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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912059/microbiota-diurnal-rhythmicity-programs-host-transcriptome-oscillations
#1
Christoph A Thaiss, Maayan Levy, Tal Korem, Lenka Dohnalová, Hagit Shapiro, Diego A Jaitin, Eyal David, Deborah R Winter, Meital Gury-BenAri, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Timur Tuganbaev, Sara Federici, Niv Zmora, David Zeevi, Mally Dori-Bachash, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Elena Kartvelishvily, Alexander Brandis, Alon Harmelin, Oren Shibolet, Zamir Halpern, Kenya Honda, Ido Amit, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
The intestinal microbiota undergoes diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that affect metabolic homeostasis, but the mechanisms by which the rhythmic microbiota influences host circadian activity remain elusive. Using integrated multi-omics and imaging approaches, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota features oscillating biogeographical localization and metabolome patterns that determine the rhythmic exposure of the intestinal epithelium to different bacterial species and their metabolites over the course of a day...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911598/type-3-deiodinase-role-on-central-thyroid-hormone-action-affects-the-leptin-melanocortin-system-and-circadian-activity
#2
Zhaofei Wu, M Elena Martinez, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez
The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the central regulation of energy balance is increasingly appreciated. Mice lacking the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which inactivates TH, have decreased circulating TH levels relative to control mice due to defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, we have shown that the TH status of the adult Dio3(-/-) brain is opposite that of the serum, exhibiting enhanced levels of TH action. Since the brain, specially the hypothalamus, harbors important circuitries that regulate metabolism, we aimed to examine the energy balance phenotype of Dio3(-/-) mice and determine whether it is associated with hypothalamic abnormalities...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#3
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906548/circadian-fluctuations-in-circulating-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-are-independent-of-feeding-cycles-in-mice
#4
Katsutaka Oishi, Naoki Ohkura, Yuki Yasumoto, Saori Yamamoto
To evaluate the involvement of the day-night feeding cycle in the circadian regulation of circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations, mice were fed with a diet for eight hours during either daytime (DF) or nighttime (NF) for one week. The reversed feeding cycle did not affect the circadian phases of plasma PAI-1 levels as well as the nocturnal wheel-running activity, although the phase of Pai-1 mRNA expression was significantly advanced for 8.6 hours in the livers of DF, compared with NF mice...
December 1, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906111/the-functional-significance-of-the-skeletal-muscle-clock-lessons-from-bmal1-knockout-models
#5
REVIEW
Stefano Schiaffino, Bert Blaauw, Kenneth A Dyar
The circadian oscillations of muscle genes are controlled either directly by the intrinsic muscle clock or by extrinsic factors, such as feeding, hormonal signals, or neural influences, which are in turn regulated by the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. A unique feature of circadian rhythms in skeletal muscle is motor neuron-dependent contractile activity, which can affect the oscillation of a number of muscle genes independently of the muscle clock. The role of the intrinsic muscle clock has been investigated using different Bmal1 knockout (KO) models...
October 13, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906079/muscle-specific-loss-of-bmal1-leads-to-disrupted-tissue-glucose-metabolism-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#6
Brianna D Harfmann, Elizabeth A Schroder, Maureen T Kachman, Brian A Hodge, Xiping Zhang, Karyn A Esser
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA, and disruption of circadian rhythms is gaining recognition as a contributing factor to disease prevalence. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. The skeletal muscle is a key insulin-sensitive metabolic tissue, taking up ~80 % of postprandial glucose. To address the role of the skeletal muscle molecular clock to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, we generated an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 (-/-) mouse (iMSBmal1 (-/-))...
March 30, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904154/circadian-rhythm-of-blood-pressure-and-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-kidney
#7
REVIEW
Naro Ohashi, Shinsuke Isobe, Sayaka Ishigaki, Hideo Yasuda
Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a critical role in the pathophysiology of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and renal injury, independent of circulating RAS. Although it is clear that the circulating RAS has a circadian rhythm, reports of a circadian rhythm in tissue-specific RAS are limited. Clinical studies evaluating intrarenal RAS activity by urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) levels have indicated that urinary AGT levels were equally low during both the daytime and nighttime in individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and that urinary AGT levels were higher during the daytime than at nighttime in patients with CKD...
