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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648995/when-the-ball-is-in-the-female-s-court-how-the-scramble-competition-mating-system-of-the-north-american-red-squirrel-has-shaped-male-physiology-and-testosterone-dynamics
#1
Rudy Boonstra, Adam Dušek, Jeffrey E Lane, Stan Boutin
Male reproductive success in most mammals is determined by their success in direct inter-male competition through aggression and conflict, resulting in female-defense mating systems being predominant. This is linked to male testosterone levels and its dynamics. However, in certain environments, a scramble-competition mating system has evolved, where female reproductive behavior takes precedence and male testosterone dynamics are unlikely to be related to inter-male competition. We studied the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a species with a well-established scramble-competition system...
June 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645188/temporal-variation-of-the-microbiome-is-dependent-on-body-region-in-a-wild-mammal-tamiasciurus-hudsonicus
#2
Colleen B Bobbie, Nadia C S Mykytczuk, Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde
Microbial communities are increasingly being recognized as important to host health in wild mammals, but how these communities are characterized can have important consequences on the results of these studies. Previous research has explored temporal variation in microbial communities in humans and lab mammals, but few have investigated how microbiomes fluctuate in wild populations and none have examined the temporal dynamics of these fluctuations in different body regions on a wild mammal. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 16S rRNA gene regions, we characterized the buccal and gut microbiomes of wild North American red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, to measure changes in these two microbiomes over short (< 2 weeks), medium (2-4 weeks) and long (> 1 month) term sampling periods...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636171/pulsed-food-resources-but-not-forest-cover-determines-lifetime-reproductive-success-in-a-forest-dwelling-rodent
#3
Katrine S Hoset, Alexandre Villers, Ralf Wistbacka, Vesa Selonen
1.The relative contributions of habitat and food availability on fitness may provide evidence for key habitat features needed to safeguard population persistence. However, defining habitat quality for a species can be a complex task, especially if knowledge on the relationship between individual performance and habitat quality is lacking. 2.Here, we determined the relative importance of availability of suitable forest habitat, body mass, and food from masting tree species on female lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of Siberian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636097/finding-new-homes-multilevel-selection-on-birth-timing-and-growth-in-north-american-red-squirrels
#4
James Marvel-Coen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626636/an-examination-of-endoparasites-and-fecal-testosterone-levels-in-flying-squirrels-glaucomys-spp-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-ultra-violet-hplc-uv
#5
Sarah N Waksmonski, Justin M Huffman, Carolyn G Mahan, Michael A Steele
The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys): one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus) without ill effects (G. volans) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G. volans) with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV), and compared levels to endoparasites detected in individual squirrels...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623226/entraining-to-the-polar-day-circadian-rhythms-in-arctic-ground-squirrels
#6
Cory T Williams, Brian M Barnes, Lily Yan, C Loren Buck
Circadian systems are principally entrained to 24h light/dark cycles, but this cue is seasonally absent in polar environments. Although some resident polar vertebrates have weak circadian clocks and are seasonally arrhythmic, the arctic ground squirrel (AGS) maintains daily rhythms of physiology and behavior throughout the summer, which includes six weeks of constant daylight. Here, we show that persistent daily rhythms in AGS are maintained through a circadian system that readily entrains to the polar day yet remains insensitive to entrainment by rapid light-dark transitions, which AGS generate naturally due to their semi-fossorial behavior...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606709/a-review-and-comparison-of-fault-detection-and-diagnosis-methods-for-squirrel-cage-induction-motors-state-of-the-art
#7
Yiqi Liu, Ali M Bazzi
Preventing induction motors (IMs) from failure and shutdown is important to maintain functionality of many critical loads in industry and commerce. This paper provides a comprehensive review of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods targeting all the four major types of faults in IMs. Popular FDD methods published up to 2010 are briefly introduced, while the focus of the review is laid on the state-of-the-art FDD techniques after 2010, i.e. in 2011-2015 and some in 2016. Different FDD methods are introduced and classified into four categories depending on their application domains, instead of on fault types like in many other reviews, to better reveal hidden connections and similarities of different FDD methods...
