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Kaitlyn N Lewis, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Rochelle Buffenstein
Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity...
April 20, 2018: GeroScience
Rahul Sharma, Pushpendra Singh, Maria Pena, Ramesh Subramanian, Vladmir Chouljenko, Joohyun Kim, Nayong Kim, John Caskey, Marie A Baudena, Linda B Adams, Richard W Truman
Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) has occurred throughout human history, and persists today at a low prevalence in most populations. Caused by Mycobacterium leprae, the infection primarily involves the skin, mucosa and peripheral nerves. The susceptible host range for Mycobacterium leprae is quite narrow. Besides humans, nine banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) are the only other natural hosts for M. leprae, but only armadillos recapitulate the disease as seen in humans. Armadillos across the Southern United States harbor a single predominant genotypic strain (SNP Type-3I) of M...
April 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Chi-Ting Yeh, Hsin-Lin Chiu
A novel eddy-current Magnetic Clutch (MC) unit with its torque-adjustable mechanism is proposed by this research. As to mechanical structure, the MC unit is mainly constituted by a squirrel-cage inner rotor and a magnet-embedded outer rotor. The transmitted output torque can be adjusted by either the Overlapped Length (OL) or the relative angular velocity between outer rotor and inner rotor. Firstly, the mathematical model of the MC system is developed. Secondly, the features and characterization of the MC unit are explored by intensive experiments under various overlapped length and relative rotational speed between inner rotor and outer rotor...
April 3, 2018: ISA Transactions
Andrei Seluanov, Vadim N Gladyshev, Jan Vijg, Vera Gorbunova
Cancer researchers have traditionally used the mouse and the rat as staple model organisms. These animals are very short-lived, reproduce rapidly and are highly prone to cancer. They have been very useful for modelling some human cancer types and testing experimental treatments; however, these cancer-prone species offer little for understanding the mechanisms of cancer resistance. Recent technological advances have expanded bestiary research to non-standard model organisms that possess unique traits of very high value to humans, such as cancer resistance and longevity...
April 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Chia-Chi Liao, Jamie L Reed, Hui-Xin Qi, Eva K Sawyer, Jon H Kaas
Months after the occurrence of spinal cord dorsal column lesions (DCLs) at the cervical level, neural responses in the hand representation of somatosensory area 3b hand cortex recover, along with hand use. To examine whether the second-order spinal cord pathway contributes to this functional recovery, we injected cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) into the hand representation in the cuneate nucleus (Cu) to label the spinal cord neurons, and related results to cortical reactivation in four squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri boliviensis ) at least 7 months after DCL...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tytti Turkia, Erkki Korpimäki, Alexandre Villers, Vesa Selonen
Habitat choice often entails trade-offs between food availability and predation risk. Understanding the distribution of individuals in space thus requires that both habitat characteristics and predation risk are considered simultaneously. Here, we studied the nest box use of two arboreal squirrels who share preferred habitat with their main predators. Nocturnal Ural owls (Strix uralensis) decreased occurrence of night-active flying squirrels (Pteromys volans) and diurnal goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) that of day-active red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris)...
2018: PloS One
Liany Regina B Oliveira-Silva, Anielise C Campêlo, Ingrid Mirella S Lima, Ana Caroline L Araújo, Bruna M Bezerra, João Pedro Souza-Alves
The interaction between native fleshy-fruit plants and introduced fruit consumers contributes to the dynamics of highly fragmented environments. Such interactions can occur through pollination and seed dispersal. Here, we investigated the potential of seed dispersing by a non-native primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), in an urban Atlantic forest fragment in north-eastern Brazil. Fleshy fruits from non-native plants were preferentially exploited by the squirrel monkeys. We measured 147 seeds (width and length) from 20 of 106 faecal samples...
March 26, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Jingxing Ou, John M Ball, Yizhao Luan, Tantai Zhao, Kiyoharu J Miyagishima, Yufeng Xu, Huizhi Zhou, Jinguo Chen, Dana K Merriman, Zhi Xie, Barbara S Mallon, Wei Li
Hibernating mammals survive hypothermia (<10°C) without injury, a remarkable feat of cellular preservation that bears significance for potential medical applications. However, mechanisms imparting cold resistance, such as cytoskeleton stability, remain elusive. Using the first iPSC line from a hibernating mammal (13-lined ground squirrel), we uncovered cellular pathways critical for cold tolerance. Comparison between human and ground squirrel iPSC-derived neurons revealed differential mitochondrial and protein quality control responses to cold...
