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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437641/human-neuronal-cell-based-assay-a-new-in-vitro-model-for-toxicity-evaluation-of-ciguatoxin
#1
Teresa Coccini, Francesca Caloni, Uliana De Simone
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca(2+)i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436203/endoplasmic-reticulum-proteostasis-impairment-in-aging
#2
REVIEW
Gabriela Martínez, Claudia Duran-Aniotz, Felipe Cabral-Miranda, Juan P Vivar, Claudio Hetz
Perturbed neuronal proteostasis is a salient feature shared by both aging and protein misfolding disorders. The proteostasis network controls the health of the proteome by integrating pathways involved in protein synthesis, folding, trafficking, secretion, and their degradation. A reduction in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network during aging may increase the risk to undergo neurodegeneration by enhancing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. As almost one-third of the proteome is synthetized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), maintenance of its proper function is fundamental to sustain neuronal function...
April 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435670/type-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-signaling-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Masanobu Kano, Takaki Watanabe
The cerebellum is a brain structure involved in coordination, control, and learning of movements, as well as certain aspects of cognitive function. Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons from the cerebellar cortex and therefore play crucial roles in the overall function of the cerebellum. The type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) is a key "hub" molecule that is critically involved in the regulation of synaptic wiring, excitability, synaptic response, and synaptic plasticity of Purkinje cells. In this review, we aim to highlight how mGluR1 controls these events in Purkinje cells...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435127/neural-impact-of-low-level-alcohol-use-on-response-inhibition-an-fmri-investigation-in-young-adults
#4
Taylor Hatchard, Ola Mioduszewski, Carley Fall, Aziza Byron-Alhassan, Peter Fried, Andra M Smith
It is widely known that alcohol consumption adversely affects human health, particularly in the immature developing brains of adolescents and young adults, which may also have a long-lasting impact on executive functioning. The present study investigated the neural activity of 28 young adults from the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this study was to discover the impact of regular low-level alcohol consumption on response inhibition as the participants performed a Go/No-Go task...
April 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434870/maternal-socioeconomic-disadvantage-is-associated-with-transcriptional-indications-of-greater-immune-activation-and-slower-tissue-maturation-in-placental-biopsies-and-newborn-cord-blood
#5
Gregory E Miller, Ann E Borders, Amy H Crockett, Kharah M Ross, Sameen Qadir, Lauren Keenan-Devlin, Adam K Leigh, Paula Ham, Jeffrey Ma, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Linda M Ernst, Steve W Cole
Children from economically disadvantaged families experience worse cognitive, psychiatric, and medical outcomes compared to more affluent youth. Preclinical models suggest some of the adverse influence of disadvantage could be transmitted during gestation via maternal immune activation, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. It also remains unclear whether prenatal interventions can mitigate such effects. To fill these gaps, we conducted two studies. Study 1 characterized the socioeconomic conditions of 79 women during pregnancy...
April 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434584/how-does-sex-matter-behavior-stress-and-animal-models-of-neurobehavioral-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Paola Palanza, Stefano Parmigiani
Many aspects of brain functioning exhibit important sex differences that affect behavior, mental health and mental disorders. However, most translational neuroscience research related to animal models of neurobehavioral disorders are carried out in male animals only. Based on published data from our laboratory on the House mouse, we discuss the following issues: (1) sex differences in social behavior of wild-derived mice; (2) artificial selection of laboratory strains and its consequences on social and reproductive competition; (3) sex-dependent effects of common experimental procedures; (4) differential effects of developmental events: the case of endocrine disruption; (5) implications for female models of stress and neurobehavioral disorders...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434458/relationship-between-state-malpractice-environment-and-quality-of-health-care-in-the-united-states
#7
Karl Y Bilimoria, Jeanette W Chung, Christina A Minami, Min-Woong Sohn, Emily S Pavey, Jane L Holl, Michelle M Mello
BACKGROUND: One major intent of the medical malpractice system in the United States is to deter negligent care and to create incentives for delivering high-quality health care. A study was conducted to assess whether state-level measures of malpractice risk were associated with hospital quality and patient safety. METHODS: In an observational study of short-term, acute-care general hospitals in the United States that publicly reported in the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services Hospital Compare in 2011, hierarchical regression models were used to estimate associations between state-specific malpractice environment measures (rates of paid claims, average Medicare Malpractice Geographic Practice Cost Index [MGPCI], absence of tort reform laws, and a composite measure) and measures of hospital quality (processes of care, imaging utilization, 30-day mortality and readmission, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators, and patient experience from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS])...
