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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229973/female-conspecifics-restore-rhythmic-singing-behaviour-in-arrhythmic-male-zebra-finches
#1
Neelu Anand Jha, Vinod Kumar
The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singing behaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitored the activity-rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a conspecific female under 12 h light: 12 h darkness (12L:12D) or constant bright light (LL bright). Both unpaired and paired birds exhibited a significant daily rhythm in the singing and activity behaviour, but paired birds, under 12L:12D, showed a ~2 h extension in the evening...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228130/transcriptome-of-the-floral-transition-in-rosa-chinensis-old-blush
#2
Xuelian Guo, Chao Yu, Le Luo, Huihua Wan, Ni Zhen, Tingliang Xu, Jiongrui Tan, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: The floral transition plays a vital role in the life of ornamental plants. Despite progress in model plants, the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation remain unknown in perennial plants. Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. In this study, gene expression profiles associated with the flowering transition were comprehensively analyzed during floral transition in the rose. RESULTS: According to the transcriptomic profiles, 85,663 unigenes and 1,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 32 unigenes were involved in the circadian clock, sugar metabolism, hormone, and autonomous pathways...
February 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224616/critical-cholangiocarcinogenesis-control-by-cryptochrome-clock-genes
#3
Ali Mteyrek, Elisabeth Filipski, Catherine Guettier, Malgorzata Oklejewicz, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Alper Okyar, Francis Lévi
A coordinated network of molecular circadian clocks in individual cells generates 24-hour rhythms in liver metabolism and proliferation. Circadian disruption through chronic jet lag or Per2 clock gene mutation was shown to accelerate hepatocarcinoma development in mice. Since divergent effects were reported for clock genes Per and Cry regarding xenobiotic toxicity, we questioned the role of Cry1 and Cry2 in liver carcinogenesis. Male WT and Cry1(-/-) Cry2(-/-) mice (C57Bl/6 background) were chronically exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at ZT11...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223962/molecular-mechanisms-in-mood-regulation-involving-the-circadian-clock
#4
REVIEW
Urs Albrecht
The circadian system coordinates activities and functions in cells and tissues in order to optimize body functions in anticipation to daily changes in the environment. Disruption of the circadian system, due to irregular lifestyle such as rotating shift work, frequent travel across time-zones, or chronic stress, is correlated with several diseases such as obesity, cancer, and neurological disorders. Molecular mechanisms linking the circadian clock with neurological functions have been uncovered suggesting that disruption of the clock may be critically involved in the development of mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223912/diet-induced-obesity-and-circadian-disruption-of-feeding-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Aurea Blancas-Velazquez, Jorge Mendoza, Alexandra N Garcia, Susanne E la Fleur
Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223508/c-terminal-phosphorylation-regulates-the-kinetics-of-a-subset-of-melanopsin-mediated-behaviors-in-mice
#6
Preethi Somasundaram, Glenn R Wyrick, Diego Carlos Fernandez, Alireza Ghahari, Cindy M Pinhal, Melissa Simmonds Richardson, Alan C Rupp, Lihong Cui, Zhijian Wu, R Lane Brown, Tudor Constantin Badea, Samer Hattar, Phyllis R Robinson
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and mediate several non-image-forming visual functions, including circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex (PLR). ipRGCs act as autonomous photoreceptors via the intrinsic melanopsin-based phototransduction pathway and as a relay for rod/cone input via synaptically driven responses. Under low light intensities, where only synaptically driven rod/cone input activates ipRGCs, the duration of the ipRGC response will be determined by the termination kinetics of the rod/cone circuits...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223222/disrupting-the-key-circadian-regulator-clock-leads-to-age-dependent-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Faisal J Alibhai, Jonathan LaMarre, Cristine J Reitz, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz, Alex Shulman, Samantha Steinberg, Thomas P Burris, Gavin Y Oudit, Tami A Martino
The circadian mechanism underlies daily rhythms in cardiovascular physiology and rhythm disruption is a major risk factor for heart disease and worse outcomes. However, the role of circadian rhythms is generally clinically unappreciated. Clock is a core component of the circadian mechanism and here we examine the role of Clock as a vital determinant of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology in aging. Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mice develop age-dependent increases in heart weight, hypertrophy, dilation, impaired contractility, and reduced myogenic responsiveness...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220106/synchronization-by-daytime-restricted-food-access-modulates-the-presence-and-subcellular-distribution-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-its-phosphorylated-forms-in-the-rat-liver
