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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346691/reproductive-status-affects-the-feeding-ecology-and-social-association-patterns-of-female-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-collinsi-in-an-amazonian-rainforest
#1
Luana V P Ruivo, Anita I Stone, Matthew Fienup
When making foraging decisions, female primates may follow specific behavioral strategies that reflect their reproductive state. Lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females, but we argue that gestation is also energetically expensive for squirrel monkeys. In this study, we examined whether female squirrel monkeys (a seasonally breeding primate) in different reproductive phases showed significant differences in their foraging ecology. We sampled two wild groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) using the focal animal method, during 12 months (June 2014 to May 2015)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340890/reproductive-disorders-in-pet-rodents
#2
REVIEW
Jaume Martorell
Reproduction diseases are common presentations in small rodents. Some can be presented to the clinician as an emergency where a fast and effective treatment is required. This article presents an overview of reproductive disorders in these species. Diseases affecting the ovary, uterus, testicles, and mammary gland are developed in rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: inflammatory, infectious, and neoplasia. Clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment information are included. Some specific indications about the surgical reproduction procedures are described...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337128/connexin36-expression-in-the-mammalian-retina-a-multiple-species-comparison
#3
Tamás Kovács-Öller, Gábor Debertin, Márton Balogh, Alma Ganczer, József Orbán, Miklós Nyitrai, Lajos Balogh, Orsolya Kántor, Béla Völgyi
Much knowledge about interconnection of human retinal neurons is inferred from results on animal models. Likewise, there is a lack of information on human retinal electrical synapses/gap junctions (GJ). Connexin36 (Cx36) forms GJs in both the inner and outer plexiform layers (IPL and OPL) in most species including humans. However, a comparison of Cx36 GJ distribution in retinas of humans and popular animal models has not been presented. To this end a multiple-species comparison was performed in retinas of 12 mammals including humans to survey the Cx36 distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336423/comparative-analysis-of-complete-genome-sequences-of-european-subtype-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-strains-isolated-from-ixodes-persulcatus-ticks-long-tailed-ground-squirrel-spermophilus-undulatus-and-human-blood-in-the-asian-part-of-russia
#4
T V Demina, S E Tkachev, I V Kozlova, E K Doroshchenko, O V Lisak, O V Suntsova, M M Verkhozina, Yu P Dzhioev, A I Paramonov, A Y Tikunov, N V Tikunova, V I Zlobin, D Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is divided into three subtypes: European (TBEV-Eu), Siberian (TBEV-Sib), and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE) subtypes. The geographical range of TBEV-Eu dominates in Europe, but this subtype is present focally across the whole non-tropical forested Eurasian belt, through Russia to South Korea. However, the TBEV-Eu strains isolated outside Europe remain poorly characterized. In this study, full-genome sequences of eight TBEV-Eu isolates were determined. These strains were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, long-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus), and human blood in the natural foci of Western and Eastern Siberia, Russia...
March 9, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333316/convergent-balancing-selection-on-the-mu-opioid-receptor-in-primates
#5
Carolyn G Sweeney, Juliette M Rando, Helen N Panas, Gregory M Miller, Donna M Platt, Eric J Vallender
The mu opioid receptor is involved in many natural processes including stress response, pleasure, and pain. Mutations in the gene also have been associated with opiate and alcohol addictions as well as with responsivity to medication targeting these disorders. Two common and mutually exclusive polymorphisms have been identified in humans, A118G (N40D), found commonly in non-African populations, and C17T (V6A), found almost exclusively in African populations. While A118G has been studied extensively for associations and in functional assays, C17T is much less well understood...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332020/temperature-effects-on-the-activity-shape-and-storage-of-platelets-from-13-lined-ground-squirrels
#6
Scott Cooper, Sarah Lloyd, Anthony Koch, Xingxing Lin, Katie Dobbs, Thomas Theisen, Matt Zuberbuehler, Kaley Bernhardt, Michael Gyorfi, Tanner Tenpas, Skyler Hying, Sarah Mortimer, Christine Lamont, Marcus Lehmann, Keith Neeves
The objective of this study is to determine how a hibernating mammal avoids the formation of blood clots under periods of low blood flow. A microfluidic vascular injury model was performed to differentiate the effects of temperature and shear rate on platelet adhesion to collagen. Human and ground squirrel whole blood was incubated at 15 or 37 °C and then passed through a microfluidic chamber over a 250-µm strip of type I fibrillar collagen at that temperature and the shear rates of 50 or 300 s(-1) to simulate torpid and aroused conditions, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332019/comparative-tissue-transcriptomics-highlights-dynamic-differences-among-tissues-but-conserved-metabolic-transcript-prioritization-in-preparation-for-arousal-from-torpor