December 1, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904104/the-effects-of-unilateral-nephrectomy-on-blood-pressure-and-its-circadian-rhythm
#8
Naro Ohashi, Shinsuke Isobe, Sayaka Ishigaki, Takahisa Suzuki, Daisuke Motoyama, Takayuki Sugiyama, Masao Nagata, Akihiko Kato, Seiichiro Ozono, Hideo Yasuda
Objective Hypertension and diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation are widely accepted as risk factors for renal damage. However, the effects of unilateral nephrectomy on BP and its circadian rhythm have not yet been clarified in patients with a compromised renal function, including dialysis patients. Methods We investigated 22 unilateral nephrectomized patients (16 men and 6 women, age: 64.5±14.3 years). The function of the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II) and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were evaluated before and after nephrectomy...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903023/-adrenal-insufficiency
#9
Stephanie Burger-Stritt, Stefanie Hahner
Even under established replacement therapy, chronic adrenal insufficiency is associated with an impairment in daily life activities and a higher number of sick-days. In patients with individually adjusted glucocorticoid doses (avoiding over-replacement) the frequency of glucocorticoid side effects is low. Besides the standard treatment with conventional hydrocortisone, new formulas aiming at more adjusted physiological circadian cortisol profiles or improved individual dosing have been evaluated in recent clinical trials...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899452/structural-basis-of-the-oncogenic-interaction-of-phosphatase-prl-1-with-the-magnesium-transporter-cnnm2
#10
Paula Giménez-Mascarell, Iker Oyenarte, Serge Hardy, Tilman Breiderhoff, Marchel Stuiver, Elie Kostantin, Tammo Diercks, Angel L Pey, June Ereño-Orbea, María Luz Martinez-Chantar, Reham Khalaf-Nazzal, Félix Claverie-Martín, Dominik Müller, Michel L Tremblay, Luis Alfonso Martínez-Cruz
Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), the most oncogenic of all protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), play a critical role in metastatic progression of cancers. Recent findings established a new paradigm by uncovering that their association with magnesium transporters of the Cyclin M (CNNM) family causes intracellular magnesium levels that promotes oncogenic transformation. On the other hand, it has recently been highlighted essential roles of the CNNM family in regulation of the circadian rhythm, and reproduction...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897229/global-gene-regulation-during-activation-of-immunoglobulin-class-switching-in-human-b-cells
#11
Youming Zhang, David J Fear, Saffron A G Willis-Owen, William O Cookson, Miriam F Moffatt
Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) to IgE is a tightly regulated process central to atopic disease. To profile the B-cell transcriptional responses underlying the activation of the germinal centre activities leading to the generation of IgE, naïve human B-cells were stimulated with IL-4 and anti-CD40. Gene expression and alternative splicing were profiled over 12 days using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. A total of 1,399 genes, forming 13 temporal profiles were differentially expressed...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896810/multiple-pathways-for-elevating-extracellular-adenosine-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-characterized-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#12
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Extracellular adenosine in the brain, which modulates various physiological and pathological processes, fluctuates in a complicated manner that reflects the circadian cycle, neuronal activity, metabolism, and disease states. The dynamics of extracellular adenosine in the brain are not fully understood, largely because of the lack of simple and reliable methods of measuring time-dependent changes in tissue adenosine distribution. This study describes the development of a biosensor, designated an adenosine sensor cell, expressing adenosine A1 receptor, and a genetically modified G protein...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895890/sex-and-age-related-differences-in-arterial-pressure-and-albuminuria-in-mice
#13
Giannie Barsha, Kate M Denton, Katrina M Mirabito Colafella
BACKGROUND: Animal models have become valuable experimental tools for understanding the pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions in cardiovascular disease. Yet to date, few studies document the age- and sex-related differences in arterial pressure, circadian rhythm, and renal function in normotensive mice under basal conditions, across the life span. We hypothesized that mice display similar sex- and age-related differences in arterial pressure and renal function to humans. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and circadian rhythm of arterial pressure were measured over 3 days via radiotelemetry, in 3- and 5-month-old (adult) and 14- and 18-month-old (aged) FVB/N and in 5-month-old (adult) C57BL/6 male and female normotensive mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893784/circadian-variation-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-levels-in-children-with-meningococcal-sepsis
#14
Navin P Boeddha, Gertjan J Driessen, Marjon H Cnossen, Jan A Hazelzet, Marieke Emonts
OBJECTIVE: To study whether the circadian variation of plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, with high morning levels, is associated with poor outcome of children with meningococcal sepsis presenting in the morning hours. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data. SETTING: Single center study at Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: 184 patients aged 3 weeks to 18 years with meningococcal sepsis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893733/adarb1-catalyzes-circadian-a-to-i-editing-and-regulates-rna-rhythm
#15
Hideki Terajima, Hikari Yoshitane, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Shigeki Shimba, Shinya Kuroda, Wataru Iwasaki, Yoshitaka Fukada
It has been proposed that the CLOCK-ARNTL (BMAL1) complex drives circadian transcription of thousands of genes, including Per and Cry family genes that encode suppressors of CLOCK-ARNTL-dependent transcription. However, recent studies demonstrated that 70-80% of circadian-oscillating mRNAs have no obvious rhythms in their de novo transcription, indicating the potential importance of post-transcriptional regulation. Our CLOCK-ChIP-seq analysis identified rhythmic expression of adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (Adarb1, also known as Adar2), an adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA-editing enzyme...