May 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434050/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-and-food-animals-and-direct-genotyping-of-t-gondii-isolates-southern-ghana
#8
Faustina Pappoe, Weisheng Cheng, Lin Wang, Yuanling Li, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Samuel Victor Nuvor, Henock Ambachew, Xiaodong Hu, Qingli Luo, Deyong Chu, Yuanhong Xu, Jilong Shen
Toxoplasma gondii is of public health and veterinary importance causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals including HIV/AIDS patients and in congenital cases and animals. There is limited information on the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in humans, particularly HIV patients and food animals and the parasite genotypes in Ghana. A total of 394 HIV-infected patients from three hospitals were screened for T. gondii anti-IgG and IgM using ELISA. DNAs from blood samples of seropositve participants and 95 brain tissues of food animals were PCR assayed to detect Toxoplasma gra6...
April 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434043/early-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-primary-cns-lymphoma-negative-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-the-randomized-g-pcnsl-sg1-trial
#9
Ulrich Herrlinger, Niklas Schäfer, Rolf Fimmers, Frank Griesinger, Michael Rauch, Heinz Kirchen, Patrick Roth, Martin Glas, Michael Bamberg, Peter Martus, Eckhard Thiel, Agnieszka Korfel, Michael Weller
PURPOSE: In the randomized G-PCNSL-SG-1 trial, the addition of whole brain radiotherapy (45 Gy) to high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy (early WBRT arm) did not prolong overall survival (OS) as compared to HD-MTX-based chemotherapy alone (no early WBRT arm) in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) patients. To determine whether WBRT might lead to quality of life (QoL)-relevant late neurotoxicity, this trial prospectively monitored QoL. METHODS: QoL measurements were performed using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 and BN20 questionnaires and combined with repeated Mini Mental State Examinations (MMSE)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433933/functional-foods-in-pet-nutrition-focus-on-dogs-and-cats
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Di Cerbo, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Beniamino Palmieri, Federica Pezzuto, Raffaella Cocco, Gonzalo Flores, Tommaso Iannitti
Functional foods provide health benefits if they are consumed on a regular basis as part of a varied diet. In this review, we discuss the availability and role of functional foods in pet nutrition with a focus on dogs and cats. Indeed, functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies. This evidence derives largely from clinical studies while only limited evidence is available from studies in dogs and cats...
April 7, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433747/chemical-composition-of-ocimum-sanctum-by-lc-esi-ms-ms-analysis-and-its-protective-effects-against-smoke-induced-lung-and-neuronal-tissue-damage-in-rats
#11
M P Venuprasad, Hemanth Kumar Kandikattu, Sakina Razack, Narayanappa Amruta, Farhath Khanum
Smoke induced oxidative stress is known to cause various cancers and associated health problems including lung cancer. Herbal extracts have been reported as antioxidant supplements which attenuate free radical induced oxidative damage of tissues, among which Ocimum sanctum has been reported as the elixir of life due to its innumerable health benefits. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of O. sanctum against cracker smoke induced lung and brain tissue damage. The results of the study demonstrate that O...
April 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433659/carbonic-anhydrase-xii-functions-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Abdul Waheed, William S Sly
Human CAXII was initially identified as a cancer marker in different cancers and tumors. Expression of CAXII is regulated by hypoxia and estrogen receptors. CAXII expression has been also detected in several tissues, whereas in cancer and tumor tissues its expression is several fold higher. In brain tumors, an alternatively spliced form of CAXII is expressed. Higher expression of CAXII in breast cancer is indicative of lower grade disease. CAXII plays a key role in several physiological functions. Mutation in the CAXII gene causes cystic fibrosis-like syndrome and salt wasting disease...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433623/combined-fmri-mrs-acquires-simultaneous-glutamate-and-bold-fmri-signals-in-the-human-brain
#13
I Betina Ip, Adam Berrington, Aaron T Hess, Andrew J Parker, Uzay E Emir, Holly Bridge
Combined fMRI-MRS is a novel method to non-invasively investigate functional activation in the human brain using simultaneous acquisition of hemodynamic and neurochemical measures. The aim of the current study was to quantify neural activity using combined fMRI-MRS at 7 T. BOLD-fMRI and semi-LASER localization MRS data were acquired from the visual cortex of 13 participants during short blocks (64s) of flickering checkerboards. We demonstrate a correlation between glutamate and BOLD-fMRI time courses (R = 0...
