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intestinal microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653359/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-pathology-and-prevention-of-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia, Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri
Several microorganisms belonging to the intestinal microbiota act in an ecosystem responsible for maintaining the homeostasis and vital functions of human beings. From birth to old age the diversity of the intestinal microbiota may change due to environmental factors such as nutrition, immunity, diseases or the use of antibiotics leading to dysbiosis. Improvement in microbiota diversity can be achieved by modifying related risk factors through changes in lifestyle and a healthy diet. Besides, the addition of probiotics, prebiotics or the combination of both (symbiotics), can result in the improvement of the intestinal permeability, inflammatory pathways and the immune system...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#2
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652797/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-and-diet-on-uremic-retention-solutes-production-in-the-context-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
Uremic retention solutes (URS) are associated with cardiovascular complications and poor survival in chronic kidney disease. The better understanding of the origin of a certain number of these toxins enabled the development of new strategies to reduce their production. URS can be classified according to their origins (i.e., host, microbial, or exogenous). The discovery of the fundamental role that the intestinal microbiota plays in the production of many URS has reinstated nutrition at the heart of therapeutics to prevent the accumulation of URS and their deleterious effects...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652728/intestinal-microbiota-in-hirschsprung-disease
#4
Malla I Neuvonen, Katri Korpela, Kristiina Kyrklund, Risto J Rintala, Mikko P Pakarinen
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiota profiles of patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD), and to evaluate this in relation to postoperative bowel function and the incidence of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). METHODS: All patients operated on for HD at our center between 1987-2011 were invited to answer questionnaires on bowel function and to participate in a clinical follow-up for laboratory investigations, including fecal DNA extraction, fecal calprotectin (FC), and brush border lactase (LCT) genotyping...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651674/intestinal-microbiota-and-kidney-diseases
#5
Ao Xie, Jie Sheng, Feng Zheng
Kidney diseases are common and the incidence rate is increasing. Gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune regulation of the host. Genetic, alimentary and environmental disease factors may change gut flora and increase opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria, contributing to immune or non-immune mediated kidney diseases including IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Additionally, bacterial metabolites may be a source of uremic toxins. Thus, identififi cation of diversity, composition, and metabolic and immunologic features of gut bacteria in chronic kidney diseases may help understand pathogenetic mechanism and develop therapy for diseases...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651010/dietary-supplementation-with-flaxseed-meal-and-oat-hulls-modulates-intestinal-histomorphometric-characteristics-digesta-and-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-pigs
#6
S P Ndou, H M Tun, E Kiarie, M C Walsh, E Khafipour, C M Nyachoti
The establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal milieu may not only offer an opportunity to reduce swine production costs but could also open the way for a lifetime of human health improvement. This study investigates the effects of feeding soluble fibre from flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM) and insoluble fibre from oat hulls-containing diet (OH) on histomorphological characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota and their associations with metabolites in pig intestines. In comparison with the control (CON) and OH diets, the consumption of FM increased (P < 0...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650970/crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-sirtuin-3-in-colonic-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis
#7
Yong Zhang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Chao Kang, He-Dong Lang, Meng-Ting Chen, Suo-Cheng Hui, Bin Wang, Man-Tian Mi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease involving a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is expressed at a low level in cancer tissues of CRC, but it is unclear how Sirt3 modulates colonic tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that gut microbiota play a central role in the resistance to CRC tumor formation in wild-type (WT) mice through APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli)-mutant mouse microbiota transfer via Wnt signaling. We also found that Sirt3-deficient mice were hypersusceptible to colonic inflammation and tumor development through altered intestinal integrity and p38 signaling, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650672/tropism-for-tuft-cells-determines-immune-promotion-of-norovirus-pathogenesis
