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S C Finch, J B Vlaming, B L Sutherland, C van Koten, W J Mace, L R Fletcher
AIM: To investigate a possible interaction between lolitrem B and ergovaline by comparing the incidence and severity of ryegrass staggers in sheep grazing ryegrass (Lolium perenne) containing lolitrem B or ryegrass containing both lolitrem B and ergovaline. METHODS: Ninety lambs, aged approximately 6 months-old, were grazed on plots of perennial ryegrass infected with either AR98 endophyte (containing lolitrem B), standard endophyte (containing lolitrem B and ergovaline) or no endophyte, for up to 42 days from 2 February 2010...
December 14, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Bin Hu, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Johanna Bußkamp, Gitta J Langer, Franziska S Peters, Jörg Schumacher, Monika Eiblmeier, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Heinz Rennenberg
Phytopathogenic fungi infections induce plant defense responses that mediate changes in metabolic and signaling processes with severe consequences for plant growth and development. Sphaeropsis tip blight, induced by the endophytic fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea that spreads from stem tissues to the needles, is the most widespread disease of conifer forests causing dramatic economic losses. However, metabolic consequences of this disease on bark and wood tissues of its host are largely unexplored. Here we show that diseased host pines experience tissue dehydration in both bark and wood...
December 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Enikő Rab, Dimitrios Kekos, Vassilios Roussis, Efstathia Ioannou
Four new (1-4) and six previously reported (5-10) α-pyrone polyketides, along with benzoic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, and (E)-cinnamic acid, were isolated from the organic extract resulting from the cultivation of the algicolous strain Streptomyces ambofaciens BI0048, which in turn was isolated from the inner tissues of the red alga Laurencia glandulifera. The structure elucidation of the isolated natural products was based on extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data (NMR, MS, UV, IR). Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities against two multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and one strain of Escherichia coli, as well as two human cancer cell lines...
December 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
Julia I Bauer, Madeleine Gross, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Gerd Hamscher, Ewald Usleber
Limited availability of toxin standards for lolitrem B and ergovaline impedes routine control of grasses for endophyte toxins. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the indole-diterpene mycotoxin paxilline, in combination with a generic EIA for ergot alkaloids, as alternative parameters for screening purposes. Analysis of grass seeds and model pastures of four different grass species showed that both EIAs yielded highly positive results for paxilline and ergot alkaloids in perennial ryegrass seeds...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Betania Barros Cota, Luiza Guimarães Tunes, Daniela Nabak Bueno Maia, Jonas Pereira Ramos, Djalma Menezes de Oliveira, Markus Kohlhoff, Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves, Elaine Maria Souza-Fagundes, Fernanda Fraga Campos, Carlos Leomar Zani
BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood), is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Abdul Samad, Livio Antonielli, Angela Sessitsch, Stéphane Compant, Friederike Trognitz
Microbes produce a variety of secondary metabolites to be explored for herbicidal activities. We investigated an endophyte Pseudomonas viridiflava CDRTc14, which impacted growth of its host Lepidium draba L., to better understand the possible genetic determinants for herbicidal and host-interaction traits. Inoculation tests with a variety of target plants revealed that CDRTc14 shows plant-specific effects ranging from beneficial to negative. Its herbicidal effect appeared to be dose-dependent and resembled phenotypically the germination arrest factor of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wenying Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Xu, Aiai Wang, Lan Huang, Hewei Du, Lijuan Qiu, Ralf Oelmüller
As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000)...
December 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sabu Rohini, R Aswani, M Kannan, V P Sylas, E K Radhakrishnan
Functional contribution of endophytic bacteria towards plant growth is highly impressive due to their species diversity and array of probiotic mechanisms. In the study, 96 endophytic bacteria isolated from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were screened for phosphate solubilisation, 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, nitrogen fixation, ammonia and IAA production. Among these, sixteen endophytes with multiple plant growth-promoting activities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and all of them showed growth enhancement in Vigna unguiculata var Lola which make the study remarkably significant...
December 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yafen Zhang, Qianchao Cao, Peng Hu, Haifeng Cui, Xiaoping Yu, Zihong Ye
BACKGROUND: Ustilago esculenta, a pathogenic basidiomycete fungus, infects Zizania latifolia to form edible galls named Jiaobai in China. The distinct growth conditions of U. esculenta induced Z. latifolia to form three different phenotypes, named male Jiaobai, grey Jiaobai and white Jiaobai. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and morphological differences that distinguish the two U. esculenta strains. RESULTS: In this study, sexually compatible haploid sporidia UeT14/UeT55 from grey Jiaobai (T strains) and UeMT10/UeMT46 from white Jiaobai (MT strains) were isolated...
December 6, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Putthita Punjee, Wilailak- Siripornadulsil, Surasak- Siripornadulsil
The effects of the cadmium (Cd)-tolerant bacterium <i>Cupriavidus taiwanensis</i> KKU2500-3 on the growth, yield and Cd concentration in rice grains were investigated in the rice variety Phitsanulok 2 (PL2), which was cultivated in a hydroponic greenhouse. The numbers of Cd-tolerant bacteria isolated from the roots and shoots of plants under the RB [rice with bacteria] and RBC [rice with bacteria and Cd] treatments ranged from 2.60 to 9.03 and 3.99 to 9.60 log CFU•g<sup>-1</sup> of PL2, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Balendra Sah, Kamalraj Subban, Jayabaskaran Chelliah
In this study, we have isolated an endophytic fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae from non-Taxus host plant Piper nigrum. The strain L. theobromae identity was confirmed by morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Taxol produced by L. theobromae was observed to be identical to the authentic taxol as analyzed by chromatography and spectroscopy methods. The quantity of taxol produced by the fungus was estimated to be 247 μg L-1, and fungal taxol showed potent cytotoxic activity towards cancer cell line...
