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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927787/functional-characterization-and-spatial-clustering-of-visual-cortical-neurons-in-the-predatory-grasshopper-mouse-onychomys-arenicola
#1
Benjamin Scholl, Jagruti J Pattadkal, Ashley Rowe, Nicholas J Priebe
Mammalian neocortical circuits are functionally organized such that the selectivity of individual neurons systematically shifts across the cortical surface, forming a continuous map. Maps of the sensory space exist in cortex, such as retinotopic maps in the visual system or tonotopic maps in the auditory system, but other functional response properties may also be similarly organized. For example, many carnivores and primates possess a map for orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex (V1), whereas mice, rabbits, and the gray squirrel lack orientation maps...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889916/precipitation-alters-interactions-in-a-grassland-ecological-community
#2
Nicolas Deguines, Justin S Brashares, Laura R Prugh
1.Climate change is transforming precipitation regimes worldwide. Changes in precipitation regimes are known to have powerful effects on plant productivity, but the consequences of these shifts for the dynamics of ecological communities are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders our ability to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. 2.Precipitation may affect fauna through direct effects on physiology, behavior or demography, through plant-mediated indirect effects, or by modifying interactions among species...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889562/systematic-evaluation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-and-immunoassays-for-the-detection-of-interferon-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-2-in-old-and-new-world-non-human-primates
#3
Ankie Höglind, Irene Areström, Cecilia Ehrnfelt, Khosro Masjedi, Bartek Zuber, Luis Giavedoni, Niklas Ahlborg
Non-human primates (NHP) provide important animal models for studies on immune responses to infections and vaccines. When assessing cellular immunity in NHP, cytokines are almost exclusively analyzed utilizing cross-reactive anti-human antibodies. The functionality of antibodies has to be empirically established for each assay/application as well as NHP species. A rational approach was employed to identify monoclonal antibodies (mAb) cross-reactive with many NHP species. Panels of new and established mAbs against human Interferon (IFN)-γ and Interleukin (IL)-2 were assessed for reactivity with eukaryotically expressed recombinant IFN-γ and IL-2, respectively, from Old (rhesus, cynomolgus and pigtail macaques, African green monkey, sooty mangabey and baboon) and New World NHP (Ma's night monkey, squirrel monkey and common marmoset)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876996/new-data-about-the-helminth-fauna-of-the-red-squirrel-sciurus-vulgaris-linnaeus-1758-in-belorussian-polesie
#4
V V Shimalov
The result of helminthological examination of 5 red squirrels in Belorussian Polesie during 2003-2012 is presented. Two species of helminths were found: Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803) larvae and Syphacia thompsoni Price, 1928. The red squirrel for the first time established as host of cestode T. martis. The nematode S. thompsoni registered as Syphacia sp. in this region between 1985 and 2000.
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859602/integrating-archaeology-and-ancient-dna-to-address-invasive-species-colonization-in-the-gulf-of-alaska
#5
Catherine West, Courtney A Hofman, Steve Ebbert, John Martin, Sabrina Shirazi, Samantha Dunning, Jesus E Maldonado
The intentional and unintentional movement of plants and animals by humans has transformed ecosystems and landscapes globally. Assessing when and how a species was introduced are central to managing these transformed landscapes, particularly in island environments. In the Gulf of Alaska, there is considerable interest in the history of mammal introductions and rehabilitating Gulf of Alaska island environments by eradicating those mammals classified as invasive species. The Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) is of concern because of its effect on vegetation and seabirds on Gulf of Alaska islands...
