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Neuroendocrine cancer

Chad J Creighton, Fengju Chen, Yiqun Zhang, Don L Gibbons, Benjamin Deneen, David Kwiatkowski, Michael Ittmann
PURPOSE: The Cancer Genome Atlas data resources represent an opportunity to explore commonalities across cancer types involving multiple molecular levels, but tumor lineage and histology can represent a barrier in moving beyond differences related to cancer type. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: On the basis of gene expression data, we classified 10224 cancers, representing 32 major types, into ten molecular-based "classes."  Molecular patterns representing tissue or histologic dominant effects were first removed computationally, with the resulting classes representing emergent themes across tumor lineages...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Shyam Kishore Shrivastava, Shirley Lewis, Supriya Chopra Sastri, G Lavanya, Umesh Mahantshetty, Reena Engineer
Carcinoma cervix is a common cancer among Indian women. Evidence based management is essential for best practice in treatment of carcinoma cervix for its effective control. The current imaging system like CT, MRI and PET CT scans have contributed in identifying the patients for optimal treatment and delivering treatment accurately. For stages IB2 to IV, concurrent chemoradiation is advocated with improvement in overall survival proven with randomized trials. Brachytherapy is an integral part in the radiation treatment...
January 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Russell J Brooke, Cindy Im, Carmen L Wilson, Matthew J Krasin, Qi Liu, Zhenghong Li, Yadav Sapkota, WonJong Moon, Lindsay M Morton, Gang Wu, Zhaoming Wang, Wenan Chen, Rebecca M Howell, Gregory T Armstrong, Smita Bhatia, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Kristy Seidel, Stephen J Chanock, Jinghui Zhang, Daniel M Green, Charles A Sklar, Melissa M Hudson, Leslie L Robison, Wassim Chemaitilly, Yutaka Yasui
Background: Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of therapy-related premature menopause (PM), with a cumulative incidence of 8.0%, but the contribution of genetic factors is unknown. Methods: Genome-wide association analyses were conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with clinically diagnosed PM (menopause < 40 years) among 799 female survivors of childhood cancer participating in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Younghun Jung, Frank C Cackowski, Kenji Yumoto, Ann Decker, Jingcheng Wang, Jinkoo Kim, Eunsohl Lee, Yugang Wang, Jae-Seung Chung, Amy M Gursky, Paul H Krebsbach, Kenneth J Pienta, Todd M Morgan, Russell S Taichman
There is evidence that cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and neuroendocrine (NE) behavior play critical roles in the pathogenesis and clinical course of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (m-CRPC). However, there is limiting mechanistic understanding of how CSC and NE phenotypes impact the development of m-CRPC, which could improve opportunities to identify useful biomarkers and therapeutics. In this study, we explored the role of the intracellular chemokine CXCL12γ in CSC induction and NE differentiation and its impact on m-CRPC...
February 5, 2018: Cancer Research
Maridi Aerts, Hendrik Reynaert
Gastrinomas are functionally active pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) secreting gastrin and are associated with local or regional metastases in 60% of the cases. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are currently recommended as a first-line treatment for the symptomatic treatment of NETs. Although antiproliferative activity of SSAs has been demonstrated in various cancer types in several in vivo and in vitro studies, clinical benefits with SSAs have been only achieved in a small proportion of patients. We report a disease control on a long-acting SSA lanreotide in a patient with metastatic gastrinoma...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Andrzej T Slominski, Ruediger Hardeland, Michal A Zmijewski, Radomir M Slominski, Russel J Reiter, Ralf Paus
Melatonin, an evolutionarily ancient derivative of serotonin with hormonal properties, is the main neuroendocrine secretory product of the pineal gland. Although melatonin is best known to regulate circadian rhythmicity and lower vertebrate skin pigmentation, the full spectrum of functional activities of this free radical-scavenging molecule, which also induces/promotes complex antioxidative and DNA repair systems, includes immunomodulatory, thermoregulatory, and antitumor properties. Because this plethora of functional melatonin properties still awaits to be fully appreciated by dermatologists, the current review synthesizes the main features that render melatonin a promising candidate for the management of several dermatoses associated with substantial oxidative damage...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Bingkun Zhao, Shanshan Qin, Li Chai, Gaixia Lu, Yuanyou Yang, Huawei Cai, Xueyu Yuan, Suyun Fan, Qingqing Huang, Fei Yu
Octreotide is a somatostatin (SST) analogue currently used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with high binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) that is also overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC). Alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211 (211At) is a promising radionuclide with appropriate physical and chemical properties for use in targeted anticancer therapies. To obtain an additional pharmacological agent for the treatment of NSCLC, we present the first investigation of the possible use of 211At-labeled octreotide as a potential alpha-radionuclide therapeutic agent for NSCLC treatment...
