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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234304/hypothesis-on-the-role-of-cryptochromes-in-inflammation-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-outcome
#1
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C). Specifically, we found that ICP24 = 6 (4 - TV) mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234010/loss-of-the-molecular-clock-in-myeloid-cells-exacerbates-t-cell-mediated-cns-autoimmune-disease
#2
Caroline E Sutton, Conor M Finlay, Mathilde Raverdeau, James O Early, Joseph DeCourcey, Zbigniew Zaslona, Luke A J O'Neill, Kingston H G Mills, Annie M Curtis
The transcription factor BMAL1 is a core component of the molecular clock, regulating biological pathways that drive 24 h (circadian) rhythms in behaviour and physiology. The molecular clock has a profound influence on innate immune function, and circadian disruption is linked with increased incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. Here we show that BMAL1 and time-of-day regulate the accumulation and activation of various immune cells in a CNS autoimmune disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233658/between-and-within-laboratory-reliability-of-mouse-behaviour-recorded-in-home-cage-and-open-field
#3
Lianne Robinson, Barry Spruijt, Gernot Riedel
BACKGROUND: Reproducibility of behavioural findings between laboratories is difficult due to behaviour being sensitive to environmental factors and interactions with genetics. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility of behavioural data between laboratories using the PhenoTyper home cage observation system and within laboratory reproducibility using different lighting regimes. NEW METHOD: The ambulatory activity of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice was tested in PhenoTypers in two laboratories under near identical housing and testing conditions (Exp...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231782/akin10-activity-as-a-cellular-link-between-metabolism-and-circadian-clock-entrainment-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Alfredo Sánchez-Villarreal, Amanda M Davis, Seth J Davis
AKIN10, the catalytic subunit of the Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) complex, acts as an energy sensor in plants. We showed that AKIN10-induced expression affects the pace of the circadian clock and particularly the phase of expression of GIGANTEA (GI). The AKIN10 effect on period length required TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC), a circadian-clock component with developmental and metabolic roles. Here we expand on the possible interactions between AKIN10, whose activity is involved in transcriptional reprogramming, and clock elements GI and TIC...
December 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231749/individual-differences-in-chronotypes-associated-with-academic-performance-among-chilean-university-students
#5
Macarena Valladares, Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle, Miss Alexandra Muñoz, Ana María Obregón
A chronotype is an individual trait that determines circadian rhythm (dark/light cycle) characteristics, associated with bedtime, waking, and other daily activities. A chronotype is classified as morning, intermediate, and evening. The objective is to associate chronotypes with academic performance in university students. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the chronotype of university students (n = 703) by Horne-Ostberg questionnaire and associated with academic performance. The group with higher GPAs had higher chronotype scores (p = 0...
December 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231171/tracing-neuronal-circuits-in-transgenic-animals-by-transneuronal-control-of-transcription-tract
#6
Ting-Hao Huang, Peter Niesman, Deepshika Arasu, Daniel Lee, Aubrie De La Cruz, Antuca Callejas, Elizabeth J Hong, Carlos Lois
Understanding the computations that take place in brain circuits requires identifying how neurons in those circuits are connected to one another. We describe a technique called TRACT (TRAnsneuronal Control of Transcription) based on ligand-induced intramembrane proteolysis to reveal monosynaptic connections arising from genetically labeled neurons of interest. In this strategy, neurons expressing an artificial ligand ('donor' neurons) bind to and activate a genetically-engineered artificial receptor on their synaptic partners ('receiver' neurons)...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230661/weak-circadian-rhythm-increases-neutropenia-risk-among-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#7
Wentao Li, Carol Chi-Hei Kwok, Dominic Chun-Wan Chan, Feng Wang, Lap Ah Tse
PURPOSE: Severe neutropenia is a common dose-limiting side effect of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. We aimed to test the hypothesis that weak circadian rhythm is associated with an increased risk of neutropenia using a cohort study. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 193 breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel; doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide; docetaxel and cyclophosphamide)...