#8
Craig B Wilen, Sanghyun Lee, Leon L Hsieh, Robert C Orchard, Chandni Desai, Barry L Hykes, Michael R McAllaster, Dale R Balce, Taylor Feehley, Jonathan R Brestoff, Christina A Hickey, Christine C Yokoyama, Ya-Ting Wang, Donna A MacDuff, Darren Kreamalmayer, Michael R Howitt, Jessica A Neil, Ken Cadwell, Paul M Allen, Scott A Handley, Menno van Lookeren Campagne, Megan T Baldridge, Herbert W Virgin
Complex interactions between host immunity and the microbiome regulate norovirus infection. However, the mechanism of host immune promotion of enteric virus infection remains obscure. The cellular tropism of noroviruses is also unknown. Recently, we identified CD300lf as a murine norovirus (MNoV) receptor. In this study, we have shown that tuft cells, a rare type of intestinal epithelial cell, express CD300lf and are the target cell for MNoV in the mouse intestine. We found that type 2 cytokines, which induce tuft cell proliferation, promote MNoV infection in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650491/fecal-microbiota-composition-drives-immune-activation-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#9
Charles Preston Neff, Owen Krueger, Kathy Xiong, Sabrina Arif, Nichole Nusbacher, Jennifer M Schneider, Annie W Cunningham, Abigail Armstrong, Sam Li, Martin D McCarter, Thomas B Campbell, Catherine A Lozupone, Brent E Palmer
The inflammatory properties of the enteric microbiota of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals are of considerable interest because of strong evidence that bacterial translocation contributes to chronic immune activation and disease progression. Altered enteric microbiota composition occurs with HIV infection but whether altered microbiota composition or increased intestinal permeability alone drives peripheral immune activation is controversial. To comprehensively assess the inflammatory properties of HIV-associated enteric microbiota and relate these to systemic immune activation, we developed methods to purify whole fecal bacterial communities (FBCs) from stool for use in in vitro immune stimulation assays with human cells...
March 26, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649441/small-intestine-microbiota-regulate-host-digestive-and-absorptive-adaptive-responses-to-dietary-lipids
#10
Kristina Martinez-Guryn, Nathaniel Hubert, Katya Frazier, Saskia Urlass, Mark W Musch, Patricia Ojeda, Joseph F Pierre, Jun Miyoshi, Timothy J Sontag, Candace M Cham, Catherine A Reardon, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel microbes are essential for host adaptation to dietary lipid changes by regulating gut epithelial processes involved in their digestion and absorption...
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649123/phytochemical-properties-and-nutrigenomic-implications-of-yacon-as-a-potential-source-of-prebiotic-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Yang Cao, Zheng Feei Ma, Hongxia Zhang, Yifan Jin, Yihe Zhang, Frank Hayford
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes...
April 12, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648971/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-mixture-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-sodium-butyrate-in-atopic-dermatitis-murine-model
#12
Jeong A Kim, Sung-Hak Kim, In Sung Kim, Da Yoon Yu, Sung Chan Kim, Seung Ho Lee, Sang Suk Lee, Cheol-Heui Yun, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Recently, probiotics have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms through immunomodulatory responses. In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate. Following sensitization with whey protein, the mice were challenged and divided into two groups: (1) mice administered with phosphate-buffered saline as a control and (2) mice administered with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644994/autoimmune-hepatitis
#13
REVIEW
Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Albert J Czaja, Michael P Manns, Edward L Krawitt, John M Vierling, Ansgar W Lohse, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe liver disease that affects children and adults worldwide. The diagnosis of AIH relies on increased serum transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis on liver histology. AIH arises in genetically predisposed individuals when a trigger, such as exposure to a virus, leads to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed against liver autoantigens; this immune response is permitted by inadequate regulatory immune control leading to a loss of tolerance...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644961/high-intensity-exercise-induced-intestinal-damage-is-protected-by-fermented-milk-supplemented-with-whey-protein-probiotic-and-pomegranate-punica-granatum-l
#14
Fernanda M Chaves, Igor L Baptista, Fernando M Simabuco, Paula G F Quaresma, Fabiola L Pena, Rosangela M N Bezerra, Jose R Pauli, Diogo T da Cunha, Patricia L Campos-Ferraz, Adriane E C Antunes
