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intestinal microbiota

Chunqing Ai, Na Ma, Qiuxiang Zhang, Gang Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Fengwei Tian, Pei Chen, Wei Chen
Some studies reported that probiotic could relieve allergy-induced damage to the host, but how to get a useful probiotic is still a challenge. In this study, the protective effects of three lactic acid bacteria (La, Lp and Lc) were evaluated in a mouse model, and its relationship with the in vitro properties was analyzed. The in vitro results indicated that La with the capacity to inhibit IL-4 production could have a better anti-allergy effect in vivo than two others. However, the animal trials showed that all LAB strains could alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation...
2016: PloS One
Kentaro Nobutani, Daisuke Sawada, Shigeru Fujiwara, Yuki Kuwano, Kensei Nishida, Jiro Nakayama, Hiromu Kutsumi, Takeshi Azuma, Kazuhito Rokutan
AIMS: To clarify the effects of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) on quality of life and clinical symptoms and its functional mechanisms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS AND RESULTS: After the patients were administered CP2305 daily for 4 weeks, the IBS-severity index score was significantly improved compared with that of the placebo group, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of health-related worry and changes in intestinal microbiota...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Luciana F Costa, Juliana P S Mol, Ana Patricia C Silva, Auricélio A Macêdo, Teane M A Silva, Geraldo E S Alves, Sebastian Winter, Maria G Winter, Eric M Velazquez, Mariana X Byndloss, Andreas J Bäumler, Renée M Tsolis, Tatiane A Paixão, Renato L Santos
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is able to expand in the lumen of the inflamed intestine through mechanisms that have not been fully resolved. Here we utilized streptomycin-pretreated mice and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice to investigate how pathways for S. Typhimurium iron acquisition contribute to pathogen expansion in the inflamed intestine. Competitive infection with an iron uptake-proficient S. Typhimurium strain and mutant strains lacking tonB feoB, feoB, tonB or iroN in streptomycin pretreated mice demonstrated that ferric iron uptake requiring IroN and TonB conferred a fitness advantage during growth in the inflamed intestine...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Yutaka Sugi, Kyoko Takahashi, Kenta Kurihara, Kou Nakano, Tetsuro Kobayakawa, Kazuaki Nakata, Masato Tsuda, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa
α-Defensin 5 is important to both maintenance of a gut microbiota and host immunity. While previous reports have shown that gut bacteria are able to upregulate α-defensin 5 through Toll-like receptor signaling, we demonstrate here that α-defensin 5 expression can also be regulated by microbial metabolites. Among these, lactate appeared to significantly suppress α-defensin 5 gene transcription. Actually, fractions of <3 kD compounds obtained from the ceca of SPF mice were suppressed α-defensin 5 gene transcription at specific concentrations...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tim G J de Meij, Evelien F J de Groot, Anat Eck, Andries E Budding, C M Frank Kneepkens, Marc A Benninga, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Paul H M Savelkoul
OBJECTIVES: Disruption of the intestinal microbiota is considered an etiological factor in pediatric functional constipation. Scientifically based selection of potential beneficial probiotic strains in functional constipation therapy is not feasible due to insufficient knowledge of microbiota composition in affected subjects. The aim of this study was to describe microbial composition and diversity in children with functional constipation, compared to healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN: Fecal samples from 76 children diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria (median age 8...
2016: PloS One
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Graeme Milligan, Daniele Bolognini, Eugenia Sergeev
A large number of reviews and commentaries have highlighted the potential role of the short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41 (FFA3) and, particularly, GPR43 (FFA2) as an interface between the intestinal microbiota and metabolic and inflammatory disorders. However, short-chain fatty acids have very modest potency and display limited selectivity between these two receptors, and studies on receptor knockout mice have resulted in non-uniform conclusions; therefore, selective and high-potency/high-affinity synthetic ligands are required to further explore the contribution of these receptors to health and disease...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Dongyan Zhang, Haifeng Ji, Hui Liu, Sixin Wang, Jing Wang, Yamin Wang
The gut microbiota plays important roles in the health and well-being of animals, and high-throughput sequencing facilitates exploration of microbial populations in the animal gut. However, previous studies have focused on fecal samples instead of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we compared the microbiota diversity and composition of intestinal contents of weaned piglets treated with Lactobacillus reuteri or chlortetracycline (aureomycin) using high-throughput sequencing. Nine weaned piglets were randomly divided into three groups and supplemented with L...
October 19, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Daniel Garrido, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Nina Kirmiz, Jasmine C Davis, Sarah M Totten, Danielle G Lemay, Juan A Ugalde, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla, David A Mills
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ying Guo, YouCai Zhang, WeiHua Huang, Felcy Pavithra Selwyn, Curtis D Klaassen
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional antimicrobial herbal medicine. Recently, BBR has gained popularity as a supplement to lower blood lipids, cholesterol and glucose. Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. However, whether BBR alters BAs metabolism or dose-response effect of BBR on gut flora is unknown. METHODS: In this study, the effects of various doses of BBR on the concentrations of BAs in liver and serum of male C57BL/6 mice were determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the expression of BA-related genes, as well as the amount of 32 of the most abundant gut bacterial species in the terminal ileum and large intestine of male C57BL/6 mice were quantified by RT-PCR and Quantigene 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Todd Atherly, Curtis Mosher, Chong Wang, Jesse Hostetter, Alexandra Proctor, Meghan W Brand, Gregory J Phillips, Michael Wannemuehler, Albert E Jergens
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions. METHODS: The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Aran Singanayagam, Andrew I Ritchie, Sebastian L Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Seungbum Kim, Gary Wang, Gilberto Lobaton, Eric Li, Tao Yang, Mohan Raizada
OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbial dysbiosis is linked to high blood pressure in patients. This was associated with decreases in butyrate- and acetate- producing microbial populations. Thus, our objective in this study was to investigate the hypothesis that infusion of butyrate would impact dysbiosis, gut immunity and attenuate hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: C57B6 mice were divided into 4 groups; Saline infused, Angiotensin II (750ng/kg/min) infused, Ang II infused and butyrate treated (0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yan Zhang, Stephanie E Simon, Jeff A Johnson, Michael S Allen
Gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important component of individual health, and therefore, our ability to quantify its diversity accurately is central for exploring different ways to improve health. Non-invasive sampling methods, such as cloaca swabs, are often used to measure gastrointestinal microbiota diversity within an individual. However, few studies have addressed to what degree differences exist in microbial community composition along the gastrointestinal tract, and measures obtained from the cloaca may not actually represent the diversity present elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
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