December 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230188/control-of-rest-activity-by-a-dopaminergic-ultradian-oscillator-and-the-circadian-clock
#8
REVIEW
Clément Bourguignon, Kai-Florian Storch
There is long-standing evidence for rhythms in locomotor activity, as well as various other aspects of physiology, with periods substantially shorter than 24 h in organisms ranging from fruit flies to humans. These ultradian oscillations, whose periods frequently fall between 2 and 6 h, are normally well integrated with circadian rhythms; however, they often lack the period stability and expression robustness of the latter. An adaptive advantage of ultradian rhythms has been clearly demonstrated for the common vole, suggesting that they may have evolved to confer social synchrony...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230097/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-regulation-on-usp2-s-alternative-splicing-and-the-significance-of-its-products
#9
REVIEW
Han-Qing Zhu, Feng-Hou Gao
Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) has a regulatory function in cell growth or death and is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. USP2 gene can generate 7 splicing variants through alternative splicing, and 5 variants respectively as USP2-201, USP2-202, USP2-204, USP2-205, USP2-206 can encode proteins. The influence of circadian rhythm, nutrition and androgen on specific signaling molecules or cytokines can regulate the alternative splicing of USP2. Specifically, PKC activator, IL-1β, TNF-α, PDGF-BB, TGF-β1 are all regulatory factors for USP2's alternative splicing...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230015/a-perk-mir-211-axis-suppresses-circadian-regulators-and-protein-synthesis-to-promote-cancer-cell-survival
#10
Yiwen Bu, Akihiro Yoshida, Nilesh Chitnis, Brian J Altman, Feven Tameire, Amanda Oran, Victoria Gennaro, Kent E Armeson, Steven B McMahon, Gerald B Wertheim, Chi V Dang, Davide Ruggero, Constantinos Koumenis, Serge Y Fuchs, J Alan Diehl
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress-activated signalling pathway that regulates cell proliferation, metabolism and survival. The circadian clock coordinates metabolism and signal transduction with light/dark cycles. We explore how UPR signalling interfaces with the circadian clock. UPR activation induces a 10 h phase shift in circadian oscillations through induction of miR-211, a PERK-inducible microRNA that transiently suppresses both Bmal1 and Clock, core circadian regulators. Molecular investigation reveals that miR-211 directly regulates Bmal1 and Clock via distinct mechanisms...
December 11, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227248/salt-inducible-kinase-3-regulates-the-mammalian-circadian-clock-by-destabilizing-per2-protein
#11
Naoto Hayasaka, Arisa Hirano, Yuka Miyoshi, Isao T Tokuda, Hikari Yoshitane, Junichiro Matsuda, Yoshitaka Fukada
Salt-inducible kinase 3 (SIK3) plays a crucial role in various aspects of metabolism. In the course of investigating metabolic defects in Sik3-deficient mice (Sik3-/-), we observed that circadian rhythmicity of the metabolisms was phase-delayed. Sik3-/- mice also exhibited other circadian abnormalities, including lengthening of the period, impaired entrainment to the light-dark cycle, phase variation in locomotor activities, and aberrant physiological rhythms. Ex vivosuprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Sik3-/- mice exhibited destabilized and desynchronized molecular rhythms among individual neurons...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224246/circadian-peak-dopaminergic-activity-response-at-the-biological-clock-pacemaker-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-area-mediates-the-metabolic-responsiveness-to-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Shuqin Luo, Yahong Zhang, Michael Ezrokhi, Yang Li, Tsung-Huang Tsai, Anthony H Cincotta
Among vertebrate species of the major vertebrate classes in the wild, a seasonal rhythm of whole body fuel metabolism, oscillating from lean to obese condition, is a common biological phenomenon. This annual cycle is driven in part by annual changes in the circadian dopaminergic signaling at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), with diminution of circadian peak dopaminergic activity at the SCN facilitating development of the seasonal obese insulin resistant condition. The present study investigated whether such an ancient circadian dopamine-SCN activity system for expression of the seasonal obese, insulin resistant phenotype may be operative in animals made obese, insulin resistant by high fat feeding and if so whether reinstatement of the circadian dopaminergic peak at the SCN would be sufficient to reverse the adverse metabolic impact of the high fat diet without alteration of caloric intake...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223284/daily-rhythms-count-for-female-fertility
#13
REVIEW
Valérie Simonneaux, Thibault Bahougne, Eleni Angelopoulou
Female ovulation depends on a surge in circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) which occurs at the end of the resting period and requests high circulating estradiol. This fine tuning involves both an estradiol feedback as an indicator of oocyte maturation, and the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nuclei as an indicator of the time of the day. This review describes the mechanisms through which daily time cues are conveyed to reproductive hypothalamic neurons to time the pre-ovulatory surge. In female rodents, neurotransmitters released by the suprachiasmatic nuclei activate the stimulatory kisspeptin neurons and reduce the inhibitory RFRP neurons precisely at the end of the afternoon of proestrus to allow a full surge in LH secretion...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223280/circadian-and-ultradian-patterns-of-hpa-axis-activity-in-rodents-significance-for-brain-functionality
#14
REVIEW
Femke S den Boon, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis comprises interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands and its activation results in the release of corticosteroid hormones. Corticosteroids are secreted from the adrenal gland in a distinct 24-h circadian rhythm overarching an ultradian rhythm, which consists of hourly corticosteroid pulses exposing target tissues to rapidly changing steroid levels. On top of these rhythms surges can take place after stress. HPA-axis rhythms promote adaptation to predictable (i...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223143/neurobiological-functions-of-the-period-circadian-clock-2-gene-per2
#15
REVIEW
Mikyung Kim, June Bryan de la Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong, Hee Jin Kim
Most organisms have adapted to a circadian rhythm that follows a roughly 24-hour cycle, which is modulated by both internal (clock-related genes) and external (environment) factors. In such organisms, the central nervous system (CNS) is influenced by the circadian rhythm of individual cells. Furthermore, the period circadian clock 2 (Per2) gene is an important component of the circadian clock, which modulates the circadian rhythm. Per2 is mainly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus as well as other brain areas, including the midbrain and forebrain...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219947/dendritic-cell-nuclear-protein-1-regulates-melatonin-biosynthesis-by-binding-to-bmal1-and-inhibiting-the-transcription-of-n-acetyltransferase-in-c6-cells
#16
Dong Chen, Yi-Pei Li, Yan-Xia Yu, Tian Zhou, Chao Liu, Er-Kang Fei, Feng Gao, Chen-Chen Mu, Hai-Gang Ren, Guang-Hui Wang
Dendritic cell nuclear protein-1 (DCNP1) is a protein associated with major depression. In the brains of depression patients, DCNP1 is up-regulated. However, how DCNP1 participates in the pathogenesis of major depression remains unknown. In this study, we first transfected HEK293 cells with EGFP-DCNP1 and demonstrated that the full-length DCNP1 protein was localized in the nucleus, and RRK (the residues 117-119) composed its nuclear localization signal (NLS). An RRK-deletion form of DCNP1 (DCNP1ΔRRK) and truncated form (DCNP11-116), each lacking the RRK residues, did not show the specific nuclear localization like full-length DCNP1 in the cells...
