of higher vertebrates, including humans. Their ubiquitous distribution and high pathogenicity motivate active search to counteract enterovirus infections. There are no sufficiently effective drugs targeted against enteroviral diseases, thus treatment is reduced to supportive and symptomatic measures...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Tarini Singh, Birte Moeller, Iring Koch, Christian Frings
The feature codes of stimuli and responses can be integrated, and if a stimulus is repeated it can retrieve the previously integrated response. Furthermore, even irrelevant features can be integrated and, upon repetition, retrieve the response. Yet the role of attention in feature integration and retrieval is not clearly understood. Some theories assume a central role of attention (e.g., Logan, 1988; Treisman & Gelade, 1980), but other studies have shown no influence of attention on feature binding (e.g...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Iring Koch, Edita Poljac, Hermann Müller, Andrea Kiesel
Numerous studies showed decreased performance in situations that require multiple tasks or actions relative to appropriate control conditions. Because humans often engage in such multitasking activities, it is important to understand how multitasking affects performance. In the present article, we argue that research on dual-task interference and sequential task switching has proceeded largely separately using different experimental paradigms and methodology. In our article we aim at organizing this complex set of research in terms of three complementary research perspectives on human multitasking...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
O S Nikonov, M S Nemchinova, V G Klyashtornii, E Yu Nikonova, M B Garber
The currently available structural information is insufficient for a detailed analysis of interactions between human glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) and enterovirus IRESs. At the same time, this information is required in order to understand how this IRES trans-acting factor (ITAF) functions during viral mRNA translation, which is in turn crucial for the development of direct-action antiviral agents. In this paper, a theoretical model of the complex between a cadicivirus A IRES fragment and the anticodon-binding domain of human GARS is constructed using molecular dynamics simulation based on all of the available structural and biochemical data...
January 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
E Yu Nikonova, A O Mihaylina, M S Nemchinova, M B Garber, O S Nikonov
A full analysis has been conducted of the sequences and secondary structures of viral type-I or related IRESs identified in all of the elements that correspond to the previously described minimal fragment of the enterovirus C IRES, which mimics the glycine tRNA anticodon hairpin in the IRES structure and is necessary for the specific binding of glycyl-tRNA synthetase. Experiments on human glycyl-tRNA synthetase binding with the mRNA fragments of several taxonomically distant viruses showed that the binding constants of these complexes are similar...
January 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Haixia Zhang, Kuangpeng Liu, Zhixiao Xue, Huijuan Yin, Huajiang Dong, Wendong Jin, Xiafei Shi, Han Wang, Hai Wang
This study evaluated the effects and mechanism of action of combining irreversible electroporation (IRE) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo . Jin's formula was used to assess killing efficacy of different IRE+PDT dosing combinations in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry, high-content imaging, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to detect apoptosis. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Rose M Langsjoen, Sherry L Haller, Chad J Roy, Heather Vinet-Oliphant, Nicholas A Bergren, Jesse H Erasmus, Jill A Livengood, Tim D Powell, Scott C Weaver, Shannan L Rossi
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus capable of causing explosive outbreaks of febrile illness, polyarthritis, and polyarthralgia, inflicting severe morbidity on affected populations. CHIKV can be genetically classified into 3 major lineages: West African (WA); East, Central, and South African (ECSA); Indian Ocean (IOL); and Asian. Additionally, the Indian Ocean (IOL) sublineage emerged within the ECSA clade and the Asian/American sublineage emerged within the Asian clade. While differences in epidemiological and pathological characteristics among outbreaks involving different CHIKV lineages and sublineages have been suggested, few targeted investigations comparing lineage virulence levels have been reported...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Young Hong, Jonathan Rice, Divyansh Sharma, Robert C G Martin
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) often presents late with only 20% of patients being candidates for resection while majority already have advanced metastases with median overall survival of 3-6 months. Currently, the role of oligometastasectomy and local therapy options in PDAC is unknown in patients who have favorable response to systemic chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to analyze the survival outcome of oligometastasectomy and local IRE therapy in select patients who are treated with systemic chemotherapy for PDAC metastases...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Richard Suu-Ire, Lineke Begeman, Ashley C Banyard, Andrew C Breed, Christian Drosten, Elisa Eggerbauer, Conrad M Freuling, Louise Gibson, Hooman Goharriz, Daniel L Horton, Daisy Jennings, Ivan V Kuzmin, Denise Marston, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, David Selden, Emma L Wise, Thijs Kuiken, Anthony R Fooks, Thomas Müller, James L N Wood, Andrew A Cunningham
Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elena S Babaylova, Dmitri M Graifer, Alexey A Malygin, Galina G Karpova
Genomic RNAs of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a specific highly structured fragment responsible for its non-canonical translation initiation. The HCV IRES contains a major part of the 5'-untranslated region of the viral RNA and a small portion of the open reading frame (ORF). At the first step of initiation, IRES directly binds to 40S ribosomal subunits so that the AUG start codon appears at the P site region without scanning and without involving initiation factors. However, it is still not entirely clear whether the IRES ORF is correctly loaded into the 40S ribosomal mRNA binding channel in the resulting binary complex...
