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Brain health

Aline Sarturi Ponte, Elenir Fedosse
This study correlated the impact of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) on the labor activity of individuals of working age on their quality of life (QOL) and that of their relatives/caregivers. It involved qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative (descriptive) research. Forty-eight individuals with ABI and 27 relatives/caregivers were interviewed. The correlation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF (52...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jing Chen, Craig A Mullen
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer is rare and its symptoms are often ambiguous. The aims of this study were to investigate the time needed to make a diagnosis, assess the frequency of misdiagnosis, and to determine whether these factors affected survival. METHODS: A review of records of 364 pediatric patients diagnosed with cancer at the University of Rochester Golisano Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2012 was conducted. Data were extracted on patient and health care system-related factors and clinical outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
G V Roshchupkin, H H H Adams, M W Vernooij, A Hofman, C M Van Duijn, M A Ikram, W J Niessen
High-throughput technology can now provide rich information on a person's biological makeup and environmental surroundings. Important discoveries have been made by relating these data to various health outcomes in fields such as genomics, proteomics, and medical imaging. However, cross-investigations between several high-throughput technologies remain impractical due to demanding computational requirements (hundreds of years of computing resources) and unsuitability for collaborative settings (terabytes of data to share)...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Young Bin Ji, Seung Jae Oh, Seok-Gu Kang, Jung Heo, Sang-Hoon Kim, Yuna Choi, Seungri Song, Hye Young Son, Se Hoon Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Seung Joo Haam, Yong Min Huh, Jong Hee Chang, Chulmin Joo, Jin-Suck Suh
Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Junko Kimura-Kuroda, Yasumasa Nishito, Hiroko Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kuroda, Yukari Komuta, Hitoshi Kawano, Masaharu Hayashi
Neonicotinoids are considered safe because of their low affinities to mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) relative to insect nAChRs. However, because of importance of nAChRs in mammalian brain development, there remains a need to establish the safety of chronic neonicotinoid exposures with regards to children's health. Here we examined the effects of longterm (14 days) and low dose (1 μM) exposure of neuron-enriched cultures from neonatal rat cerebellum to nicotine and two neonicotinoids: acetamiprid and imidacloprid...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jing Xue, Sarah A Schoenrock, William Valdar, Lisa M Tarantino, Folami Y Ideraabdullah
BACKGROUND: Environmental perturbation of epigenetic mechanisms is linked to a growing number of diseases. Characterizing the role environmental factors play in modifying the epigenome is important for disease etiology. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient affecting brain, bone, heart, immune and reproductive health. Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue, and the role in maternal and child health remains under investigation. METHODS: We used Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred mice to characterize the effect of maternal vitamin D depletion on offspring phenotypic and epigenetic outcomes at imprinted domains (H19/Igf2, Snrpn, Dlk1/Gtl2, and Grb10) in the soma (liver) and germline (sperm)...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
J M Ramírez-Moreno, F J Felix-Redondo, D Fernández-Bergés, L Lozano-Mera
BACKGROUND: The incidence of stroke in Spain has been evaluated in several studies, whose results are highly variable and not comparable. No studies of stroke have analysed epidemiological changes in younger patients. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective observational study using the Spanish health system's Minimum Data Set and included all patients older than 19 hospitalised due to stroke (ICD-9-CM codes 434.01, 434.11, 434.91, 430, 431, 432.9, 436, and 435) between 2002 and 2013...
October 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Seetha Shankaran, Abbot R Laptook, Scott A McDonald, Susan R Hintz, Patrick D Barnes, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins
: Infants with perinatal sentinel events in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Hypothermia for Encephalopathy Trial had more basal ganglia and thalamus lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging but similar neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age than infants without perinatal sentinel events. Outcomes correlated with the neonatal magnetic resonance imaging findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
Young Hoon Gong, Seok Jun Yoon, Min Woo Jo, Arim Kim, Young Ae Kim, Jihyun Yoon, Hyeyoung Seo, Dongwoo Kim
Cancer causes a significant deterioration in health and premature death and is a national socioeconomic burden. This study aimed to measure the burden of cancer using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric based on the newly adopted methodology from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010. This study was conducted based on data from the Korean National Cancer Registry. The DALYs were calculated using a prevalence-based method instead of the incidence-based method used by previous studies. The total burden of cancer in 2012 was 3,470...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Helen John Wilson, Kritis Dasgupta, Kathleen Michael
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to implement an Agitated Behavior Scale through an electronic health record and to evaluate the usability of the scale in a brain injury unit at a rehabilitation hospital. DESIGN: A quality improvement project was conducted in the brain injury unit at a large rehabilitation hospital with registered nurses as participants, using convenience sampling. METHODS: The project consisted of three phases and included education, implementation of the scale in the electronic health record, and administration of the survey questionnaire, which utilized the system usability scale...