November 17, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853604/hibernation-in-a-primate-does-sleep-occur
#6
Marina B Blanco, Kathrin H Dausmann, Sheena L Faherty, Peter Klopfer, Andrew D Krystal, Robert Schopler, Anne D Yoder
During hibernation, critical physiological processes are downregulated and thermogenically induced arousals are presumably needed periodically to fulfil those physiological demands. Among the processes incompatible with a hypome tabolic state is sleep. However, one hibernating primate, the dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius, experiences rapid eye movement (REM)-like states during hibernation, whenever passively reaching temperatures above 30°C, as occurs when it hibernates in poorly insulated tree hollows under tropical conditions...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853198/infection-red-squirrels-get-leprosy
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846605/red-squirrels-in-the-british-isles-are-infected-with-leprosy-bacilli
#8
Charlotte Avanzi, Jorge Del-Pozo, Andrej Benjak, Karen Stevenson, Victor R Simpson, Philippe Busso, Joyce McLuckie, Chloé Loiseau, Colin Lawton, Janne Schoening, Darren J Shaw, Jérémie Piton, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Jesùs S Velarde-Felix, Fergal McDermott, Stephen V Gordon, Stewart T Cole, Anna L Meredith
Leprosy, caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae or the recently discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis, was once endemic in humans in the British Isles. Red squirrels in Great Britain (Sciurus vulgaris) have increasingly been observed with leprosy-like lesions on the head and limbs. Using genomics, histopathology, and serology, we found M. lepromatosis in squirrels from England, Ireland, and Scotland, and M. leprae in squirrels from Brownsea Island, England. Infection was detected in overtly diseased and seemingly healthy animals...
November 11, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846589/leprosy-in-red-squirrels
#9
Timothy P Stinear, Roland Brosch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842537/siberian-flying-squirrels-do-not-anticipate-future-resource-abundance
#10
Vesa Selonen, Ralf Wistbacka
BACKGROUND: One way to cope with irregularly occurring resources is to adjust reproduction according to the anticipated future resource availability. In support of this hypothesis, few rodent species have been observed to produce, after the first litter born in spring, summer litters in anticipation of autumn's seed mast. This kind of behaviour could eliminate or decrease the lag in population density normally present in consumer dynamics. We focus on possible anticipation of future food availability in Siberian flying squirrels, Pteromys volans...
November 14, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834006/centromere-repositioning-explains-fundamental-number-variability-in-the-new-world-monkey-genus-saimiri
#11
Giorgia Chiatante, Oronzo Capozzi, Marta Svartman, Polina Perelman, Lucy Centrone, Svetlana S Romanenko, Takafumi Ishida, Mirela Valeri, Melody E Roelke-Parker, Roscoe Stanyon
Cytogenetics has historically played a key role in research on squirrel monkey (genus Saimiri) evolutionary biology. Squirrel monkeys have a diploid number of 2n = 44, but vary in fundamental number (FN). Apparently, differences in FN have phylogenetic implications and are correlated with geographic regions. A number of hypothetical mechanisms were proposed to explain difference in FN: translocations, heterochromatin, or, most commonly, pericentric inversions. Recently, an additional mechanism, centromere repositioning, was discovered, which can alter chromosome morphology and FN...
November 10, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833457/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-myofibrillar-contents-and-relevant-synthesis-and-proteolytic-proteins-in-soleus-muscle-of-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-dauricus
#12
Hui Chang, Shan-Feng Jiang, Kai Dang, Hui-Ping Wang, Shen-Hui Xu, Yun-Fang Gao
BACKGROUND: Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) deviate from significant increase of protein catabolism and loss of myofibrillar contents during long period of hibernation inactivity. METHODS: Here we use iTRAQ based quantitative analysis to examine proteomic changes in the soleus of squirrels in pre-hibernation, hibernation and post-hibernation states. The total proteolysis rate of soleus was measured by the release of the essential amino acid tyrosine from isolated muscles...
2016: Proteome Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832805/host-associations-and-genomic-diversity-of-borrelia-hermsii-in-an-endemic-focus-of-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-western-north-america
#13
Tammi L Johnson, Robert J Fischer, Sandra J Raffel, Tom G Schwan
BACKGROUND: An unrecognized focus of tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii was identified in 2002 when five people became infected on Wild Horse Island in Flathead Lake, Montana. The terrestrial small mammal community on the island is composed primarily of pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), neither of which was known as a natural host for the spirochete. Thus a 3-year study was performed to identify small mammals as hosts for B...
November 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830622/value-of-networking
#14
Roisin Devlin
When you go to a conference you look forward to finding nuggets of brilliance to squirrel away to your workplace. Highlighter pen poised, you scan conference programmes for presentations to enhance your practice. But conference programmes cannot indicate what you gain by talking to people.
