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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#1
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453848/postoperative-recurrence-of-crohn-s-disease-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Antonio Di Sario, Paola Sassaroli, Luigi Daretti, Giulia Annulli, Laura Schiada, Giorgia Falcioni, Emanuele Bendia, Simone Antuono, Antonio Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of Crohn`s disease (CD) patients require at least one surgical intervention in their lifetime and up to 70% of these patients develop postoperative endoscopic recurrence within 1 year. The most important predictors of early postoperative recurrence are represented by smoking, prior intestinal surgery, penetrating disease and perianal location. Genetic factors, gut microbiota structure and immunological alterations may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative recurrence of CD, although their specific roles have to be determined yet...
February 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453726/advances-in-probiotic-regulation-of-bone-and-mineral-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Probiotics have been consumed by humans for thousands of years because they are beneficial for long-term storage of foods and promote the health of their host. Ingested probiotics reside in the gastrointestinal tract where they have many effects including modifying the microbiota composition, intestinal barrier function, and the immune system which result in systemic benefits to the host, including bone health. Probiotics benefit bone growth, density, and structure under conditions of dysbiosis, intestinal permeability, and inflammation (recognized mediators of bone loss and osteoporosis)...
February 16, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453461/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-induces-specific-shifts-of-the-gut-microbiota-without-altering-the-metabolism-of-bile-acids-in-the-intestinal-lumen
#4
Henri Duboc, Caroline Chong Nguyen, Jean-Baptiste Cavin, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Dominique Rainteau, Lydie Humbert, Benoit Coffin, Maude Le Gall, André Bado, Harry Sokol
Some shifts in the gut microbiota composition and its metabolic fingerprints have been associated to Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). So far, plasma bile acids have been associated with post-operative glucose improvement and weight loss, but nothing is known about their metabolism in the gut lumen. As bile acids are physiologically transformed by the microbiota into various species, the aim of this work was to study how SG and RYGB-associated dysbiosis impact the bioconversion of bile acids in the intestinal lumen...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453411/the-impact-of-a-helminth-modified-microbiome-on-host-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Tara P Brosschot, Lisa A Reynolds
Intestinal helminths have well-characterized modulatory effects on mammalian immune pathways. Ongoing helminth infection has been associated with both the suppression of allergies and an altered susceptibility to microbial infections. Enteric helminths share a niche with the intestinal microbiota, and the presence of helminths alters the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature of the host. Recent studies have demonstrated that the helminth-modified intestinal microbiome has the capacity to modify host immune responses even in the absence of live helminth infection...
February 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453162/the-effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-diversity-of-intestinal-microbial-community-of-rana-chensinensis-tadpoles
#6
Danyang Mu, Jinhua Meng, Xiaoxue Bo, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
Cadmium is a natural and widely distributed toxicant, and can be commonly found in environment. Intestinal microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. The effects of cadmium on the intestinal microbiota composition and stability of amphibians are little known. We exposed Rana chensinensis (R. chensinensis) embryos to different concentrations of cadmium (0, 112 and 448 μg Cd L -1 ) until they reached Gosner stage 38, and analyzed their microbial communities using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452951/antibacterial-weapons-targeted-destruction-in-the-microbiota
#7
REVIEW
Benoit Chassaing, Eric Cascales
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in health, particularly in promoting intestinal metabolic capacity and in maturing the immune system. The intestinal microbiota also mediates colonization resistance against pathogenic bacteria, hence protecting the host from infections. In addition, some bacterial pathogens deliver toxins that target phylogenetically related or distinct bacterial species in order to outcompete and establish within the microbiota. The most widely distributed weapons include bacteriocins, as well as contact-dependent growth inhibition and type VI secretion systems...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450747/efficacy-of-bifidobacterium-breve-fermented-milk-in-maintaining-remission-of-ulcerative-colitis
#8
Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Yukari Uemura, Takanori Kanai, Reiko Kunisaki, Yasuo Suzuki, Kaoru Yokoyama, Naoki Yoshimura, Toshifumi Hibi
BACKGROUND: Fermented milk products containing Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BFM) may improve clinical status in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. AIMS: To assess efficacy of BFM in maintaining remission in Japanese patients with quiescent UC. METHODS: This double-blind study (B-FLORA) enrolled 195 patients with quiescent UC, randomized to receive one pack of BFM fermented milk per day [Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (10 billion bacteria) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1 billion bacteria)] (n = 98) or matching placebo (n = 97) for 48 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449779/-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-improves-intestinal-enzyme-function-a-trophic-effects-review
#9
REVIEW
Margret I Moré, Yvan Vandenplas
Several properties of the probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 contribute to its efficacy to prevent or treat diarrhoea. Besides immunologic effects, pathogen-binding and anti-toxin effects, as well as positive effects on the microbiota, S boulardii CNCM I-745 also has pronounced effects on digestive enzymes of the brush border membrane, known as trophic effects. The latter are the focus of this review. Literature has been reviewed after searching Medline and PMC databases. All relevant non-clinical and clinical studies are summarized...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449660/gut-microbiota-injury-in-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Yusuke Shono, Marcel R M van den Brink
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered to be the strongest curative immunotherapy for various malignancies (primarily, but not limited to, haematologic malignancies). However, application of allo-HSCT is limited owing to its life-threatening major complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse and infections. Recent advances in large-scale DNA sequencing technology have facilitated rapid identification of the microorganisms that make up the microbiota and evaluation of their interactions with host immunity in various diseases, including cancer...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448897/immunomodulation-by-food-impact-on-gut-immunity-and-immune-cell-function
#11
Satoshi Hachimura, Mamoru Totsuka, Akira Hosono
Recent studies have revealed that various food components affect the immune response. These components act on various immune cells, and their effects are mediated through the intestinal immune system and, in some cases, the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we describe the immunomodulating effects of various food components, including probiotics, prebiotics, polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, peptides, amino acids and polyphenols. Some of these components enhance immune responses, leading to host defense against infection, whereas others inhibit immune responses, thus suppressing allergy and inflammation...
