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Circadian activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821839/circadian-clock-dependent-increase-in-salivary-iga-secretion-modulated-by-sympathetic-receptor-activation-in-mice
#1
Misaki Wada, Kanami Orihara, Mayo Kamagata, Koki Hama, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsuhito Nakao, Shigenobu Shibata
The salivary gland is rhythmically controlled by sympathetic nerve activation from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which functions as the main oscillator of circadian rhythms. In humans, salivary IgA concentrations reflect circadian rhythmicity, which peak during sleep. However, the mechanisms controlling this rhythmicity are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether the timing of parasympathetic (pilocarpine) or sympathetic (norepinephrine; NE) activation affects IgA secretion in the saliva. The concentrations of saliva IgA modulated by pilocarpine activation or by a combination of pilocarpine and NE activation were the highest in the middle of the light period, independent of saliva flow rate...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821732/light-color-importance-for-circadian-entrainment-in-a-diurnal-octodon-degus-and-a-nocturnal-rattus-norvegicus-rodent
#2
Maria Angeles Bonmati-Carrion, Beatriz Baño-Otalora, Juan Antonio Madrid, Maria Angeles Rol
The central circadian pacemaker (Suprachiasmatic Nuclei, SCN) maintains the phase relationship with the external world thanks to the light/dark cycle. Light intensity, spectra, and timing are important for SCN synchronisation. Exposure to blue-light at night leads to circadian misalignment that could be avoided by using less circadian-disruptive wavelengths. This study tests the capacity of a diurnal Octodon degus and nocturnal Rattus norvegicus to synchronise to different nocturnal lights. Animals were subjected to combined red-green-blue lights (RGB) during the day and to: darkness; red light (R); combined red-green LED (RG) lights; and combined red-green-violet LED (RGV) lights during the night...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821614/multiple-circadian-transcriptional-elements-cooperatively-regulate-cell-autonomous-transcriptional-oscillation-of-period3-a-mammalian-clock-gene
#3
Ritsuko Matsumura, Makoto Akashi
Cell-autonomous oscillation in clock gene expression drives circadian rhythms. The development of comprehensive analytical techniques, such as bioinformatics and ChIP-sequencing, has enabled the genome-wide identification of potential circadian transcriptional elements that regulate the transcriptional oscillation of clock genes. However, detailed analyses using traditional biochemical and molecular-biological approaches, such as binding and reporter assays, are still necessary to determine whether these potential circadian transcriptional elements are actually functional and how significantly they contribute to driving transcriptional oscillation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819174/interleukin-17-receptor-a-il-17ra-as-a-central-regulator-of-the-protective-immune-response-against-giardia
#4
Oonagh Paerewijck, Brecht Maertens, Leentje Dreesen, Frederik Van Meulder, Iris Peelaers, Dariusz Ratman, Robert W Li, Erik Lubberts, Karolien De Bosscher, Peter Geldhof
The protozoan parasite Giardia is a highly prevalent intestinal pathogen with a wide host range. Data obtained in mice, cattle and humans revealed the importance of IL-17A in the development of a protective immune response against Giardia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the protective effector mechanisms triggered by IL-17A following G. muris infection in mice, by an RNA-sequencing approach. C57BL/6 WT and C57BL/6 IL-17RA KO mice were orally infected with G. muris cysts. Three weeks post infection, intestinal tissue samples were collected for RNA-sequencing, with samples from uninfected C57BL/6 WT and C57BL/6 IL-17RA KO animals serving as negative controls...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816632/the-liver-circadian-clock-modulates-biochemical-and-physiological-responses-to-metformin
#5
Emma Henriksson, Anne-Laure Huber, Erin K Soto, Anna Kriebs, Megan E Vaughan, Drew Duglan, Alanna B Chan, Stephanie J Papp, Madelena Nguyen, Megan E Afetian, Katja A Lamia
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes to lower blood glucose. Although metformin is a relatively safe and effective drug, its clinical efficacy is variable and under certain circumstances it may contribute to life-threatening lactic acidosis. Thus, additional understanding of metformin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics could provide important information regarding therapeutic use of this widely prescribed drug. Here we report a significant effect of time of day on acute blood glucose reduction in response to metformin administration and on blood lactate levels in healthy mice...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813682/circadian-and-feeding-rhythms-orchestrate-the-diurnal-liver-acetylome
#6
