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Brain health

Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Mahmoud A Alomari, Hanan Khalil, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Esraa H Dersieh
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to cardiovascular health and function, however, the exact role is yet to be understood. The current study examined the relationship of circulatory BDNF with vascular function in Parkinson's disease (PD). ELISA was used to determine plasma BDNF in PD patients and healthy control (CT). Additionally, forearm resting blood flow (RBf), vascular resistance (RVr), venous capacitance (RVc), and venous outflow (RVo) as well as post occlusion blood flow (OcBf), vascular resistance (OcVr), venous capacitance (OcVc), and venous outflow (OcVo) were obtained using strain-gauge plethysmography...
March 20, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Song Luo, Lijuan Yang, Yanfei Luo
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a non-invasive technique that can reveal venous structures and iron in the brain. This retrospective study evaluated SWI, relative to other imaging techniques, for determining cerebral infarct size and early-stage clinical prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Within 3 days after onset, 22 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent SWI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
March 20, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Jing Yuan, Xinshuang Yu, Aihua Wang, Yan Li, Fengjun Liu, Yao Wang, Shanmei Sun, Xiuyang Bing, Yiming Liu, Juan Du
For several years, the cause of autosomal recessive mental retardation has been attributed to the deletion or mutation of a gene named tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3). Previous research has identified that TUSC3 is a potential tumor suppressor gene in oral epidermoid carcinoma, lung cancer and esophageal cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previously published data has existed on the expression of TUSC3 in gliomas. The present study focused on the expression of TUSC3 in brain gliomas. Additionally, the present study sought to identify he association between TUSC3 expression and the typical clinical and pathological disease manifestations of gliomas...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Nikita M Bajwa, Chandrasekhar Kesavan, Subburaman Mohan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to long-term cognitive, behavioral, affective deficits, and increase neurodegenerative diseases. It is only in recent years that there is growing awareness that TBI even in its milder form poses long-term health consequences to not only the brain but to other organ systems. Also, the concept that hormonal signals and neural circuits that originate in the hypothalamus play key roles in regulating skeletal system is gaining recognition based on recent mouse genetic studies. Accordingly, many TBI patients have also presented with hormonal dysfunction, increased skeletal fragility, and increased risk of skeletal diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Philippine C Geiszler, Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Karen Lawler, Marie-Christine Pardon, Ding Yuchun, Li Bai, Clare A Daykin, Dorothee P Auer, Lynn Bedford
Metabolite profiling is an important tool that may better capture the multiple features of neurodegeneration. With the considerable parallels between mouse and human metabolism, the use of metabolomics in mouse models with neurodegenerative pathology provides mechanistic insight and ready translation into aspects of human disease. Using 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we have carried out a temporal region-specific investigation of the metabolome of neuron-specific 26S proteasome knockout mice characterised by progressive neurodegeneration and Lewy-like inclusion formation in the forebrain...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuhiro Ayabe, Rena Ohya, Keiji Kondo, Yasuhisa Ano
Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD)...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maritta Välimäki, Kaisa Mishina, Johanna K Kaakinen, Suvi K Holm, Jukka Vahlo, Markus Kirjonen, Virve Pekurinen, Olli Tenovuo, Jyrki Korkeila, Heikki Hämäläinen, Jaana Sarajuuri, Pekka Rantanen, Tage Orenius, Aki Koponen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem that often requires intensive and long-term rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether rehabilitative digital gaming facilitates cognitive functioning and general well-being in people with TBI. METHODS: A total of 90 Finnish-speaking adults with TBI (18-65 years) were recruited from an outpatient neuroscience clinic. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: a rehabilitation gaming group (n=29, intervention), an entertainment gaming group (n=29, active control), or a passive control group (n=32)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Mahmoud A Alomari, Nihaya A Al-Sheyab, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) and tobacco consumption can affect many body functions and health. However, the relationship of BDNF with waterpipe (Wp) smoking is unknown. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between Wp smoking and BDNF in adolescents. METHODS: Self-reported tobacco consumption and serum BDNF were determined in 195 waterpipe and 288 nonsmokers in 7th-10th grade students. RESULTS: Stepwise regression that included Wp smoking, gender, BMI, and location, showed that only Wp smoking (p < 0...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Tsuyoshi Ohta, Kenji Okada, Maki Fukuda, Noritaka Masahira, Toshiki Matsuoka, Takaya Tsuno, Mitsuhiro Takemura
OBJECT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of intravenous low-dose alteplase for acute ischemic stroke patients with relative contraindications. METHODS: The consecutive series of patients admitted within 4.5 hours of ischemic stroke onset between September 2012 and April 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. A good outcome at 90 days and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were evaluated to determine the association with intravenous low-dose alteplase, especially in the presence of relative contraindications...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Paul R King, Gregory P Beehler, Bonnie M Vest, Kerry Donnelly, Laura O Wray
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Explore cognitive, affective, and experiential factors that inform veterans' traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related beliefs. Research Method/Design: Qualitative descriptive study of 22 veterans who received care for TBI at a VA Medical Center in the Northeastern United States using directed content analysis. Measures included a semistructured interview, demographic survey, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption Items (AUDIT-C), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), PTSD Checklist (PCL), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Vera Spatenkova, Pavlina Krejzarova, Jaroslav Jedlicka