February 16, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447698/genetic-ablation-of-butyrate-utilization-attenuates-gastrointestinal-salmonella-disease
#12
Denise N Bronner, Franziska Faber, Erin E Olsan, Mariana X Byndloss, Nada A Sayed, Gege Xu, Woongjae Yoo, Dajeong Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Carlito B Lebrilla, Andreas J Bäumler
Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi is an extraintestinal pathogen that evolved from Salmonella serovars causing gastrointestinal disease. Compared with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, the genomes of typhoidal serovars contain various loss-of-function mutations. However, the contribution of these genetic differences to this shift in pathogen ecology remains unknown. We show that the ydiQRSTD operon, which is deleted in S. Typhi, enables S. Typhimurium to utilize microbiota-derived butyrate during gastrointestinal disease...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447243/differences-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-between-uninfected-piglets-and-piglets-infected-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#13
Mei-Zhou Huang, Sheng-Yi Wang, Hui Wang, Dong-An Cui, Ya-Jun Yang, Xi-Wang Liu, Xiao-Jun Kong, Jian-Yong Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea, a disastrous gastrointestinal disease, causes great financial losses due to its high infectivity, morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets despite the development and application of various vaccines. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to explore differences in the intestinal microbiota between uninfected piglets and piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results revealed that the small intestinal microbiota of suckling piglets infected with PEDV showed low diversity and was dominated by Proteobacteria (49...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445375/the-role-of-cytochromes-p450-in-infection
#14
REVIEW
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Cytochromes are expressed in many different tissues of the human body. They are found mostly in intestinal and hepatic tissues. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are enzymes that oxidize substances using iron and are able to metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. CYP enzymes are linked to a wide array of reactions including and O-dealkylation, S-oxidation, epoxidation, and hydroxylation. The activity of the typical P450 cytochrome is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genus, environment, disease state, herbicide, alcohol, and herbal medications...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445360/the-dynamic-distribution-of-small-tail-han-sheep-microbiota-across-different-intestinal-segments
#15
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441457/effect-of-vsl-3-probiotic-in-a-patient-with-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-and-irritable-bowel-disease-like-disease
#16
Miguel Carnero-Gregorio, Alberto Molares-Vila, Alberte Corbalán-Rivas, Carlos Villaverde-Taboada, Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira
Gut Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders characterised by relapsing and remitting inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common types of IBDs are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ia present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and changes in stool form or frequency, which is clinically difficult to distinguish from IBD. We report the case of a 36-year-old man with GSD type Ia and IBD-like disease...
February 13, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440266/essential-immunologic-orchestrators-of-intestinal-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Lei Zhou, Gregory F Sonnenberg
Over the past 25 years, substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways that are essential to maintain a state of health in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, an organ that is densely colonized by both immune cells and trillions of microbes. Seminal studies in the 1990s identified that several cytokines, antigen-presentation molecules, and components of the T cell receptor were necessary to prevent the development of spontaneous intestinal inflammation in mice...
February 9, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440265/causal-effects-of-the-microbiota-on-immune-mediated-diseases
#18
REVIEW
June L Round, Noah W Palm
The mammalian immune system has evolved in the presence of a complex community of indigenous microorganisms that constitutively colonize all barrier surfaces. This intimate relationship has resulted in the development of a vast array of reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and the host immune system, particularly in the intestine, where the density and diversity of indigenous microbes are greatest. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been correlated with almost every known immunological disease, but in most cases, it remains unclear whether these changes are a cause or effect of the disease or merely a reflection of epidemiological differences between groups...
February 9, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439931/does-low-protein-diet-influence-the-uremic-toxin-serum-levels-from-the-gut-microbiota-in-nondialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#19
Ana Paula Black, Juliana S Anjos, Ludmila Cardozo, Flávia L Carmo, Carla J Dolenga, Lia S Nakao, Dennis de Carvalho Ferreira, Alexandre Rosado, José Carlos Carraro Eduardo, Denise Mafra
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of low-protein diet (LPD) on uremic toxins and the gut microbiota profile in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Longitudinal study with 30 nondialysis CKD patients (stage 3-4) undergoing LPD for 6 months. Adherence to the diet was evaluated based on the calculation of protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance from the 24-hour urine analysis. Good adherence to LPD was considered when protein intake was from 90% to 110% of the prescribed amount (0...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438458/the-problem-of-curcumin-and-its-bioavailability-could-its-gastrointestinal-influence-contribute-to-its-overall-health-enhancing-effects
#20
Adrian L Lopresti
Curcumin, from the spice turmeric, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and neurotrophic activity and therefore holds promise as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat several disorders. However, a major barrier to curcumin's clinical efficacy is its poor bioavailability. Efforts have therefore been dedicated to developing curcumin formulations with greater bioavailability and systemic tissue distribution. However, it is proposed in this review that curcumin's potential as a therapeutic agent may not solely rely on its bioavailability, but rather its medicinal benefits may also arise from its positive influence on gastrointestinal health and function...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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