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MRA and cerebrovascular

Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Courtney R Little, Marvin E Reid, Deanne P Soares, Carolyn Taylor-Bryan, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Susan E Stuber, Asha V Badaloo, Karen Aldred, Margaret E Wisdom-Phipps, Teresa Latham, Russell E Ware
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown...
September 12, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Kerri A Nottage, Russell E Ware, Banu Aygun, Matthew Smeltzer, Guolian Kang, Joseph Moen, Winfred C Wang, Jane S Hankins, Kathleen J Helton
Silent cerebral infarction (SCI) is the most common neurological abnormality among children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The effect of hydroxycarbamide (also termed hydroxyurea) on the development and progression of SCI is unclear. We evaluated brain magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) in children with SCA receiving long-term hydroxycarbamide therapy. Fifty participants (median 9·4 years, range 1·1-17·3) enrolled in the Hydroxyurea Study of Long-Term Effects (HUSTLE; NCT00305175) underwent brain MRI/MRA and laboratory evaluations before hydroxycarbamide initiation and after 3 and 6 years of treatment to maximum tolerated dose...
October 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Hyung-Suk Lee, Hye Lim Lee, Ho-Seong Han, Minju Yeo, Ji Seon Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Dong-Ick Shin
Ankle brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) are widely used noninvasive modalities to evaluate atherosclerosis. Recently, evidence has increased supporting the use of ABI and baPWV as markers of cerebrovascular disease. This study sought to examine the relationship between ABI and baPWV with ischemic stroke. This study also aimed to determine which pathogenic mechanism, large artery disease (LAD) or small vessel disease (SVD), is related to ABI or baPWV. Retrospectively, 121 patients with ischemic stroke and 38 subjects with no obvious ischemic stroke history were recruited...
July 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
Nolan S Hartkamp, J Hendrikse, Laurens J L De Cocker, Gert Jan de Borst, L Jaap Kappelle, Reinoud P H Bokkers
PURPOSE: Cerebral perfusion territories are known to vary widely among individuals. This may lead to misinterpretation of the symptomatic artery in patients with ischaemic stroke to a wrong assumption of the underlying aetiology being thromboembolic or hypoperfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate such potential misinterpretation with territorial arterial spin labelling (T-ASL) by correlating infarct location with imaging of the perfusion territory of the carotid arteries or basilar artery...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Björn Reuter, Alexander Venus, Patrick Heiler, Lothar Schad, Anne Ebert, Michael G Hennerici, Saskia Grudzenski, Marc Fatar
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) around cerebral arteries and capillaries and leads to an increased risk for vascular dementia, spontaneous lobar hemorrhage, convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and transient focal neurological episodes, which might be an indicator of imminent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. In CAA cerebral microbleeds (cMBs) with a cortical/juxtacortical distribution are frequently observed in standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Frances Dang, B Anne Croy, Patrick W Stroman, Ernesto A Figueiró-Filho
Preeclampsia (PE) is a significant gestational disorder that causes complications in 3-5% of all human pregnancies. Apart from the immediate risks and complications for mother and fetus, both additionally carry elevated lifelong risks for specific complications. Offspring of PE pregnancies (PE-F1) have higher risks for hypertension, stroke and cognitive impairment compared with well-matched offspring (F1) from uncomplicated pregnancies. Prior to the clinical onset of PE, placental angiokines secreted into the maternal plasma are deviated...
August 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Muhammad Shah Miran, M Fareed K Suri, Mushtaq H Qureshi, Aamir Ahmad, Mariam K Suri, Rabia Basreen, Adnan I Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Syncope is commonly worked up for carotid stenosis, but only rarely attributed to it. Considering paucity of such cases in literature, we report a case and discuss the pathophysiology. DESIGN/METHODS: We report a patient with high-grade bilateral severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis who presented with syncopal episodes in the absence of stroke, orthostatic hypotension, significant cardiovascular disease, or vasovagal etiology. We reviewed all literature pertaining to syncope secondary to carotid stenosis and other cerebrovascular disease...