Here we evaluated the effect of fermented milk supplemented with whey protein (approximately 80 % protein), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12) and pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.) on the physical performance, intestinal motility and villi structure, inflammatory markers and intestinal microbiota of rats under high-intensity acute exercise. In all, twenty-four Wistar rats were separated into groups: control (Ctrl), supplemented (Supp), exercised (Exe) and exercised and supplemented (Exe+Supp)...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644622/microbial-metabolites-short-chain-fatty-acids-restrain-tissue-bacterial-load-chronic-inflammation-and-associated-cancer-in-the-colon-of-mice
#15
Myunghoo Kim, Leon Friesen, Jeongho Park, Hyungjin M Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal immune system is regulated by microbes and their metabolites. The roles of gut microbial metabolites in regulating intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis are incompletely understood. We systematically studied the roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their receptors (GPR43 or GPR41) in regulating tissue bacterial load, acute versus chronic inflammatory responses, and intestinal cancer development. SCFA receptor-, particularly GPR43-, deficient mice were defective in mounting appropriate acute immune responses to promote barrier immunity, and developed uncontrolled chronic inflammatory responses following epithelial damage...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643283/analysis-of-microbial-abundance-and-community-composition-in-esophagus-and-intestinal-tract-of-wild-veined-rapa-whelk-rapana-venosa-by-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#16
Hao Song, Zheng-Lin Yu, Mei-Jie Yang, Tao Zhang, Hai-Yan Wang
The rapa whelk Rapana venosa is a commercially important gastropod in China, but a major invader worldwide. There is little information on the bacterial community composition in the digestive system of this species, despite the microflora has important roles in digestion, nutrition, disease resistance, and immune response. The present study investigated the bacterial flora community in the esophagus and intestinal tract of wild R. venosa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The esophagus and intestine had 1175 and 526 unique operational taxonomic units, respectively, with 616 common to both tissues...
April 11, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643280/molecular-diversity-of-the-faecal-microbiota-of-toy-poodles-in-japan
#17
Tsutomu Omatsu, Miki Omura, Yukie Katayama, Toru Kimura, Maho Okumura, Atsushi Okumura, Yoshiteru Murata, Tetsuya Mizutani
The intestinal microbiota was revealed with the recent advances in molecular techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing analysis. As a result, the microbial changes are thought to influence the health of humans and animals and such changes are affected by several factors including diet, genetics, age, sex, and diseases. Similar studies are being conducted in dogs, and the knowledge of intestinal microbiota in dogs is expanding. Nonetheless, basic information on intestinal microbiota in dogs is less than that of humans...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643029/-a-machine-learning-model-based-on-initial-gut-microbiome-data-for-predicting-changes-of-bifidobacterium-after-prebiotics-consumption
#18
Yue-Mei Luo, Fei-Tong Liu, Mu-Xuan Chen, Wen-Li Tang, Yue-Lian Yang, Xi-Lan Tan, Hong-Wei Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of prebiotics supplementation for 9 days on gut microbiota structure and function and establish a machine learning model based on the initial gut microbiota data for predicting the variation of Bifidobacterium after prebiotic intake. METHODS: With a randomized double-blind self-controlled design, 35 healthy volunteers were asked to consume fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) for 9 days (16 g per day)...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642680/effect-of-probiotics-and-xylo-oligosaccharide-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-intestinal-health-and-noxious-gas-emission-in-weanling-pigs
#19
Jingbo Liu, S C Cao, J Liu, Y N Xie, H F Zhang
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum profiles, intestinal health, fecal microbiota and noxious gas emission in weanling pigs. Methods: A total of 240 weanling pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc)] with an average BW of 6.3 ± 0.15 kg were used in this 28-day trial. Pigs were randomly allocated in 1 of the following 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of probiotics (0 and 500 mg/kg probiotics) and XOS (0 and 200 mg/kg XOS) based on the BW and sex...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642622/colibactin-more-than-a-new-bacterial-toxin
#20
REVIEW
Tiphanie Faïs, Julien Delmas, Nicolas Barnich, Richard Bonnet, Guillaume Dalmasso
Cyclomodulins are bacterial toxins that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. A new cyclomodulin called colibactin, which is synthetized by the pks genomic island, was discovered in 2006. Despite many efforts, colibactin has not yet been purified, and its structure remains elusive. Interestingly, the pks island is found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ) isolated from different origins, including from intestinal microbiota, septicaemia, newborn meningitis, and urinary tract infections...
April 10, 2018: Toxins
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