January 31, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Sanjeeve Balasubramaniam, Christophe E Redon, Cody J Peer, Christine Bryla, Min-Jung Lee, Jane B Trepel, Yusuke Tomita, Arun Rajan, Giuseppe Giaccone, William M Bonner, William D Figg, Tito Fojo, Richard L Piekarz, Susan E Bates
The standard-of-care for advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is chemotherapy with cisplatin+etoposide (C+E). Most patients have chemosensitive disease at the outset, but disease frequently relapses and limits survival. Efforts to improve therapeutic outcomes in SCLC and other neuroendocrine cancers have focused on epigenetic agents, including the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of the combination of belinostat (B) with C+E. Belinostat was administered as a 48-h continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-2; cisplatin was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion on day 2; and etoposide was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion on days 2, 3, and 4...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Andrea Sisti, Cesare Brandi, Luca Grimaldi, Edoardo Pica Alfieri, Roberto Cuomo, Irene Zerini, Giuseppe Nisi
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer with a neuroendocrine phenotype. Here, the authors reported a case of MCC, presented as a rapidly growing, asymptomatic, erythematous nodule measuring 3.8 cm × 2.8 cm in diameter on the right cheek of an 85-year-old Caucasian woman. After resection of the nodule, the defect was repaired with cutaneous graft taken from the supraclavicular area and healed uneventfully. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of MCC.
February 6, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Lin Ruan, Lei Wang, Xiaosong Wang, Ming He, Xiaoguang Yao
The epigenetic factor SIRT1 can promote prostate cancer progression, but it is unclear whether SIRT1 contributes to neuroendocrine differentiation. In this study, we showed that androgen deprivation can induce reactive oxygen species production and that reactive oxygen species, in turn, activate SIRT1 expression. The increased SIRT1 expression induces neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells by activating the Akt pathway. In addition, the interaction between Akt and SIRT1 is independent of N-Myc and can drive the development of neuroendocrine prostate cancer when N-Myc is blocked...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Takanori Eguchi, Chiharu Sogawa, Yuka Okusha, Kenta Uchibe, Ryosuke Iinuma, Kisho Ono, Keisuke Nakano, Jun Murakami, Manabu Itoh, Kazuya Arai, Toshifumi Fujiwara, Yuri Namba, Yoshiki Murata, Kazumi Ohyama, Manami Shimomura, Hirohiko Okamura, Masaharu Takigawa, Tetsuya Nakatsura, Ken-Ichi Kozaki, Kuniaki Okamoto, Stuart K Calderwood
Ability to form cellular aggregations such as tumorspheres and spheroids have been used as a morphological marker of malignant cancer cells and in particular cancer stem cells (CSC). However, the common definition of the types of cellular aggregation formed by cancer cells has not been available. We examined morphologies of 67 cell lines cultured on three dimensional morphology enhancing NanoCulture Plates (NCP) and classified the types of cellular aggregates that form. Among the 67 cell lines, 49 cell lines formed spheres or spheroids, 8 cell lines formed grape-like aggregation (GLA), 8 cell lines formed other types of aggregation, and 3 cell lines formed monolayer sheets...
2018: PloS One
Min He, Shanshan Liu, Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage, Mark D Borromeo, Luc Girard, Adi F Gazdar, John D Minna, Jane E Johnson, Melanie H Cobb
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma, designated as a recalcitrant cancer by the National Cancer Institute, in urgent need of new rational therapeutic targets. Previous studies have determined that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1) is essential for the survival and progression of a fraction of pulmonary neuroendocrine cancer cells, which include both SCLC and a subset of non-SCLC. Previously, to understand how ASCL1 initiates tumorigenesis in pulmonary neuroendocrine cancer and identify the transcriptional targets of ASCL1, whole-genome RNA-sequencing analysis combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing was performed with a series of lung cancer cell lines...