November 28, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890490/fragmentation-of-daily-rhythms-associates-with-obesity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-adolescents-the-helena-study
#16
Marta Garaulet, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Jonatan R Ruiz, Kenn Konstabel, Idoia Labayen, Marcela González-Gross, Ascensión Marcos, Dénes Molnar, Kurt Widhalm, Jose Antonio Casajús, Stefaan De Henauw, Anthony Kafatos, Christina Breidenassel, Michael Sjöström, Manuel J Castillo, Luis A Moreno, Juan A Madrid, Francisco B Ortega
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronobiology studies periodic changes in living organisms and it has been proposed as a promising approach to investigate obesity. We analyze the association of the characteristics of the rest-activity rhythms with obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk in adolescents from nine European countries. METHODS: 1044 adolescents (12.5-17.5 y) were studied. Circadian health was evaluated by actigraphy with accelerometers (Actigraph GT1M)...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889186/circadian-homeostasis-of-liver-metabolism-suppresses-hepatocarcinogenesis
#17
Nicole M Kettner, Horatio Voicu, Milton J Finegold, Cristian Coarfa, Arun Sreekumar, Nagireddy Putluri, Chinenye A Katchy, Choogon Lee, David D Moore, Loning Fu
Chronic jet lag induces spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wild-type mice following a mechanism very similar to that observed in obese humans. The process initiates with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and fibrosis before HCC detection. This pathophysiological pathway is driven by jet-lag-induced genome-wide gene deregulation and global liver metabolic dysfunction, with nuclear receptor-controlled cholesterol/bile acid and xenobiotic metabolism among the top deregulated pathways...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888766/circadian-time-dependent-antioxidant-and-inflammatory-responses-to-acute-cadmium-exposure-in-the-brain-of-zebrafish
#18
Jia-Lang Zheng, Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Chang-Wen Wu, Zhen-Ming Lv, Ai-Yi Zhu
Up to date, little information is available on effects of circadian rhythm on metal-induced toxicity in fish. In this study, zebrafish were acutely exposed to 0.97mgL(-1) cadmium for 12h either at ZT0 (the light intensity began to reached maximum) or at ZT12 (light intensity began to reached minimum) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the brain of zebrafish. Profiles of responses of some genes at mRNA, protein and activity levels were different between ZT0 and ZT12 in the normal water...
November 18, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888171/clinical-relevance-of-the-first-domomedicine-platform-securing-multidrug-chronotherapy-delivery-in-metastatic-cancer-patients-at-home-the-incasa-european-project
#19
Pasquale F Innominato, Sandra Komarzynski, Ali Mohammad-Djafari, Alexandre Arbaud, Ayhan Ulusakarya, Mohamed Bouchahda, Mazen Haydar, Rachel Bossevot-Desmaris, Virginie Plessis, Magali Mocquery, Davina Bouchoucha, Mehran Afshar, Jacques Beau, Abdoulaye Karaboué, Jean-François Morère, Joanna Fursse, Jordi Rovira Simon, Francis Levi
BACKGROUND: Telehealth solutions can improve the safety of ambulatory chemotherapy, contributing to the maintenance of patients at their home, hence improving their well-being, all the while reducing health care costs. There is, however, need for a practicable multilevel monitoring solution, encompassing relevant outputs involved in the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Domomedicine embraces the delivery of complex care and medical procedures at the patient's home based on modern technologies, and thus it offers an integrated approach for increasing the safety of cancer patients on chemotherapy...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888113/circadian-urinary-citrate-excretion-in-a-rat-model-of-exercise
#20
Paula Nuñez, Irene Diaz, Carmen Perillan, Juan Arguelles, Elena Diaz
AIMS: Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. Circadian rhythms unquestionably play critical roles in metabolic homeostasis and the exercise has emerged as a strong non-photic time cue or zeitgeber in animal models and humans. Numerous studies on the effects of exercise on the citrate synthase activity have been published. Citrate is used to assess energy production or expenditure because it is a substrate of the Krebs Cycle, a cycle for oxidative energy production...
November 22, 2016: Life Sciences
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