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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818716/positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging-of-nicotine-induced-dopamine-release-in-squirrel-monkeys-using-18-f-fallypride
#1
Jennifer E Naylor, Takato Hiranita, Katelin S Matazel, Xuan Zhang, Merle G Paule, Amy K Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Nicotine, the principal psychoactive tobacco constituent, is thought to produce its reinforcing effects via actions within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of nicotine on DA D2/D3 receptor availability in the nonhuman primate brain with the use of the radioligand [(18)F]fallypride and positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: Ten adult male squirrel monkeys were used in the current study...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811882/seasonal-changes-in-leaf-chemistry-and-leaf-selection-of-the-japanese-giant-flying-squirrel-upon-two-tree-species
#2
Mutsumi Ito, Noriko Tamura, Fumio Hayashi
Tree leaves are important food sources for arboreal herbivores, such as primates, rodents, and marsupials. These animals do not eat leaves randomly in habitats with many tree species but rather choose based on the chemical components of leaves, such as sugars, fibers, proteins, and toxins. However, the effects of the microscale distribution of these chemicals within each leaf have not been examined for these animals. The giant flying squirrels Petaurista leucogenys are entirely arboreal, nocturnal herbivores, usually feeding on leaves and dropping leaf debris on the ground after partially consuming them...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807681/seasonal-changes-in-activity-patterns-of-japanese-flying-squirrel-pteromys-momonga
#3
Kei K Suzuki, Motokazu Ando
Seasonal changes of activity patterns are an important survival strategy for several species. Seasonal changes in the activity patterns of Japanese flying squirrels (Pteromys momonga) were studied at Daibosatsu Mountain on Honshu Island, Japan from 2 June to 20 November 2007 and 11 April to 14 November 2008, to discuss their survival strategy based on the change. Activity patterns were assessed using long-term sensor camera traps at 214 sites for 14 months of a 2-year period. The cameras were placed for a total of 7317 camera trap nights over which total of 90 photographs of this species were collected from 22 of the 214 sites...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792853/small-scale-die-offs-in-woodrats-support-long-term-maintenance-of-plague-in-the-u-s-southwest
#4
Michael Kosoy, Pamela Reynolds, Ying Bai, Kelly Sheff, Russell E Enscore, John Montenieri, Paul Ettestad, Kenneth Gage
Our longitudinal study of plague dynamics was conducted in north-central New Mexico to identify which species in the community were infected with plague, to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of the dynamics of plague epizootics, and to describe the dynamics of Yersinia pestis infection within individual hosts. A total of 3156 fleas collected from 535 small mammals of 8 species were tested for Y. pestis DNA. Nine fleas collected from six southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) and from one rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus) were positive for the pla gene of Y...
August 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780752/regulation-of-smad-mediated-microrna-transcriptional-response-in-ground-squirrels-during-hibernation
#5
Cheng-Wei Wu, Kenneth B Storey
Mammalian hibernation is a state of dormancy that is used by some animals to survive through the unfavorable conditions of winter, and is characterized by coordinated suppression of basal metabolism that is supported by global inhibition of energy/ATP-consuming processes. In this study, we examine the regulation of the anti-proliferatory TGF-β/Smad transcription factor signaling pathway in the liver tissue of the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is known to mediate cell cycle arrest through induction of cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitors, and more recently, has been shown to regulate a wide range of cellular processes via its control of microRNA biosynthesis...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753413/anophthalmia-in-a-wild-eastern-gray-squirrel-sciurus-carolinensis
#6
Jamie L Rothenburger, Elizabeth A Hartnett, Fiona M K James, Bruce H Grahn
We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.
July 28, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748739/multiplex-pcr-assay-discriminates-rabbit-rat-and-squirrel-meat-in-food-chain
#7
Mohammad Nasir Uddin Ahamad, Md Eaqub Ali, M A Motalib Hossain, Asing Asing, Sharmin Sultana, M H A Jahurul
Rabbit meat is receiving increasing attention because it contains more proteins and less fat. On the other hand, squirrel meat is served in aristocrat meals in certain countries and so it is sold at higher prices. The other side of the coin is rat meat that has family ties with rabbit and squirrel but possesses huge threats to public health because it is a potential career of several zoonotic organisms. Recently, rat meat was mislabeled and sold as lamb after chemical modification. Thus the chances of rabbit and squirrel meat substitution by rat meat cannot be ruled out...