#7
Lori K Bogren, Katharine R Grabek, Gregory S Barsh, Sandra L Martin
During the hibernation season, 13-lined ground squirrels spend days to weeks in torpor with body temperatures near freezing then spontaneously rewarm. The molecular drivers of the drastic physiological changes that orchestrate and permit torpor are not well understood. Although transcription effectively ceases at the low body temperatures of torpor, previous work has demonstrated that some transcripts are protected from bulk degradation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), consistent with the importance of their protein products for metabolic heat generation during arousal from torpor...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332018/seasonal-loss-and-resumption-of-circadian-rhythms-in-hibernating-arctic-ground-squirrels
#8
Cory T Williams, Maya Radonich, Brian M Barnes, C Loren Buck
Circadian clocks are near universal among organisms and play a key role in coordinating physiological and metabolic functions to anticipate or coincide with predictable daily changes in the physical and social environment. However, whether circadian rhythms persist and are functionally important during hibernation in all mammals is currently unclear. We examined whether circadian rhythms of body temperature (T b) persist during multi-day, steady-state torpor and investigated the association between timing of animal emergence, exposure to light, and resumption of activity and T b rhythms in free-living and captive male arctic ground squirrels...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331593/immigration-ensures-population-survival-in-the-siberian-flying-squirrel
#9
Jon E Brommer, Ralf Wistbacka, Vesa Selonen
Linking dispersal to population growth remains a challenging task and is a major knowledge gap, for example, for conservation management. We studied relative roles of different demographic rates behind population growth in Siberian flying squirrels in two nest-box breeding populations in western Finland. Adults and offspring were captured and individually identifiable. We constructed an integrated population model, which estimated all relevant annual demographic rates (birth, local [apparent] survival, and immigration) as well as population growth rates...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331086/nectin-4-interactions-govern-measles-virus-virulence-in-a-new-model-of-pathogenesis-squirrel-monkeys-simia-sciureus
#10
Sébastien Delpeut, Bevan Sawatsky, Xiao-Xiang Wong, Marie Frenzke, Roberto Cattaneo, Veronika von Messling
In addition to humans, only certain non-human primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species-dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Simia sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324160/regulation-of-blood-oxygen-transport-in-hibernating-mammals
#11
Inge G Revsbech, Angela Fago
Along with the periodic reductions in O2 requirements of mammalian hibernators during winter, the O2 affinity of the blood of mammalian hibernators is seasonally regulated to help match O2 supply to consumption, contributing to limit tissue oxidative stress, particularly at arousals. Specifically, mammalian hibernators consistently show an overall increase in the blood-O2 affinity, which causes a decreased O2 unloading to tissues, while having similar or lower tissue O2 tensions during hibernation. This overview explores how the decreased body temperature and concentration of red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) that occur in hibernation contribute separately or in combination to the concurrent increase in the O2 affinity of the hemoglobin, the O2 carrier protein of the blood...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324157/water-fat-mri-in-a-hibernator-reveals-seasonal-growth-of-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-without-cold-exposure
#12
Amanda MacCannell, Kevin Sinclair, Lannette Friesen-Waldner, Charles A McKenzie, James F Staples
Obligate hibernators, such as ground squirrels, display circannual patterns which persist even under constant laboratory conditions, suggesting that they are regulated by endogenous rhythms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for thermogenesis during periodic arousals from hibernation when core body temperature rises spontaneously from 5 to 37 °C. In most small eutherians BAT growth requires several weeks of cold exposure. We hypothesized that in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernator, BAT growth is regulated, in part, by an endogenous rhythm and we predicted that this growth would precede the hibernation season without cold exposure...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320532/atypical-histiocytosis-in-red-squirrels-sciurus-vulgaris
#13
S H Smith, K Stevenson, J Del-Pozo, S Moss, A Meredith
Four red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) were subjected to necropsy examination over a 3-year period as part of a broader surveillance study. The squirrels presented with cutaneous, subcutaneous and/or internal swellings and nodules that consisted microscopically of sheets of atypical round cells and multinucleated giant cells. There was moderate anisokaryosis with rare mitoses. Nuclei ranged from oval to indented or C-shaped and some were bizarre, twisted or multilobulated. Many giant cells also had a bizarre morphology, with anisokaryosis within individual cells...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317278/species-traits-help-predict-small-mammal-responses-to-habitat-homogenization-by-an-invasive-grass