June 9, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603912/regulation-of-bone-mineral-density-in-the-grey-squirrel-sciurus-carolinensis-bioavailability-of-calcium-oxalate-and-implications-for-bark-stripping
#8
C P Nichols, N G Gregory, N Goode, R M A Gill, J A Drewe
The damage caused when grey squirrels strip the outer bark off trees and ingest the underlying phloem can result in reduced timber quality or tree death. This is extremely costly to the UK forestry industry and can alter woodland composition, hampering conservation efforts. The calcium hypothesis proposes that grey squirrels ingest phloem to ameliorate a seasonal calcium deficiency. Calcium in the phloem predominantly takes the form of calcium oxalate (CaOx), however not all mammals can utilise CaOx as a source of calcium...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593419/multiple-detection-of-zoonotic-variegated-squirrel-bornavirus-1-rna-in-different-squirrel-species-suggests-a-possible-unknown-origin-for-the-virus
#9
Kore Schlottau, Bernd Hoffmann, Timo Homeier-Bachmann, Christine Fast, Rainer G Ulrich, Martin Beer, Donata Hoffmann
The recently discovered variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1) caused the death of three squirrel breeders in Germany. Subsequent first screening of squirrels with in vivo collected swab samples and a VSBV-1-specific RT-qPCR revealed not only variegated squirrel infections (Sciurus variegatoides), but also Prevost's squirrels (Callosciurus prevostii) as positive for VSBV-1 genome. In this study, 328 squirrels were tested using the established RT-qPCR assays. In 16 individual animals VSBV-1 RNA could be detected; 15 individuals were from small breedings and zoological gardens in Germany, with the remaining individual being from a zoological garden in Croatia...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585435/creating-animal-models-why-not-use-the-chinese-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-chinensis
#10
Yong-Gang Yao
The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a squirrel-like and rat-sized mammal, has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia, South and Southwest China and has many unique characteristics that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal. There have been many studies using the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) aimed at increasing our understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and for the modeling of human diseases and therapeutic responses. The recent release of a publicly available annotated genome sequence of the Chinese tree shrew and its genome database (www...
May 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584699/difference-on-cone-size-preferences-between-two-coniferous-species-by-great-spotted-woodpecker-dendrocopos-major
#11
Łukasz Dylewski, Reuven Yosef, Łukasz Myczko
The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577456/dna-decontamination-of-fingerprint-brushes
#12
Bianca Szkuta, Roland A H van Oorschot, Kaye N Ballantyne
Genetic profiling of DNA collected from fingerprints that have been exposed to various enhancement techniques is routine in many forensic laboratories. As a result of direct contact with fingermark residues during treatment, there is concern around the DNA contamination risk of dusting fingermarks with fingerprint brushes. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for cross-contamination between evidentiary items through various mechanisms, highlighting the risk of using the same fingerprint brush to powder multiple surfaces within and between crime-scenes...
May 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573156/study-of-single-and-multidigit-activation-in-monkey-somatosensory-cortex-using-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging
#13
Anna Wang Roe, Jeremy E Winberry, Robert M Friedman
Toward the goal of understanding cutaneous sensory integration during manual behavior, we used voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to study the organization and dynamics of anesthetized monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in response to single and multidigit tactile stimulation. We find that in both macaque and squirrel monkey SI, VSD reveals clear focal digit topography consistent with previous electrophysiological and intrinsic signal imaging studies. VSD also reveals interactions in SI in response to multidigit stimulation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566305/tissue-specific-seasonal-changes-in-mitochondrial-function-of-a-mammalian-hibernator
#14
Ashley B Heim, Dillon J Chung, Gregory L Florant, Adam J Chicco
Mammalian hibernators, such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis; GMGS), cease to feed while reducing metabolic rate and body temperature during winter months, surviving exclusively on endogenous fuels stored prior to hibernation. We hypothesized that mitochondria, the cellular sites of oxidative metabolism, undergo tissue-specific seasonal adjustments in carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization to facilitate or compliment this remarkable phenotype. To address this, we performed high-resolution respirometry of mitochondria isolated from GMGS liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) sampled during summer (active), fall (prehibernation), and winter (hibernation) seasons using multi-substrate titration protocols...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552359/vocal-learning-via-social-reinforcement-by-infant-marmoset-monkeys