July 27, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748393/the-validate29-mri-based-multi-channel-atlas-of-the-squirrel-monkey-brain
#8
Kurt G Schilling, Yurui Gao, Iwona Stepniewska, Tung-Lin Wu, Feng Wang, Bennett A Landman, John C Gore, Li Min Chen, Adam W Anderson
We describe the development of the first digital atlas of the normal squirrel monkey brain and present the resulting product, VALiDATe29. The VALiDATe29 atlas is based on multiple types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast acquired on 29 squirrel monkeys, and is created using unbiased, nonlinear registration techniques, resulting in a population-averaged stereotaxic coordinate system. The atlas consists of multiple anatomical templates (proton density, T1, and T2* weighted), diffusion MRI templates (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and ex vivo templates (fractional anisotropy and a structural MRI)...
July 26, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734067/range-instability-leads-to-cytonuclear-discordance-in-a-morphologically-cryptic-ground-squirrel-species-complex
#9
Mark A Phuong, Ke Bi, Craig Moritz
The processes responsible for cytonuclear discordance frequently remain unclear. Here, we employed an exon capture dataset and demographic methods to test hypotheses generated by species distribution models to examine how contrasting histories of range stability vs. fluctuation have caused cytonuclear concordance and discordance in ground squirrel lineages from the Otospermophilus beecheyi species complex. Previous studies in O. beecheyi revealed three morphologically cryptic and highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages (named the Northern, Central, and Southern lineages based on geography) with only the Northern lineage exhibiting concordant divergence for nuclear genes...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725380/from-the-ground-up-biotic-and-abiotic-features-that-set-the-course-from-genes-to-ecosystems
#10
Craig W Benkman, Sierra Jech, Matthew V Talluto
Spatial variation in cone serotiny in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) across Yellowstone National Park influences initial pine recruitment after stand-replacing fire with tremendous population, community, and ecosystem consequences. A previous study showed that much of the spatial variation in serotiny results from the balance of selection arising from high frequencies of fire favoring serotiny countered by opposing selection exerted by American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) as seed predators...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721785/creating-calm-amid-confrontation
#11
Bradley Squirrell
In my first year of training, I had a placement on a challenging behaviours unit for people with a learning disability. One night shift at about 11.30pm a service user, who I will call Charlotte, became physically and verbally aggressive towards staff members. This was due to an incident earlier in the day with another service user.
July 19, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712487/real-time-pi-backstepping-induction-machine-drive-with-efficiency-optimization
#12
Fethi Farhani, Chiheb Ben Regaya, Abderrahmen Zaafouri, Abdelkader Chaari
This paper describes a robust and efficient speed control of a three phase induction machine (IM) subjected to load disturbances. First, a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) PI-Backstepping controller is proposed for a robust and highly accurate tracking of the mechanical speed and rotor flux. Asymptotic stability of the control scheme is proven by Lyapunov Stability Theory. Second, an active online optimization algorithm is used to optimize the efficiency of the drive system. The efficiency improvement approach consists of adjusting the rotor flux with respect to the load torque in order to minimize total losses in the IM...
July 13, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709615/transcriptional-profiling-of-rickettsia-prowazekii-coding-and-non-coding-transcripts-during-in-vitro-host-pathogen-and-vector-pathogen-interactions
#13
Casey L C Schroeder, Hema P Narra, Abha Sahni, Kamil Khanipov, Jignesh Patel, Yuriy Fofanov, Sanjeev K Sahni
Natural pathogen transmission of Rickettsia prowazekii, the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, to humans is associated with arthropods, including human body lice, ticks, and ectoparasites of eastern flying squirrel. Recently, we have documented the presence of small RNAs in Rickettsia species and expression of R. prowazekii sRNAs during infection of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs), which represent the primary target cells during human infections. Bacterial noncoding transcripts are now well established as critical post-transcriptional regulators of virulence and adaptation mechanisms in varying host environments...
June 29, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698931/how-to-stay-perfect-the-role-of-memory-and-behavioural-traits-in-an-experienced-problem-and-a-similar-problem
#14
Pizza Ka Yee Chow, Stephen E G Lea, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, Théo Robert
When animals encounter a task they have solved previously, or the same problem appears in a different apparatus, how does memory, alongside behavioural traits such as persistence, selectivity and flexibility, enhance problem-solving efficiency? We examined this question by first presenting grey squirrels with a puzzle 22 months after their last experience of it (the recall task). Squirrels were then given the same problem presented in a physically different apparatus (the generalisation task) to test whether they would apply the previously learnt tactics to solve the same problem but in a different apparatus...