March 1, 2018: Biochimie
Natalia Becerra, Claudia Marcela Arenas Gómez, Maria Isabel Patiño, Jean Paul Delgado, Carlos Enrique Muskus, Luz Marina Restrepo
Non-viral transfection has important implications on gene therapy, because of its safety. In particular, polyfection and nucleofection are two widely used systems for non-viral gene delivery. Their potential depends on the transfection efficiency achieved, which is influenced in turn by the type of cells transfected and by the plasmid which carries the gene of interest. The efficiency of transfection by polyfection or nucleofection in human fibroblast and keratinocytes was evaluated in this study. Transfections were performed with plasmids containing a gene of interest (Human Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide) and two reporter genes (Red or Green Fluorescent Protein) that included or not an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)...
February 28, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Esther González-Almela, Hugh Williams, Miguel A Sanz, Luis Carrasco
Animal viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to ensure the efficient translation of their mRNAs. One such strategy is the use of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements, which circumvent the requirement for some eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Much effort has been directed to unravel the precise mechanism of translation initiation by hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA. In the present study, we examined the involvement of several eIFs in HCV IRES-driven translation in human cells in a comparative analysis with mRNAs bearing the encephalomyocarditis virus or the Cricket paralysis virus IRES element...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emma E Glennon, Olivier Restif, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, Romain Garnier, Andrew A Cunningham, Richard D Suu-Ire, Richard Osei-Amponsah, James L N Wood, Alison J Peel
Bat-borne viruses carry undeniable risks to the health of human beings and animals, and there is growing recognition of the need for a 'One Health' approach to understand their frequently complex spill-over routes. While domesticated animals can play central roles in major spill-over events of zoonotic bat-borne viruses, for example during the pig-amplified Malaysian Nipah virus outbreak of 1998-1999, the extent of their potential to act as bridging or amplifying species for these viruses has not been characterised systematically...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
Michael B Sano, Matthew R DeWitt, Stephanie D Teeter, Lei Xing
High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) is an emerging ablation modality, delivering rapid bursts of bipolar microsecond-duration electrical pulses to non-thermally ablate tissue including tumors. With advantages over current electroporation techniques including mitigation of muscle stimulation and reduced susceptibility to heterogeneous tissue properties, H-FIRE may produce more uniform and predictable ablations and can potentially be delivered with a single applicator device. However, the resulting ablations tend to be smaller than those provided with equivalent energy monopolar pulse protocols...
February 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Daniel Skubleny, Jerry T Dang, Samuel Skulsky, Noah Switzer, Chunhong Tian, Xinzhe Shi, Christopher de Gara, Daniel W Birch, Shahzeer Karmali
BACKGROUND: Sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) for gastric cancer using infrared visualization of indocyanine green (ICG) is intriguing because it may limit operative morbidity. We are the first to systematically review and perform meta-analysis on the diagnostic utility of ICG and infrared electronic endoscopy (IREE) or near infrared fluorescent imaging (NIFI) for SNNS exclusively in gastric cancer. METHODS: A search of electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library using search terms "gastric/stomach" AND "tumor/carcinoma/cancer/neoplasm/adenocarcinoma/malignancy" AND "indocyanine green" was completed in May 2017...
February 26, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Benjamin R E Harris, Defeng Wang, Ye Zhang, Marina Ferrari, Aniekan Okon, Margot P Cleary, Carston R Wagner, Da-Qing Yang
The p53 tumor suppressor plays a critical role in protecting normal cells from malignant transformation. Development of small molecules to reactivate p53 in cancer cells has been an area of intense research. We previously identified an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) within the 5' -untranslated region of p53 mRNA that mediates translation of the p53 mRNA independent of cap-dependent translation. Our results also show that in response to DNA damage, cells switch from cap-dependent translation to cap-independent translation of p53 mRNA...
February 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Steven D Schutt, Yongxia Wu, Chih-Hang Anthony Tang, David Bastian, Hung Nguyen, M Hanief Sofi, MengMeng Zhang, Chen Liu, Kris Helke, Carole Wilson, Lynn M Schnapp, Juan R Del Valle, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Xue-Zhong Yu
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative procedure for hematological malignancies, but chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major complication after allogeneic HCT. Because donor B cells are essential for cGVHD development and B cells are sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we hypothesized that the IRE-1α/XBP-1 pathway is required for B-cell activation and function and for the development of cGVHD. To test this hypothesis, we used conditional knock-out mice deficient of XBP-1 specifically in B cells...
February 27, 2018: Blood Advances
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