October 24, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Joe Verghese, Rubina Malik, Jessica Zwerling
Given the multifaceted nature of dementia care management, an interdisciplinary comprehensive clinical approach is necessary. We describe our one-year experience with outpatient based dementia care at the Montefiore-Einstein Center for the Aging Brain (CAB) involving an multispecialty team of geriatricians, neurologists, and neuropsychologists, supported by geriatric psychiatrists, physiatrists, and social services. The goals of the CAB is to maximize dementia outcomes, including regular monitoring of patient's health and cognition, education and support to patients, their families and caregivers; initiation of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments as appropriate, and the facilitation of access to clinical trials...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Awadh Kishor Pandit, Deepti Vibha, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla, Vinay Goyal, Madhuri Behari
Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) in Parkinson disease (PD) ranged 40-70%. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, types and factors associated with the use of CAM in Indian PD patients. PD patients, fulfilling UKPD-Society brain-bank diagnostic-criteria, attending Movement-disorders clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in India from 1st May to 15th December 2012 were enrolled. Information on socio-demographic, clinical data and treatment along with factors (source of information, benefits, harms, reason for use and cost) associated with CAM use were recorded...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Chieh-Hsin Wu, Tai-Hsin Tsai, Yu-Feng Su, Zi-Hao Zhang, Wei Liu, Ming-Kung Wu, Chih-Hui Chang, Keng-Liang Kuo, Ying-Yi Lu, Chih-Lung Lin
Whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is causally related to substance related disorder (SRD) is still debatable, especially in persons with no history of mental disorders at the time of injury. This study analyzed data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 19,109 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed with TBI during 2000-2010. An additional 19,109 randomly selected age and gender matched patients without TBI (1 : 1 ratio) were enrolled in the control group. The relationship between TBI and SRD was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Sravya Atluri, Matthew Frehlich, Ye Mei, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Nigel C Rogasch, Willy Wong, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Faranak Farzan
Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its widespread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEP)s. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Sophie Peeters, Caitlin Blaine, Iv Vycheth, Sam Nang, Din Vuthy, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem worldwide with a significant socioeconomic burden. While improved safety regulations in high-income countries have resulted in a decline in traffic-related TBI, the incidence of TBI in low-income countries is on the rise. We illustrate the trends and factors involved in TBI in a large Cambodian governmental hospital in Phnom Penh. Additionally, suggestions for improvement of the country's road traffic safety are discussed...
October 20, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe, M R Nihal Abeysinghe, Sutee Yoksan, Yafu Yao, Benli Zhou, Lei Zhang, Jessica A Fleming, Anthony A Marfin, John C Victor
BACKGROUND: The performance of live attenuated Japanese Encephalitis SA 14-14-2 vaccine (CD-JEV) among children previously given inactivated mouse brain-derived JE vaccine (IMBV) is unknown. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of CD-JEV administered to 2- and 5-year-old children in Sri Lanka. METHODS: In this open-label, single arm trial in the Colombo District of Sri Lanka, generally healthy children 2 and 5years of age who had previously received two and three doses of IMBV, respectively, were administered one dose of CD-JEV subcutaneously...
October 20, 2016: Vaccine
A Montoya-Filardi, M Mazón
Recreational drug abuse represents a serious public health problem. Neuroimaging traditionally played a secondary role in this scenario, where it was limited to detecting acute vascular events. However, thanks to advances in knowledge about disease and in morphological and functional imaging techniques, radiologists have now become very important in the diagnosis of acute and chronic neurological complications of recreational drug abuse. The main complications are neurovascular disease, infection, toxicometabolic disorders, and brain atrophy...
October 20, 2016: Radiología
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