December 7, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217834/gender-specific-alteration-of-energy-balance-and-circadian-locomotor-activity-in-the-crtc1-knockout-mouse-model-of-depression
#17
Clara Rossetti, Daniel Sciarra, Jean-Marie Petit, Chin B Eap, Olivier Halfon, Pierre J Magistretti, Benjamin Boutrel, Jean-René Cardinaux
Obesity and depression are major public health concerns, and there is increasing evidence that they share etiological mechanisms. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) participates in neurobiological pathways involved in both mood and energy balance regulation. Crtc1 -/- mice rapidly develop a depressive-like and obese phenotype in early adulthood, and are therefore a relevant animal model to explore possible common mechanisms underlying mood disorders and obesity. Here, the obese phenotype of male and female Crtc1 -/- mice was further characterized by investigating CRTC1's role in the homeostatic and hedonic regulation of food intake, as well as its influence on daily locomotor activity...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217191/tnf-%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-the-circadian-clock-gene-bmal1-via-dual-calcium-dependent-pathways-in-rheumatoid-synovial-cells
#18
Kohsuke Yoshida, Ayako Nakai, Kenta Kaneshiro, Naonori Hashimoto, Kohjin Suzuki, Koto Uchida, Teppei Hashimoto, Yoshiko Kawasaki, Koji Tateishi, Natsuko Nakagawa, Nao Shibanuma, Yoshitada Sakai, Akira Hashiramoto
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is responsible for expressions of several clock genes and affects joint symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with diurnal fluctuation. We tried to determine the mechanism involved in over-expression of Bmal1, induced by TNF-α, in primary cultured rheumatoid synovial cells. Cells were incubated with intra-cellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM, calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and p300/CBP (CREB binding protein) inhibitor C646, respectively, or transfected with p300 and CBP small interfering RNA (siRNA) before stimulation with TNF-α...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216180/the-ink4a-arf-locus-operates-as-a-regulator-of-the-circadian-clock-modulating-ras-activity
#19
Rukeia El-Athman, Nikolai N Genov, Jeannine Mazuch, Kaiyang Zhang, Yong Yu, Luise Fuhr, Mónica Abreu, Yin Li, Thomas Wallach, Achim Kramer, Clemens A Schmitt, Angela Relógio
The mammalian circadian clock and the cell cycle are two major biological oscillators whose coupling influences cell fate decisions. In the present study, we use a model-driven experimental approach to investigate the interplay between clock and cell cycle components and the dysregulatory effects of RAS on this coupled system. In particular, we focus on the Ink4a/Arf locus as one of the bridging clock-cell cycle elements. Upon perturbations by the rat sarcoma viral oncogene (RAS), differential effects on the circadian phenotype were observed in wild-type and Ink4a/Arf knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which could be reproduced by our modelling simulations and correlated with opposing cell cycle fate decisions...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215778/declines-in-moth-populations-stress-the-need-for-conserving-dark-nights
#20
Frank van Langevelde, Marijke Braamburg-Annegarn, Martinus E Huigens, Rob Groendijk, Olivier Poitevin, Jurriën R van Deijk, Willem N Ellis, Roy H A van Grunsven, Rob de Vos, Rutger A Vos, Markus Franzén, Michiel F Wallis DeVries
Given the global continuous rise, artificial light at night is often considered a driving force behind moth population declines. Although negative effects on individuals have been shown, there is no evidence for effects on population sizes to date. Therefore, we compared population trends of Dutch macro-moth fauna over the period 1985-2015 between moth species that differ in phototaxis and adult circadian rhythm. We found that moth species that show positive phototaxis or are nocturnally active have stronger negative population trends than species that are not attracted to light or are diurnal species...
December 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
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