#8
Dalia Luz De Ita-Pérez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
β-catenin, the principal effector of the Wnt pathway, is also one of the cadherin cell adhesion molecules; therefore, it fulfills signaling and structural roles in most of the tissues and organs. It has been reported that β-catenin in the liver regulates metabolic responses such as gluconeogenesis and histological changes in response to obesity-promoting diets. The function and cellular location of β-catenin is finely modulated by coordinated sequences of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events. In this article, we evaluated the levels and cellular localization of liver β-catenin variants, more specifically β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 33 (this phosphorylation provides recognizing sites for β-TrCP, which results in ubiquitination and posterior proteasomal degradation of β-catenin) and β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 675 (phosphorylation that enhances signaling and transcriptional activity of β-catenin through recruitment of different transcriptional coactivators)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219731/time-place-learning-and-activity-profile-under-constant-light-and-constant-dark-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#9
Clarissa de Almeida Moura, Jéssica Polyana da Silva Lima, Vanessa Augusta Magalhães Silveira, Mário André Leocadio Miguel, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The ability to learn about the signs of variability in space and time is known as time place learning (TPL). To adjust their circadian rhythms, animals use stimuli that change regularly, such as the light-dark cycle, temperature, food availability or even social stimuli. Because light-dark cycle is the most important environmental temporal cue, we asked how a diurnal animal would perform TPL if this cue was removed. Zebrafish has been extensively studied in the chronobiology area due to it diurnal chronotype, thus, we studied the effects of constant light and constant dark on the time-place learning and activity profile in zebrafish...
February 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218824/decreased-home-cage-movement-and-oromotor-impairments-in-adult-fmr1-ko-mice
#10
Stephen J Bonasera, Tammy R Chaudoin, Evan H Goulding, Mateusz Mittek, Anna Dunaevsky
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common inherited disorder that significantly impacts family and patient day-to-day living across the entire lifespan. The childhood and adolescent behavioral consequences of FXS are well-appreciated. However, there are significantly fewer studies (except those examining psychiatric comorbidities) assessing behavioral phenotypes seen in adults with FXS. Mice engineered with a genetic lesion of Fmr1 recapitulate important molecular and neuroanatomical characteristics of FXS, and provide a means to evaluate adult behavioral phenotypes associated with FXS...
February 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217893/geniculohypothalamic-gabaergic-projections-gate-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-responses-to-retinal-input
#11
Lydia Hanna, Lauren Walmsley, Abigail Pienaar, Michael Howarth, Timothy M Brown
Sensory input to the master mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is vital in allowing animals to optimise physiology and behaviour alongside daily changes in the environment. Retinal inputs encoding changes in external illumination provide the principle source of such information. The SCN also receives input from other retinorecipient brain regions, primarily via the geniculohypothalamic tract (GHT), but the contribution of these indirect projections to circadian photoreception are currently poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211649/insufficient-sleep-in-adolescents-causes-and-consequences
#12
Judith A Owens, Miriam R Weiss
Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209805/effects-of-photophase-illuminance-on-locomotor-activity-urine-production-and-urinary-6-sulfatoxymelatonin-in-nocturnal-and-diurnal-south-african-rodents
#13
Ingrid van der Merwe, Maria K Oosthuizen, Andre Ganswindt, Abraham Haim, Nigel C Bennett
Effects of photophase illuminance (1, 10, 100 and 330 lux of white incandescent lighting) on daily rhythms of locomotor activity, urine production and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT; 10 lux vs. 330 lux) were studied in nocturnal Namaqua rock mice (Micaelamys namaquensis) and diurnal four striped field mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Micaelamys namaquensis was consistently nocturnal (∼90-94% nocturnal activity), whereas considerable individual variation marked activity profiles in R. pumilio, but with activity mostly pronounced around twilight (∼55-66% diurnal activity)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206856/effect-of-photoperiod-on-permethrin-resistance-in-aedes-aegypti
#14
O Karina Villanueva, Gustavo Ponce, Beatriz Lopez, Selene M Gutierrez, Iram P Rodriguez, Guadalupe Reyes, Karla J Saavedra, William C Black, Julian Garcia, Barry Beaty, Lars Eisen, Adriana E Flores