April 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433457/spatial-and-temporal-expression-patterns-of-genes-around-nine-neuroticism-associated-loci
#14
Kazutaka Ohi, Takamitsu Shimada, Toshiki Yasuyama, Kohei Kimura, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
Neuroticism is a high-order personality trait. Individuals with higher neuroticism have increased risks of various psychiatric disorders and physical health outcomes. Neuroticism is related to physiological differences in the brain. A recent genome-wide association study identified nine distinct genomic loci that contribute to neuroticism. Brain development and function depend on the precise regulation of gene expression, which is differentially regulated across brain regions and developmental stages. Using multiple publicly available human post-mortem databases, we investigated, in brain and non-brain tissues and across several developmental life stages, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of genes arising from nine neuroticism-associated loci...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433096/wilson-disease-neurologic-features
#15
Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin, Grzegorz Chabik
Wilson disease (WD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which presents as a spectrum of neurologic manifestations that includes tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, dystonia, chorea, dysarthria, and dysphagia, together with a combination of neurologic symptoms that can easily lead to misdiagnosis. An early diagnosis of WD, and appropriate anticopper treatment, usually leads to a marked improvement in patient health. Conversely, delayed diagnosis can result in persistent pathology, which, left untreated, can ultimately prove lethal...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433086/intergenerational-transmission-of-maternal-childhood-maltreatment-exposure-implications-for-fetal-brain-development
#16
REVIEW
Claudia Buss, Sonja Entringer, Nora K Moog, Philipp Toepfer, Damien A Fair, Hyagriv N Simhan, Christine M Heim, Pathik D Wadhwa
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests the deleterious consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment (CM) not only might endure over the exposed individual's lifespan but also might be transmitted across generations. The time windows, mechanisms, and targets of such intergenerational transmission are poorly understood. The prevailing paradigm posits that mother-to-child transmission of the effects of maternal CM likely occurs after her child's birth. The authors seek to extend this paradigm and advance a transdisciplinary framework that integrates the concepts of biological embedding of life experiences and fetal origins of health and disease risk...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431793/alcohol-effects-on-the-epigenome-in-the-germline-role-in-the-inheritance-of-alcohol-related-pathology
#17
REVIEW
Lucy G Chastain, Dipak K Sarkar
Excessive alcohol exposure has severe health consequences, and clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that disruptions in the epigenome of somatic cells, such as those in brain, are an important factor in the development of alcohol-related pathologies, such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). It is also well known that alcohol-related health problems are passed down across generations in human populations, but the complete mechanisms for this phenomenon are currently unknown...
March 6, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431387/cypermethrin-toxication-leads-to-histopathological-lesions-and-induces-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#18
Harun Arslan, Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun
Cypermethrin (Cyp), a known neurotoxic pesticide, is widely used in agricultural applications. In the present study, the aim was to determine the histopathological effects of Cyp toxication and evaluate the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) using an immunofluorescence assay. Thereafter, we identified the expressions of caspase 3, capsase 8, iNOS, and metallothionein 1 (MT1) genes in common carp using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431289/klotho-apoe%C3%AE%C2%B54-cognitive-ability-brain-size-atrophy-and-survival-a-study-in-the-aberdeen-birth-cohort-of-1936
#19
Clarisse F de Vries, Roger T Staff, Sarah E Harris, Dorota Chapko, Daniel S Williams, Polina Reichert, Trevor Ahearn, Christopher J McNeil, Lawrence J Whalley, Alison D Murray
A single copy of klotho allele KL-VS is associated with longevity, better health, increased cognition, and bigger regional brain volume. However, its longitudinal effects on cognition and brain volumes, both global and regional, in late life are unclear. In this study we show that, relative to noncarriers, KL-VS heterozygotes had (1) shorter survival; (2) smaller white matter volumes; (3) slower cognitive decline; and (4) greater right frontal lobe volumes. The KL-VS heterozygote survival and white matter volume disadvantages were unexpected...
March 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430849/performance-and-symptom-validity-testing-as-a-function-of-medical-board-evaluation-in-u-s-military-service-members-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Wesley R Cole, Robert L Stegman
Objective: The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Method: Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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