November 10, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817021/fatty-acids-and-cholesterol-in-the-liver-cell-nuclei-of-hibernating-yakutian-ground-squirrels
#15
I K Kolomiytseva, A A Lakhina, L N Markevich, E E Fesenko
The content of neutral lipids in tissue homogenates and liver cell nuclei of hibernating Yakutian ground squirrels was studied. In homogenates, hibernation increases the content of fatty acids and reduces the content of glycerides and cholesterol. When studying the liver cell nuclei of torpid winter ground squirrels, we detected a twofold increase in the content of fatty acids, cholesterol, and monoglycerides as compared to the "summer" ground squirrels. In the active "winter" ground squirrels, as compared to the torpid winter ones, the content of cholesterol did not change, whereas the content of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and diglycerides decreased but remained higher than in the "summer" ground squirrels...
September 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807266/evidence-of-natal-habitat-preference-induction-within-one-habitat-type
#16
Melissa J Merrick, John L Koprowski
Natal habitat preference induction (NHPI) is a mechanism for habitat selection by individuals during natal dispersal. NHPI occurs in wild animal populations, and evidence suggests it may be a common, although little studied, mechanism for post-dispersal habitat selection. Most tests of NHPI examine the influence of distinct, contrasting natal habitat types on post-dispersal habitat selection. We test the hypothesis that NHPI can occur within a single habitat type, an important consideration for habitat specialists...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801483/molecular-data-highlight-hybridization-in-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-cebidae
#17
Jeferson Carneiro, Luis Fernando da Silva Rodrigues-Filho, Horacio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio
Hybridization has been reported increasingly frequently in recent years, fueling the debate on its role in the evolutionary history of species. Some studies have shown that hybridization is very common in captive New World primates, and hybrid offspring have phenotypes and physiological responses distinct from those of the "pure" parents, due to gene introgression. Here we used the TA15 Alu insertion to investigate hybridization in the genus Saimiri. Our results indicate the hybridization of Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis with S...
October 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732611/seasonal-and-diel-activity-patterns-of-eight-sympatric-mammals-in-northern-japan-revealed-by-an-intensive-camera-trap-survey
#18
Takashi Ikeda, Kenta Uchida, Yukiko Matsuura, Hiroshi Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Yoshida, Koichi Kaji, Itsuro Koizumi
The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight), and cathemeral (active throughout the day). These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705539/distribution-and-diversity-of-bartonella-washoensis-strains-in-ground-squirrels-from-california-and-their-potential-link-to-human-cases
#19
Lynn M Osikowicz, Sarah A Billeter, Maria Fernanda Rizzo, Michael P Rood, Ashley N Freeman, Joseph E Burns, Renjie Hu, Phalasy Juieng, Vladimir Loparev, Michael Kosoy
We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella washoensis in California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) and their fleas from parks and campgrounds located in seven counties of California. Ninety-seven of 140 (69.3%) ground squirrels were culture positive and the infection prevalence by location ranged from 25% to 100%. In fleas, 60 of 194 (30.9%) Oropsylla montana were found to harbor Bartonella spp. when screened using citrate synthase (gltA) specific primers, whereas Bartonella DNA was not found in two other flea species, Hoplopsyllus anomalus (n = 86) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (n = 6)...
November 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703706/the-secret-life-of-ground-squirrels-accelerometry-reveals-sex-dependent-plasticity-in-above-ground-activity
#20
Cory T Williams, Kathryn Wilsterman, Victor Zhang, Jeanette Moore, Brian M Barnes, C Loren Buck
The sexes differ in how and when they allocate energy towards reproduction, but how this influences phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns is unclear. Here, we use collar-mounted light loggers and triaxial accelerometers to examine factors that affect time spent above ground and overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), an index of activity-specific energy expenditure, across the active season of free-living, semi-fossorial arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We found high day-to-day variability in time spent above ground and ODBA with most of the variance explained by environmental conditions known to affect thermal exchange...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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