June 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Raffaella Colombatti, Marta Lucchetta, Maria Montanaro, Patrizia Rampazzo, Mario Ermani, Giacomo Talenti, Claudio Baracchini, Angela Favero, Giuseppe Basso, Renzo Manara, Laura Sainati
Cerebrovascular complications are frequent events in children with sickle cell disease, yet routinely used techniques such as Transcranial Doppler (TCD), Magnetic Resonance (MRI) and Angiography (MRA), insufficiently explain the cause of poor cognitive performances. Forty children with SS-Sβ° (mean age 8 years) underwent neurocognitive evaluation and comprehensive brain imaging assessment with TCD, MRI, MRA, Resting State (RS) Functional MRI with evaluation of the Default Mode Network (DMN). Sixteen healthy age-matched controls underwent MRI, MRA and RS functional MRI...
2016: PloS One
Claudia Neubauer, Annette Baumgartner, Irina Mader, Michel Rijntjes, Stephan Meckel
Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are rare cerebrovascular pathologies. Here, we report the extremely rare coincidental presentation of both entities and discuss the likely relationship in aetiology and their optimal management. A female patient presented with headache and progressive neurological deficits. Cranial computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed dural venous sinus thrombosis, left-sided frontal and parietal infarcts, and left middle and anterior cerebral artery stenosis...
August 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
Muhammad Jamil, Germaine Xin Yi Tan, Mehnaz Huq, Heidi Kang, Zhi Rui Lee, Phua Hwee Tang, Xi Hong Hu, Choon Hwai Yap
BACKGROUND: The Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disease that causes occlusion of the distal end of the internal carotid artery, leading to the formation of multiple tiny collateral arteries. To date, the pathogenesis of Moyamoya is unknown. Improved understanding of the changes to vascular geometry and fluid mechanics of the carotid siphon during disease may improve understanding of the pathogenesis, prognosis techniques and disease management. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) images was performed for Moyamoya pediatric patients (MMD) (n = 23) and control (Ctrl) pediatric patients (n = 20)...
May 11, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Megha Kaushal, Colleen Byrnes, Zarir Khademian, Natalie Duncan, Naomi L C Luban, Jeffery L Miller, Ross M Fasano, Emily Riehm Meier
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited hemolytic anemia with compensatory reticulocytosis. Recent studies have shown that increased levels of reticulocytosis during infancy are associated with increased hospitalizations for SCA sequelae as well as cerebrovascular pathologies. In this study, absolute reticulocyte counts (ARC) measured prior to transfusion were analysed among a cohort of 29 pediatric SCA patients receiving chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) for primary and secondary stroke prevention. A cross-sectional flow cytometric analysis of the reticulocyte phenotype was also performed...
2016: PloS One
W Brinjikji, V N Iyer, V Yamaki, G Lanzino, H J Cloft, K R Thielen, K L Swanson, C P Wood
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is associated with a wide range of neurovascular abnormalities. The aim of this study was to characterize the spectrum of cerebrovascular lesions, including brain arteriovenous malformations, in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and to study associations between brain arteriovenous malformations and demographic variables, genetic mutations, and the presence of AVMs in other organs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with definite hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia who underwent brain MR imaging/MRA, CTA, or DSA at our institution from 2001 to 2015 were included...
August 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Atsushi Kanoke, Miki Fujimura, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Taku Fujimura, Aya Kakizaki, Akira Ito, Hiroyuki Sakata, Mika Sato-Maeda, Shigeo Kure, Teiji Tominaga
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with an unknown etiology and is characterized by an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Recent studies identified the RNF213 gene (RNF213) as an important susceptibility gene for MMD; however, the mechanisms underlying the RNF213 abnormality related to MMD have not yet been elucidated. We previously reported that Rnf213-deficient mice and Rnf213 p. R4828K knock-in mice did not spontaneously develop MMD, indicating the importance of secondary insults in addition to genetic factors in the pathogenesis of MMD...