#15
Daniel Y Takahashi, Diana A Liao, Asif A Ghazanfar
For over half a century now, primate vocalizations have been thought to undergo little or no experience-dependent acoustic changes during development [1]. If any changes are apparent, then they are routinely (and quite reasonably) attributed to the passive consequences of growth. Indeed, previous experiments on squirrel monkeys and macaque monkeys showed that social isolation [2, 3], deafness [2], cross-fostering [4] and parental absence [5] have little or no effect on vocal development. Here, we explicitly test in marmoset monkeys-a very vocal and cooperatively breeding species [6]-whether the transformation of immature into mature contact calls by infants is influenced by contingent parental vocal feedback...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543051/multilevel-and-sex-specific-selection-on-competitive-traits-in-north-american-red-squirrels
#16
David N Fisher, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam
Individuals often interact more closely with some members of the population (e.g. offspring, siblings or group members) than they do with other individuals. This structuring of interactions can lead to multilevel natural selection, where traits expressed at the group-level influence fitness alongside individual-level traits. Such multilevel selection can alter evolutionary trajectories, yet is rarely quantified in the wild, especially for species that do not interact in clearly demarcated groups. We quantified multilevel natural selection on two traits, postnatal growth rate and birth date, in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)...
May 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542925/a-new-insight-into-the-ability-to-resist-ischemic-brain-injury-does-hibernation-matter-an-editorial-comment-for-arctic-ground-squirrel-hippocampus-tolerates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-independent-of-hibernation-season-even-when-not-hibernating-and-after-atp
#17
EDITORIAL
Thomas I Nathaniel, Bianca Stewart, Jessica Williams, Michael Hood, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel
Read the commented article 'Arctic ground squirrel hippocampus tolerates oxygen glucose deprivation independent of hibernation season even when not hibernating and after ATP depletion, acidosis and glutamate efflux' on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13996.
July 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542832/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-adaptive-changes-of-hibernating-retinas
#18
Yizhao Luan, Jingxing Ou, Vincent P Kunze, Fengyu Qiao, Yan Wang, Lai Wei, Wei Li, Zhi Xie
Hibernation is a seasonally adaptive strategy that allows hibernators to live through extremely cold conditions. Despite the profound reduction of blood flow to the retinas, hibernation causes no lasting retinal injury. Instead, hibernators show an increased tolerance to ischemic insults during the hibernation period. To understand the molecular changes of the retinas in response to hibernation, we applied an integrative transcriptome and metabolome analysis to explore changes in gene expression and metabolites of 13-lined ground squirrel retinas during hibernation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534450/population-estimate-and-morphometry-of-ovarian-preantral-follicles-from-three-recently-recognized-squirrel-monkey-species-a-comparative-study
#19
Gerson P Lopes, Regiane R Santos, Débora V Almeida, Adriel B Brito, Helder L Queiroz, Sheyla F S Domingues
We describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of preantral ovarian follicles from three recently recognized Saimiri species: S. macrodon, S. cassiquiarensis and S. vanzolinii; the last one a threatened species. Ovaries from four adult monkeys were evaluated: one pair from a pregnant S. macrodon, two ovarian pairs from S. cassiquiarensis females (one of them pregnant), and one left ovary from a senile S. vanzolinii, applying classical histology. Follicular preantral population was quantified and morphology and morphometry of primordial, primary and secondary follicles were evaluated...
May 23, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531217/store-operated-ca2-entry-supports-contractile-function-in-hearts-of-hibernators
#20
Olga V Nakipova, Alexey S Averin, Edward V Evdokimovskii, Oleg Yu Pimenov, Leonid Kosarski, Dmitriy Ignat'ev, Andrey Anufriev, Yuri M Kokoz, Santiago Reyes, Andre Terzic, Alexey E Alekseev
Hibernators have a distinctive ability to adapt to seasonal changes of body temperature in a range between 37°C and near freezing, exhibiting, among other features, a unique reversibility of cardiac contractility. The adaptation of myocardial contractility in hibernation state relies on alterations of excitation contraction coupling, which becomes less-dependent from extracellular Ca2+ entry and is predominantly controlled by Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, replenished by the Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)...
2017: PloS One
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