Introduction: Dysphagia is a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia and acute respiratory failure in acute stroke patients. Dysphagia lusoria is caused by compression on the esophagus from artery lusoria, when the aberrant right subclavian artery arises from the descending aortic arch. We present a rare case report of pre-stroke undiagnosed dysphagia lusoria as a cause of aspiration pneumonia with acute respiratory failure in a 67-year-old female patient admitted with a minor left intracerebral hemorrhage in the left basal ganglia...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Michael C Tackenberg, Douglas G McMahon
Though the seasonal response of organisms to changing day lengths is a phenomenon that has been scientifically reported for nearly a century, significant questions remain about how photoperiod is encoded and effected neurobiologically. In mammals, early work identified the master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), as a tentative encoder of photoperiodic information. Here, we provide an overview of research on the SCN as a coordinator of photoperiodic responses, the intercellular coupling changes that accompany that coordination, as well as the SCN's role in a putative brain network controlling photoperiodic input and output...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Chie-Hong Wang, Tsung-Li Lin, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chen-Huan Lin, Yu-Chuen Huang, Ru-Huei Fu, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Shih-Ping Liu
Background and purpose: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) not only provides a physical obstruction but also recruits and activates neutrophils in cases of infection. Hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke reportedly induces the disruption of the BBB. However, few studies have reported a correlation between the incidence of meningitis in patients with a history of stroke. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with a history of stroke may be more vulnerable to meningitis. Methods: Stroke and age-matched comparison ( n  = 29,436 and 87,951, respectively) cohorts were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database (2000-2011)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Pia Lau, Andreas Wollbrink, Robert Wunderlich, Alva Engell, Alwina Löhe, Markus Junghöfer, Christo Pantev
Tinnitus is a prevalent phenomenon and bothersome for people affected by it. Its occurrence and maintenance have a clear neuroscientific tie and one aspect are differences in the neuronal oscillatory pattern, especially in auditory cortical areas. As studies in this field come to different results, the aim of this study was to analyze a large number of participants to achieve more stable results. Furthermore, we expanded our analysis to two variables of potential influence, namely being a novice to neuroscientific measurements and the exclusion of psychological comorbidities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrew A Bartlett, Richard G Hunter
The brain is responsible for both recognition and adaptation to stressful stimuli. Many molecular mechanisms have been implicated in this response including those governing neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and, changes gene expression. Far less is known regarding effects of stress on the deep genome. In the hippocampus, stress appears to regulate expression of non-coding elements of the genome as well as the chromatin permissive for their transcription. Specifically, hippocampal retrotransposon (RT) elements are regulated by acute stress via the accumulation of the repressive H3K9me3 mark at RT loci...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Stuart Maudsley, Viswanath Devanarayan, Bronwen Martin, Hugo Geerts
Biomedical data sets are becoming increasingly larger and a plethora of high-dimensionality data sets ("Big Data") are now freely accessible for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. It is thus important that new informatic analysis platforms are developed that allow the organization and interrogation of Big Data resources into a rational and actionable mechanism for advanced therapeutic development. This will entail the generation of systems and tools that allow the cross-platform correlation between data sets of distinct types, for example, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic...
March 15, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Sarang Kim, Mitchell McMaster, Susan Torres, Kay L Cox, Nicola Lautenschlager, George W Rebok, Dimity Pond, Catherine D'Este, Ian McRae, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
INTRODUCTION: It has been estimated that a 10%-25% reduction in seven key risk factors could potentially prevent 1.1-3.0 million Alzheimer's disease cases globally. In addition, as dementia is preceded by more subtle cognitive deficits which have substantial social and economic impact, effective preventative interventions would likely have more extensive benefits. The current study evaluates in primary care a multidomain risk-reduction intervention targeting adults with high risk of developing dementia...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Peter C Fino, Lucy Parrington, Will Pitt, Douglas N Martini, James C Chesnutt, Li-Shan Chou, Laurie A King
BACKGROUND: While a growing number of studies have investigated the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on gait, many studies use different experimental paradigms and outcome measures. The path for translating experimental studies for objective clinical assessments of gait is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: This review asked 2 questions: 1) is gait abnormal after concussion/mTBI, and 2) what gait paradigms (single-task, dual-task, complex gait) detect abnormalities after concussion...
March 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
Ryan C Kruse, Zhuo Li, Cara C Prideaux, Allen W Brown
BACKGROUND: Depression and traumatic brain injury (TBI) substantially contribute to the United States healthcare burden. Depression is a known risk factor for prolonged recovery after TBI. However, the effect of depression treatment on health care utilization has yet to be studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an association exists between pharmacologic treatment of depression at the time of mild or concussive TBI and the number of subsequent clinician visits for persistent injury-related symptoms...
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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