Daniel Mauvoisin, Florian Atger, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, Jingkui Wang, Eva Martin, Laetitia Da Silva, Ivan Montoliu, Sebastiano Collino, Francois-Pierre Martin, Joanna Ratajczak, Carles Cantó, Martin Kussmann, Felix Naef, Frédéric Gachon
Lysine acetylation is involved in various biological processes and is considered a key reversible post-translational modification in the regulation of gene expression, enzyme activity, and subcellular localization. This post-translational modification is therefore highly relevant in the context of circadian biology, but its characterization on the proteome-wide scale and its circadian clock dependence are still poorly described. Here, we provide a comprehensive and rhythmic acetylome map of the mouse liver...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811909/a-fourth-subtype-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptors-is-activated-by-oxidized-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#7
Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Ikeuchi
BACKGROUND: The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by phylogenetic analysis that there were originally four subtypes of RORs in vertebrates. One of the novel ror paralogs, rord1 (rorca in the Ensembl database), is conserved among teleosts, but absent in mammals. Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model teleost, we evaluated the expression pattern of this gene, its transactivational properties for endogenic chemicals, and its ability to activate the promoters of putative target genes...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797635/circadian-rhythmicity-a-functional-connection-between-differentiated-embryonic-chondrocyte-1-dec1-and-small-heterodimer-partner-shp
#8
Marek M Marczak, Bingfang Yan
Circadian rhythm misalignment has been increasingly recognized to pose health risk for a wide range of diseases, particularly metabolic disorders. The liver maintains metabolic homeostasis and expresses many circadian genes, such as differentiated embryo chondrocyte-1 (DEC1) and small heterodimer partner (SHP). DEC1 is established to repress transcription through E-box elements, and SHP belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors and has multiple E-box elements in its promoter. Importantly, DEC1 and SHP are inversely oscillated...
August 8, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797239/nutrient-supply-affects-the-mrna-expression-profile-of-the-porcine-skeletal-muscle
#9
Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Raquel Quintanilla, Joan Tibau, Marta Gil, Emilio Mármol-Sánchez, Olga González-Rodríguez, Rayner González-Prendes, Marcel Amills
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of muscle fat deposition in pigs is not well known. So far, we have only identified a limited number of genes involved in the absorption, transport, storage and catabolism of lipids. Such information is crucial to interpret, from a biological perspective, the results of genome-wide association analyses for intramuscular fat content and composition traits. Herewith, we have investigated how the ingestion of food changes gene expression in the gluteus medius muscle of Duroc pigs...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795655/the-use-of-heart-rate-turbulence-and-heart-rate-variability-in-the-assessment-of-autonomic-regulation-and-circadian-rhythm-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-without-apparent-heart-disease
#10
A R Poliwczak, E Waszczykowska, B Dziankowska-Bartkowiak, M Koziróg, K Dworniak
Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is a progressive autoimmune disease. There are reports suggesting that patients even without overt signs of cardiovascular complications have impaired autonomic function. The aim of this study was to assess autonomic function using heart rate turbulence and heart rate variability parameters indicated in 24-hour ECG Holter monitoring. Methods Twenty-six women with systemic lupus erythematosus and 30 healthy women were included. Twenty-four hour ambulatory ECG-Holter was performed in home conditions...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795260/clock-genes-expression-and-locomotor-activity-are-altered-along-the-light-dark-cycle-in-transgenic-zebrafish-overexpressing-growth-hormone
#11
B P Cruz, L F Brongar, P Popiolek, B S B Gonçalvez, M A Figueiredo, I P G Amaral, V S Da Rosa, L E M Nery, L F Marins
In the present work it was demonstrated that transgenic Danio rerio overexpressing growth hormone (GH-transgenic) present either altered gene expression at a determined time point, or different expression pattern along the LD cycle, when compared with non-transgenic (NT) animals, in the positive and negative loops of the circadian system. Gene expression of clock paralogs was reduced in GH fish at the beginning of the dark phase, leading to diminished expression amplitude along the LD cycle. Furthermore, although no differences were observed between NT and GH animals for bmal1a and cry2b expression at each time point, only GH fish presented amplitude along the LD cycle...