November 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Xue-Ying Tian, Cheng-Sheng Zhang
Halophytes play important roles in coastal ecosystems. However, few reports have described bacterial communities related to halophytes, and the distribution patterns of these bacteria in different plant tissues have been rarely compared. This paper mainly studied the diversity and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere (Rh) bacteria related to the halophyte Messerschmidia sibirica, a dominant species in the coastal zone of Shandong Peninsula, China. We collected leaf (Lf), stem (Sm), root (Rt), Rh, and bulk (Bl) control soil samples, and sequenced the V5-V7 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina HiSeq platform to identify bacterial communities originating from different plant habitats...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Junkun Lu, Fucheng Yang, Shengkun Wang, Haibin Ma, Junfeng Liang, Yinglong Chen
Rhizobia induce root nodules and fix atmospheric N2 for most legume species in exchange for carbon. However, the diverse endophytic non-rhizobial bacteria in legume nodules that co-exist with rhizobia are often ignored because they are difficult to cultivate using routine cultivation approaches. To enhance our understanding of the incidence and diversity of legume-bacteria associations, a high-throughput sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was used to examine the bacterial community in the rhizospheres and root nodules of Dalbergia odorifera seedlings that were uninoculated or inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii H255, Rhizobium multihospitium-like HT221, or Burkholderia pyrrocinia-like H022238, in two growth media (nitrogen [N]-supplied soil or N-omitted potting mix)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Valentina Maggini, Marinella De Leo, Alessio Mengoni, Eugenia Rosaria Gallo, Elisangela Miceli, Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel, Sauro Biffi, Luisa Pistelli, Renato Fani, Fabio Firenzuoli, Patrizia Bogani
The influence of the interaction(s) between the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and its endophytic communities on the production of alkamides is investigated. To mimic the in vivo conditions, we have set up an infection model of axenic in vitro E. purpurea plants inoculated with a pool of bacterial strains isolated from the E. purpurea stems and leaves. Here we show different alkamide levels between control (not-inoculated) and inoculated plants, suggesting that the alkamide biosynthesis may be modulated by the bacterial infection...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kiran Rahul Halkai, Jayashree A Mudda, Vasundhara Shivanna, Vandana Rathod, Rahul S Halkai
Introduction: Microbial resistance to existing antimicrobial agents in periodontal therapy is a growing problem. Therefore, there is a need for development of new antimicrobial agents. Aim: To biosynthesize and characterize Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) using endophytic fungi and to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against P. gingivalis. Materials and Methods: Cut leaf segments of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) were used to isolate the fungi...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Juwairiah Remali, Nurul 'Izzah Mohd Sarmin, Chyan Leong Ng, John J L Tiong, Wan M Aizat, Loke Kok Keong, Noraziah Mohamad Zin
Background: Streptomyces are well known for their capability to produce many bioactive secondary metabolites with medical and industrial importance. Here we report a novel bioactive phenazine compound, 6-((2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenoxy) carbonyl) phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (HCPCA) extracted from Streptomyces kebangsaanensis, an endophyte isolated from the ethnomedicinal Portulaca oleracea. Methods: The HCPCA chemical structure was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2017: PeerJ
Dheeraj Kumar Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Satish Kumar Verma, Arti Singh, Puja Kumari, Ravindra Nath Kharwar
AIM: Extracellular synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using aqueous cell-free filtrate (CFF) of endophytic Chaetomium globosum and characterization of its bioactive proteins. METHODS: Temperature and pH gradients were used to assess their effects on dimensions of NPs. NPs were tested in vivo for antibacterial activity. MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for characterization of CFF proteins. RESULTS: Fungal CFF fabricated nanoparticles of various shape under varied physicochemical conditions...
December 4, 2017: Nanomedicine
Hong-Xin Liu, Hai-Bo Tan, Yu-Chan Chen, Sai-Ni Li, Hao-Hua Li, Wei-Min Zhang
Two new cyclohexene derivatives colletotricones A and B (1 and 2) and a new thiazole derivative colletotricole A (5), along with six known natural metabolites were isolated from the extract of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides A12, an endophytic fungus derived from Aquilaria sinensis. Among them, the colletotricones A and B possess a cyclohexenone skeleton, whereas the colletotricole A is a thiazole derivative. Their structures were fully assigned with the aid of extensive spectroscopic analysis and data from the literature...
December 4, 2017: Natural Product Research
Senhua Chen, Meng Ding, Weiyang Liu, Xishan Huang, Zhaoming Liu, Yongjun Lu, Hongju Liu, Zhigang She
Four previously undescribed meroterpenoids, amestolkolides A-D, along with three known compounds were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Talaromyces amestolkiae YX1 cultured on wheat solid-substrate medium culture. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of amestolkolides B and C, and purpurogenolide E were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using Cu Kα radiation, and those of amestolkolides A and D were elucidated on the basis of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra...
November 30, 2017: Phytochemistry
Yanglei Yi, Elrike Frenzel, Jan Spoelder, J Theo M Elzenga, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Oscar P Kuipers
Tracking of fluorescent protein (FP)-labeled rhizobacteria is a key prerequisite to gain insights into plant-bacteria interaction mechanisms. However, the performance of FPs mostly has to be optimized for the bacterial host and for the environment of intended application. We report on the construction of mutational libraries of the superfolder green fluorescent protein sfGFP and the red fluorescent protein mKate2 in the bacterium B. mycoides, which next to its potential as plant-biocontrol agent occasionally enters an endophytic lifestyle...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
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