#14
Joseph P Ceradini, Anna D Chalfoun
Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species' responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species' traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269776/amyloid-related-imaging-abnormalities-in%C3%A2-an-aged-squirrel-monkey-with-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#15
Eric Heuer, Jessica Jacobs, Rebecca Du, Silun Wang, Orion P Keifer, Amarallys F Cintron, Jeromy Dooyema, Yuguang Meng, Xiaodong Zhang, Lary C Walker
Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) in magnetic resonance imaging scans have emerged as indicators of potentially serious side effects in clinical trials of therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. These anomalies include an edematous type (ARIA-E) that appears as hyperintense (bright) regions by T2-weighted MRI, and a type characterized by the deposition of hemosiderin (ARIA-H) that elicits a hypointense signal, especially in T2* susceptibility weighted images. ARIA in general has been linked to the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ)-type cerebral amyloid angiopathy, an accumulation of misfolded Aβ protein in the vascular wall that impairs the integrity of brain blood vessels...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257856/the-role-of-global-histone-post-translational-modifications-during-mammalian-hibernation
#16
Shannon N Tessier, Bryan E Luu, Jeffrey C Smith, Kenneth B Storey
Mammalian hibernators must cope with hypothermia, ischemia-reperfusion, and finite fuel reserves during days or weeks of continuous torpor. One means of lowering ATP demands during hibernation involves substantial transcriptional controls. The present research analyzed epigenetic regulatory factors as a means of achieving transcriptional control over cycles of torpor-arousal. This study analyzes differential regulation of select histone modifications (e.g. phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation), and identifies post-translational modifications on purified histones using mass spectrometry from thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus)...
February 28, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256552/the-beaver-s-phylogenetic-lineage-illuminated-by-retroposon-reads
#17
Liliya Doronina, Andreas Matzke, Gennady Churakov, Monika Stoll, Andreas Huge, Jürgen Schmitz
Solving problematic phylogenetic relationships often requires high quality genome data. However, for many organisms such data are still not available. Among rodents, the phylogenetic position of the beaver has always attracted special interest. The arrangement of the beaver's masseter (jaw-closer) muscle once suggested a strong affinity to some sciurid rodents (e.g., squirrels), placing them in the Sciuromorpha suborder. Modern molecular data, however, suggested a closer relationship of beaver to the representatives of the mouse-related clade, but significant data from virtually homoplasy-free markers (for example retroposon insertions) for the exact position of the beaver have not been available...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251799/diet-affects-arctic-ground-squirrel-gut-microbial-metatranscriptome-independent-of-community-structure
#18
Jasmine J Hatton, Timothy J Stevenson, C Loren Buck, Khrystyne N Duddleston
We examined the effect of diet on pre-hibernation fattening and the gut microbiota of captive arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We measured body composition across time and gut microbiota density, diversity, and function prior to and after five-weeks on control, high-fat, low-fat (18%, 40%, and 10% energy from fat, respectively), or restricted calorie (50% of control) diets. Squirrels fattened at the same rate and to the same degree on all diets. Additionally, we found no differences in gut microbiota diversity or short chain fatty acid production across time or with diet...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242467/the-ontogeny-of-kin-recognition-mechanisms-in-belding-s-ground-squirrels
#19
Jill M Mateo
Despite extensive research on the functions and mechanisms of kin recognition, little is known about developmental changes in the abilities mediating such recognition. Belding's ground squirrels, Urocitellus beldingi, use at least two mechanisms of kin recognition in nepotistic contexts: familiarity and phenotype matching. Because recognition templates develop from early associations with familiar kin (and/or with self), familiarity-based recognition should precede phenotype-matching recognition even though one template is thought to be used for both mechanisms...
February 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228923/rodent-species-distribution-and-hantavirus-seroprevalence-in-residential-and-forested-areas-of-sarawak-malaysia
#20
Nur Elfieyra Syazana Hamdan, Yee Ling Ng, Wei Bin Lee, Cheng Siang Tan, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Yee Ling Chong
Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking...
January 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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