March 10, 2016: Brain Research
Houshi Zhou, Jian Sun, Xiaotan Ji, Jing Lin, Shujin Tang, Jinsheng Zeng, Yu-hua Fan
The quality of collateral circulation affects the severity and prognosis of stroke patients. The effect of the circle of Willis, which is the primary collateral circulation, on ischemic stroke has attracted significant attention. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different circles of Willis types on stroke severity and prognosis in patients with noncardiac stroke.A total of 376 patients with noncardiac ischemic stroke, who were treated by the specialty team of cerebrovascular diseases at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen Hospital, were successively enrolled in this study...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Federica Montagnese, Francesca Granata, Olimpia Musumeci, Carmelo Rodolico, Stefania Mondello, Emanuele Barca, Maria Cucinotta, Anna Ciranni, Marcello Longo, Antonio Toscano
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pompe disease is a rare metabolic disorder due to lysosomal alpha-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency. It is considered as a multi-systemic disease since, although glycogen accumulation is largely prominent in heart, skeletal and respiratory muscles, other organs can also be affected. As regards the vascular system, few reports have documented cerebrovascular malformations in Pompe patients. The aim of this study was to define the presence and type of intracranial arterial abnormalities in a cohort of late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) patients...
May 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Meisha L Raven, Alexander L Ringeisen, Angela R McAllister, Daniel W Knoch
A 45-year-old woman with a history of depression and anxiety, treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), experienced acute, recurrent, and severe bifrontal headaches. Over time, she developed a left homonymous hemianopia and mental status changes. MRA revealed segmental vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in multiple vascular distributions. She was treated with a calcium-channel blocker and magnesium, and there was resolution of her symptoms and cerebrovascular changes. Her clinical course and neuroimaging findings were consistent with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome...
June 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Jai-Hyuck Han, Young Seok Park, Won Hyoung Lee, Sung-Soo Koong, Kyung-Soo Min, Mou-Seop Lee, Young-Gyu Kim, Dong-Ho Kim, Kyung-Sil Yi, Sang-Hoon Cha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral angiography (CA) is the gold standard for moyamoya disease (MMD) staging and diagnosis, but CA findings are not well correlated with clinical symptoms. The purpose of this study was to establish novel cerebral-perfusion-based staging for MMD that is well correlated with clinical symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2015, regional cerebrovascular reserve (rCVR) was examined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using NeuroGam® (Segamicorp, Houston, TX, USA) in 30 patients (17 women, 13 men; 60 hemispheres; mean 42...
August 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Bruno Law-Ye, Guillaume Saliou, Frédérique Toulgoat, Marc Tardieu, Kumaran Deiva, Catherine Adamsbaum, Béatrice Husson
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya syndrome is characterised by an occlusion of the carotid terminations with the development of collateral vessels. Our objective is to describe a series of infants presenting early-onset moyamoya-like syndrome, which may constitute a distinct entity. METHODS: From a cohort of children with rare cerebral vascular pathologies, we studied eight infants (28 days-1 year) with early-onset moyamoya-like syndrome demonstrated by angiography. We retrospectively analysed the patterns on MRI and MRA, as well as all other available data...
August 2016: European Radiology
Nadine McCrea, Dawn Saunders, Emmanouil Bagkeris, Manali Chitre, Vijeya Ganesan
AIM: Review a series of children with posterior circulation arterial ischaemic stroke (PCAIS) to identify diagnostic modality and associations in cases of vertebral artery dissection (VAD). METHOD: Retrospective analysis of 30 cases of childhood PCAIS identified from two tertiary centres over 11 years. Clinical and demographic details were recorded. Brain and cerebrovascular imaging were reviewed. Aetiology was classified using the Childhood Arterial Ischaemic Stroke Standardized Classification and Diagnostic Evaluation criteria...
January 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Zachary Clark, Kevin M Johnson, Yijing Wu, Myriam Edjlali, Charles Mistretta, Oliver Wieben, Patrick Turski
OBJECTIVE: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is commonly used to noninvasively characterize vascular malformations. However, the spatial and temporal resolution of current methods often compromises the clinical value of the examinations. Constrained reconstruction is a temporal spatial correlation strategy that exploits the relative sparsity of vessels in space to dramatically reduce the amount of data required to generate fast high-resolution time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA studies...
June 2016: Investigative Radiology
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