March 20, 2018: Cell
Yu Wang, Ziyi Wang, Wenyang Yu, Xia Sheng, Haolin Zhang, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
The reproductive tissues including the uterus undergo dramatic changes in seasonal breeders from the breeding to non-breeding seasons. Classically, sex steroid hormones play important roles in the uterine morphology and functions. To clarify the relationship between sex steroid hormones and seasonal changes in the uterine morphology and functions, the wild Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) were used as seasonal breeder model. And the immunolocalizations and expression levels of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) were investigated in the uteri of the wild Daurian ground squirrels in the breeding (April) and the non-breeding (June) seasons via immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Angela R Freeman, James F Hare, W Gary Anderson, Heather K Caldwell
In nearly every vertebrate species examined thus far arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its homologues modulate behavior; thus, providing rich systems for comparative research. In rodents, AVP is best known for its modulation of social behavior; however, to date, research on AVPs effects on behavior have been limited to laboratory models and a few experiments using large outdoor enclosures. To extend our understanding of AVPs role in modulating social behavior and communication in an ecologically relevant context, we examined the effects of AVP on behavior of free-living Richardson's ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonii)...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Bryan S McLean, Batsaikhan Nyamsuren, Andrey Tchabovsky, Joseph A Cook
Impacts of Quaternary environmental changes on mammal faunas of central Asia remain poorly understood due to a lack of geographically comprehensive phylogeographic sampling for most species. To help address this knowledge gap, we conducted the most extensive molecular analysis to date of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus Pallas 1778) in Mongolia, a country that comprises the southern core of this species' range. Drawing on material from recent collaborative field expeditions, we genotyped 128 individuals at 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I; 1 797 bp total)...
March 8, 2018: Zoological Research
Jessica A Haines, David W Coltman, Ben Dantzer, Jamieson C Gorrell, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam, Stan Boutin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Ecology
Fernanda Pozzan Paim, Kim Valenta, Colin A Chapman, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Helder Lima de Queiroz
Integration between ecology and biogeography provides insights into how niche specialization affects the geographical distribution of species. Given that rivers are not effective barriers to dispersal in three parapatric species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri vanzolinii, S. cassiquiarensis and S. macrodon) inhabiting floodplain forests of Central Amazonia, we tested whether forest structure and tree diversity may explain species differences in niche specialization and spatial segregation. We sampled 6617 trees of 326 species in three habitats (high várzea, low várzea and chavascal) used by three Saimiri species, and estimated tree species richness in each of them...
March 10, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Nicolas Veyres, Adjia Hamadjida, Philippe Huot
The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned primate is the gold-standard animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been used to assess the effectiveness of experimental drugs on dyskinesia, parkinsonism and psychosis. Three species have been used in the majority of studies, the macaque, marmoset and squirrel monkey, the latter much less so than the first 2 species. However, the predictive rate of each species at forecasting clinical efficacy, or lack thereof, is poorly documented...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Jeffrey Lane, Andrew G McAdam, Eryn McFarlane, Cory Williams, Murray M Humphries, David Coltman, Jamieson Gorrell, Stan Boutin
Phenological shifts are the most widely reported ecological responses to climate change, but the requirements to distinguish their causes (i.e., phenotypic plasticity versus microevolution) are rarely met. To do so, we analyzed almost two decades of parturition data from a wild population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although an observed advance in parturition date during the first decade provided putative support for climate change-driven microevolution, a closer look revealed a more complex pattern...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Andrew J Gall, June E Olds, Arno Wünschmann, Laura E Selmic, James Rasmussen, Anne D Lewis
Reproductive lesions have been described in various nonhuman primate species, including rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis), baboons ( Papio spp.), squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus), and chimpanzees ( Pan spp.); however, there are few publications describing reproductive disease and pathology in Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata). A retrospective evaluation of postmortem reports for two captive M. fuscata populations housed within zoos from 1982 through 2015 was completed, comparing reproductive diseases diagnosed by gross pathology and histopathology...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Tatsuki Shimamoto, Kei K Suzuki, Mizuho Hamada, Ryuji Furukawa, Motozumi Matsui, Hisashi Yanagawa
The Siberian flying squirrel ( Pteromys volans) produces up to two litters a year. To deliver second litters in breeding season, P. volans may have a postpartum estrus similarly to that of a variety of small mammals. If this were the case, females would have periods of elevated progesterone levels because of the formation of corpora lutea (CL) after postpartum ovulation. To test this hypothesis, fecal progesterone metabolite dynamics was investigated during lactation in this species using an enzyme immunoassay...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Emma Sheehy, Chris Sutherland, Catherine O'Reilly, Xavier Lambin
Shared enemies may instigate or modify competitive interactions between species. The dis-equilibrium caused by non-native species introductions has revealed that the outcome of such indirect interactions can often be dramatic. However, studies of enemy-mediated competition mostly consider the impact of a single enemy, despite species being embedded in complex networks of interactions. Here, we demonstrate that native red and invasive grey squirrels in Britain, two terrestrial species linked by resource and disease-mediated apparent competition, are also now linked by a second enemy-mediated relationship involving a shared native predator recovering from historical persecution, the European pine marten...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Elliott Ferris, Lisa M Abegglen, Joshua D Schiffman, Christopher Gregg
The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs) in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
J Hunter Reed, David N Bonter
Although the effects of bird feeding on avian species have been extensively examined, few studies evaluate the indirect effects of bird feeding on non-target taxa. Bird seed could provide direct nourishment to several mammalian species (e.g., Lagomorpha, Rodentia, and Cetartiodactyla), potentially altering their distribution and behavior with possible unintended consequences for some avian populations, particularly those not directly benefiting from the resource. To examine how bird feeders may influence the presence and behavior of mammals, we used camera traps to quantify differences in the distribution and richness of mammal species frequenting sites with bird feeders and control sites (lacking feeders) in Ithaca, New York, USA...
March 6, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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