July 11, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698229/changes-in-the-phosphoproteome-of-brown-adipose-tissue-during-hibernation-in-the-ground-squirrel-ictidomys-tridecemlineatus
#15
Didier Vertommen, Gaetan Herinckx, Nusrat Hussain, Fred Opperdoes, Kenneth B Storey, Mark H Rider
Mammalian hibernation is characterized by metabolic rate depression and a strong decrease in core body temperature. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermogenic tissue that uses uncoupled mitochondrial respiration to generate heat instead of ATP, plays a major role in rewarming from deep torpor. In the present study we developed a label-free LC-MS strategy to investigate both differential protein expression and protein phosphorylation in BAT extracts from euthermic versus hibernating ground squirrels. In particular, we incorporated the filter-assisted sample preparation (FASP) protocol, which provides a more in-depth analysis compared with gel-based and other LC-MS proteomics approaches...
July 10, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685288/a-red-squirrel-associated-adenovirus-identified-by-a-combined-microarray-and-deep-sequencing-approach
#16
Björn Abendroth, Dirk Höper, Rainer G Ulrich, Gudrun Larres, Martin Beer
In 2013, an adult red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) was found dead showing, during necropsy, acute diffuse catarrhal enteritis. Using a virus screening pipeline based on a pan-viral DNA microarray with downstream next-generation sequencing a novel squirrel-associated virus was identified with mastadenovirus-typical sequence elements. Phylogenetic analysis of hexon protein amino acid sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to Equine adenovirus (AdV) 2, but a strong divergence to a squirrel AdV from Korea and other rodent AdVs...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679076/development-of-a-tree-shrew-specific-interferon-gamma-assay
#17
Xuemei Zhang, Jingwen Xu, Zhongxiang Wu, Wenbing Zhu, Shaozhong Dong
Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) are small squirrel-like mammals closely related to primates. Due to their susceptibility to several human viruses, tree shrews have been proposed as potential animal models for the study of human viral infections. However, there are no standardized assays currently available for the detection of tree shrew-specific interferon (IFN)-γ, a major cytokine secreted during the antiviral immune response. Herein, we developed a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of IFN-γ in tree shrew serum samples...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673463/occurrence-of-hemotropic-mycoplasmas-in-non-human-primates-alouatta-caraya-sapajus-nigritus-and-callithrix-jacchus-of-southern-brazil
#18
Michelle P Cubilla, Leonilda C Santos, Wanderlei de Moraes, Zalmir S Cubas, Christian M Leutenegger, Marko Estrada, Rafael F C Vieira, Maurilio J Soares, LeAnn L Lindsay, Jane E Sykes, Alexander W Biondo
Hemoplasmas, the erythrocyte-associated mycoplasmas, have been detected in several primates, causing mostly subclinical infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hemoplasma infection in captive and free-ranging monkeys from southern Brazil, as well as factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection. Blood samples from 40 non-human primates (NHP) were tested for hemoplasmas and coinfections. An overall of 10/40 (25.0%) NHP tested positive for hemoplasmas using PCR-based assays, including 9/14 (64...
June 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659969/complementary-network-based-approaches-for-exploring-genetic-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-two-vulnerable-endemic-ground-squirrels
#19
Victoria H Zero, Adi Barocas, Denim M Jochimsen, Agnès Pelletier, Xavier Giroux-Bougard, Daryl R Trumbo, Jessica A Castillo, Diane Evans Mack, Mark A Linnell, Rachel M Pigg, Jessica Hoisington-Lopez, Stephen F Spear, Melanie A Murphy, Lisette P Waits
The persistence of small populations is influenced by genetic structure and functional connectivity. We used two network-based approaches to understand the persistence of the northern Idaho ground squirrel (Urocitellus brunneus) and the southern Idaho ground squirrel (U. endemicus), two congeners of conservation concern. These graph theoretic approaches are conventionally applied to social or transportation networks, but here are used to study population persistence and connectivity. Population graph analyses revealed that local extinction rapidly reduced connectivity for the southern species, while connectivity for the northern species could be maintained following local extinction...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648995/when-the-ball-is-in-the-female-s-court-how-the-scramble-competition-mating-system-of-the-north-american-red-squirrel-has-shaped-male-physiology-and-testosterone-dynamics
#20
Rudy Boonstra, Adam Dušek, Jeffrey E Lane, Stan Boutin
Male reproductive success in most mammals is determined by their success in direct inter-male competition through aggression and conflict, resulting in female-defense mating systems being predominant. This is linked to male testosterone levels and its dynamics. However, in certain environments, a scramble-competition mating system has evolved, where female reproductive behavior takes precedence and male testosterone dynamics are unlikely to be related to inter-male competition. We studied the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a species with a well-established scramble-competition system...
June 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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