Living organisms have been exposed to light-dark cycles that allowed them to adapt to different ecological niches. Circadian cycles affect hormone release, metabolism, and response to xenobiotic compounds. Current studies have shown that insect susceptibility to toxic agents depends on circadian cycles, mainly because the biochemical processes involved in detoxification and responses to oxidative stress are modulated by this process. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of photoperiod on resistance to permethrin in Aedes aegypti ...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203366/sex-differences-in-variability-across-timescales-in-balb-c-mice
#15
Benjamin L Smarr, Azure D Grant, Irving Zucker, Brian J Prendergast, Lance J Kriegsfeld
BACKGROUND: Females are markedly underinvestigated in the biological and behavioral sciences due to the presumption that cyclic hormonal changes across the ovulatory cycle introduce excess variability to measures of interest in comparison to males. However, recent analyses indicate that male and female mice and rats exhibit comparable variability across numerous physiological and behavioral measures, even when the stage of the estrous cycle is not considered. Hormonal changes across the ovulatory cycle likely contribute cyclic, intra-individual variability in females, but the source(s) of male variability has, to our knowledge, not been investigated...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198416/a-one-week-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-to-measure-impulsivity-and-attention-in-adult-and-adolescent-mice
#16
Esther Remmelink, Uyen Chau, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence. The study of executive functions in animal models of these disorders critically requires short-duration tasks measuring these functions before the animal ages. Here, a novel 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) protocol is presented, to measure attention and impulsivity within one week, without scheduled food deprivation and with little animal handling. Mice were allowed 24-h/day task access from their home-cage, during which they could self-pace task progression and earn unlimited food rewards depending on task performance...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196880/agrp-to-kiss1-neuron-signaling-links-nutritional-state-and-fertility
#17
Stephanie L Padilla, Jian Qiu, Casey C Nestor, Chunguang Zhang, Arik W Smith, Benjamin B Whiddon, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly, Richard D Palmiter
Mammalian reproductive function depends upon a neuroendocrine circuit that evokes the pulsatile release of gonadotropin hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) from the pituitary. This reproductive circuit is sensitive to metabolic perturbations. When challenged with starvation, insufficient energy reserves attenuate gonadotropin release, leading to infertility. The reproductive neuroendocrine circuit is well established, composed of two populations of kisspeptin-expressing neurons (located in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamus, Kiss1(AVPV), and arcuate hypothalamus, Kiss1(ARH)), which drive the pulsatile activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196106/tor-signaling-pathway-and-autophagy-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-circadian-rhythms-in-behavior-and-plasticity-of-l2-interneurons-in-the-brain-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Ewelina Kijak, Elżbieta Pyza
Drosophila melanogaster is a common model used to study circadian rhythms in behavior and circadian clocks. However, numerous circadian rhythms have also been detected in non-clock neurons, especially in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of the fly's visual system. Such rhythms have been observed in the number of synapses and in the structure of interneurons, which exhibit changes in size and shape in a circadian manner. Although the patterns of these changes are known, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the TOR signaling pathway and autophagy in regulating circadian rhythms based on the behavior and structural plasticity of the lamina L2 monopolar cell dendritic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192673/the-benefit-of-a-supplement-with-the-antioxidant-melatonin-on-redox-status-and-muscle-damage-in-resistance-trained-athletes
#19
Roberto C Leonardo-Mendonça, Javier Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Tomás de Haro, Carlos de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Iryna Rusanova, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Ramy Ka Sayed, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg.day-1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during four weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it...
February 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188587/circadian-rhythms-and-substance-abuse-chronobiological-considerations-for-the-treatment-of-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Ian C Webb
Reward-related learning, including that associated with drugs of abuse, is largely mediated by the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. Mesolimbic neurophysiology and motivated behavior, in turn, are modulated by the circadian timing system which generates ∼24-h rhythms in cellular activity. Both drug taking and seeking and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission can vary widely over the day. Moreover, circadian clock genes are expressed in ventral tegmental area dopaminergic cells and in mesolimbic target regions where they can directly modulate reward-related neurophysiology and behavior...
February 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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