February 1, 2018: Translational Oncology
Fei Zhou, Likun Hou, Ting Ding, Quanming Song, Xiaoxia Chen, Chunxia Su, Wei Li, Guanghui Gao, Shengxiang Ren, Fengying Wu, Jiang Fan, Chunyan Wu, Jie Zhang, Caicun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) represents a rare entity in lung cancer with dismal prognosis. In the present study, we investigated whether there are significant differences between central and peripheral tumors of LCNEC, in terms of clinicopathologic features, genomic profiles, and survival. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 126 cases of LCNEC were included. The tumors with invasion of the segmental and/or lobar bronchus were classified as central LCNEC and those without as peripheral LCNEC...
February 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Elaine C Maggi, Silvia Gravina, Haiying Cheng, Bilal Piperdi, Ziqiang Yuan, Xiao Dong, Steven K Libutti, Jan Vijg, Cristina Montagna
The goal of this study was to develop a method for whole genome cell-free DNA (cfDNA) methylation analysis in humans and mice with the ultimate goal to facilitate the identification of tumor derived DNA methylation changes in the blood. Plasma or serum from patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or lung cancer, and plasma from a murine model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was used to develop a protocol for cfDNA isolation, library preparation and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of ultra low quantities of cfDNA, including tumor-specific DNA...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Marta Emmett, Carolynn Gildea, Andrew Nordin, Lynn Hirschowitz, Jason Poole
A retrospective population-based observational study using cancer registration data of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer between 2006 and 2010, in England, was carried out to explore how different morphological subtypes affect survival rates. Age-standardised net survival rates by morphological subtype are presented alongside with excess mortality modelling accounting for the impact of demographic, diagnostic and tumour factors. The three main morphological subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma) have similar one-year net survival rates of approximately 85%...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Weiwei Chi, Richard R P Warner, David L Chan, Simron Singh, Eva Segelov, Jonathan Strosberg, Juan Wisnivesky, Michelle K Kim
OBJECTIVES: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare but have been increasing in incidence. Limited data on the long-term outcomes of patients with these tumors are available. METHODS: In this study, we used population-based data from the National Cancer Institute to assess long-term disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients who have undergone surgery for nonmetastatic disease. All patients with NETs of the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, appendix, and pancreas diagnosed between 1988 and 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry...
February 2, 2018: Pancreas
Fu-Hai Ma, Li-Yan Xue, Ying-Tai Chen, Yi-Bin Xie, Yu-Xin Zhong, Quan Xu, Yan-Tao Tian
We herein report a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gastric stump found 47 years after Billroth II gastric resection for a benign gastric ulcer. A 74-year-old man was referred to another hospital with melena. Endoscopic examination revealed a localized ulcerative lesion at the gastrojejunal anastomosis. The diagnosis by endoscopic biopsy was neuroendocrine carcinoma. A total gastrectomy of the remnant stomach with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed at our hospital. The lesion invaded the subserosa, and metastasis was found in two of nine the lymph nodes retrieved...
January 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Shusuke Akamatsu, Takahiro Inoue, Osamu Ogawa, Martin E Gleave
Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal form of prostate cancer that emerges in the later stages of castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment. Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer transdifferentiates from adenocarcinoma as an adaptive response to androgen receptor pathway inhibition. The incidence of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer has been rising due to the increasing use of potent androgen receptor pathway inhibitors. Typically, treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is characterized by either low or absent androgen receptor expression, small cell carcinoma morphology and expression of neuroendocrine markers...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Anjali V Sheahan, Leigh Ellis
Prostate cancer initiation, development and progression is driven by androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Androgen deprivation therapy is the primary treatment for patients that present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. However, androgen deprivation therapy is not curative, and patients will progress to castrate-resistant disease (CRPC). Although most patient's progress to CRPC via restoration of AR signaling (CRPC-Ad), approximately a quarter of patients will progress via mechanisms independent of AR signaling...
January 26, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Hiroaki Osakabe, So Katayanagi, Yosuke Makuuchi, Masatoshi Shigoka, Tetsuo Sumi, Kenji Katsumata, Akihiko Tsuchida, Shigeyuki Kawachi
A 79-year-old man with cStage II A(T2N1H0P0CYXM0)advanced gastric cancer in angle. Distal gastrectomy was performed and liver metastasis was recognized during the operation. The pathological diagnosis was shown as neuroendocrine carcinoma(NEC). Chemotherapy(S-1/cisplatin[CDDP]: 1 course, etoposide/CDDP: 5 courses)was administered. After chemotherapy, liver metastasis disappeared for 9months.
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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