August 9, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794907/rai1-overexpression-promotes-altered-circadian-gene-expression-and-dyssomnia-in-potocki-lupski-syndrome
#12
Sureni V Mullegama, Joseph T Alaimo, Michael D Fountain, Brooke Burns, Amanda Hebert Balog, Li Chen, Sarah H Elsea
Retinoic acid induced 1 ( RAI1 ) encodes a dosage-sensitive gene that when haploinsufficient results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and when overexpressed results in Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS). Phenotypic and molecular evidence illustrates that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 disrupts circadian rhythm through the dysregulation of the master circadian regulator, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput ( CLOCK) , and other core circadian components, contributing to prominent sleep disturbances in SMS. However, the phenotypic and molecular characterization of sleep features in PTLS has not been elucidated...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794459/multiple-excitatory-actions-of-orexins-upon-thalamo-cortical-neurons-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-implications-for-vision-modulation-by-arousal
#13
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness and mediating arousal in a circadian time-dependent manner. Due to the extensive connections of orexinergic neurons, both orexins (OXA and OXB) exert mainly excitatory effects upon remote brain areas, including the thalamus. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) is a relay thalamic centre for the visual system. Its thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons convey photic information from the retina to the primary visual cortex...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790405/differential-impact-in-young-and-older-individuals-of-blue-enriched-white-light-on-circadian-physiology-and-alertness-during-sustained-wakefulness
#14
Virginie Gabel, Carolin F Reichert, Micheline Maire, Christina Schmidt, Luc J M Schlangen, Vitaliy Kolodyazhniy, Corrado Garbazza, Christian Cajochen, Antoine U Viola
We tested the effect of different lights as a countermeasure against sleep-loss decrements in alertness, melatonin and cortisol profile, skin temperature and wrist motor activity in healthy young and older volunteers under extendend wakefulness. 26 young [mean (SE): 25.0 (0.6) y)] and 12 older participants [(mean (SE): 63.6 (1.3) y)] underwent 40-h of sustained wakefulness during 3 balanced crossover segments, once under dim light (DL: 8 lx), and once under either white light (WL: 250 lx, 2,800 K) or blue-enriched white light (BL: 250 lx, 9,000 K) exposure...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790150/phosphorylation-of-histone-h2a-at-serine-95-a-plant-specific-mark-involved-in-flowering-time-regulation-and-h2a-z-deposition
#15
Yanhua Su, Shiliang Wang, Fei Zhang, Han Zheng, Yana Liu, Tongtong Huang, Yong Ding
Phosphorylation of histone H3 affects transcription, chromatin condensation, and chromosome segregation. However, the role of phosphorylation of histone H2A remains unclear. Here, we found that Arabidopsis thaliana MUT9P-LIKE-KINASE (MLK4) phosphorylates histone H2A on serine 95, a plant-specific modification in the histone core domain. Mutations in MLK4 caused late flowering under long-day conditions but no notable phenotype under short days. MLK4 interacts with CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), which allows MLK4 to bind to the GIGANTEA (GI) promoter...
August 8, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782143/dynamics-of-cerebral-responses-to-sustained-attention-performance-during-one-night-of-sleep-deprivation
#16
Yuanqiang Zhu, Yibin Xi, Ningbo Fei, Yuchen Liu, Xinxin Zhang, Lin Liu, Ziliang Xu, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Hong Yin, Jie Tian, Wei Qin
Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is increasingly common in modern society bringing various neurobehavioural effects. Dynamic changes of behaviour performances during TSD have been reported extensively, while the cerebral activation underlying such changes have not been elucidated clearly. This study aimed to investigate dynamic changes in cerebral responses to the fastest and slowest psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) trials during TSD. Thirty-six healthy subjects with intermediate chronotype performed the PVT while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging every 2 h from 22:00 hours on the first day to 06:00 hours on the second day (i...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781050/direct-midbrain-dopamine-input-to-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-accelerates-circadian-entrainment
#17
Ryan M Grippo, Aarti M Purohit, Qi Zhang, Larry S Zweifel, Ali D Güler
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission controls behaviors important for survival, including voluntary movement, reward processing, and detection of salient events, such as food or mate availability. Dopaminergic tone also influences circadian physiology and behavior. Although the evolutionary significance of this input is appreciated, its precise neurophysiological architecture remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel, direct connection between the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
July 26, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781005/erratum-to-motor-activity-markers-of-circadian-timekeeping-are-related-to-ketamine-s-rapid-antidepressant-properties-by-duncan-et-al-biol-psychiatry-2017-82-361-369
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775376/altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-and-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-tac1-deficient-mice
#19
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775132/shift-work-that-involves-circadian-disruption-and-breast-cancer-a-first-application-of-chronobiological-theory-and-the-consequent-challenges
#20
Lin Fritschi, J Valérie Groß, Ursula Wild, Jane S Heyworth, Deborah C Glass, Thomas C Erren
OBJECTIVES: In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption (CD) as probably carcinogenic to humans. Circadian disruption could be conceptualised as the overlap of activity, such as work, with an individual's biological night. The latter can be approximated from a worker's chronotype (or morning/evening preference). Few previous studies have taken chronotype into account when assessing CD caused by shift work. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that women working during their biological night would be at increased risk of breast cancer...
August 3, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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