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Abhirup Mookherjee, Shivangi Singh, Mrinal K Maiti
Endophytes are microbes which reside inside the plant tissues asymptomatically or causing pathogenicity to the host plant for a brief period. Owing to their presence in a specialized niche, endophytes are capable of synthesizing diverse types of bioactive molecules. Continuous development of resistance mechanism by pathogens to the currently available health treatments and pharmaceuticals has led researchers to explore new therapeutic agents. Quorum sensing has a role in the development of microbial pathogenic traits including biofilm formation...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomaš Frantík, Václav Motyka, Petre I Dobrev, Miroslav Vosátka
Aim of this study was to investigate main effects and interactions between symbiotic fungi and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in Miscanthus × giganteus. The arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (AMF) and the endophyte Piriformospora indica (PI) were chosen as model symbionts. The fungal inoculants and TDZ had no significant effect on plant growth but modulated phytohormone levels in the leaves. TDZ induced accumulation of salicylic acid in controls, but not in plants inoculated with fungi...
September 23, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Pilar Fernandez-Conradi, Hervé Jactel, Cécile Robin, Ayco J M Tack, Bastien Castagneyrol
Although insect herbivores and fungal pathogens frequently share the same individual host plant, we lack general insights in how fungal infection affects insect preference and performance. We addressed this question in a meta-analysis of 1,113 case studies gathered from 101 primary papers that compared preference or performance of insect herbivores on control vs. fungus challenged plants. Generally, insects preferred, and performed better on, not challenged plants, regardless of experimental conditions. Insect response to fungus infection significantly differed according to fungus lifestyle, insect feeding guild and the spatial scale of the interaction (local/distant)...
October 11, 2017: Ecology
Bhat Mohd Skinder, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Abdul Hamid Wani
The present investigation was carried out to review and highlight the potential phytochemicals and medicinal phenomena of the critically endangered medicinal plant, Gentiana kurroo Royle of the western and north-western Himalayas. The medicinal plant is heavily exploited for root and rhizome. Due to its endemic nature and the high rate of exploitation from its natural habitat, this species had become critically endangered. The phytochemical screening of the plant revealed that the plant contains some vital phyto-constituents (iridoids, xanthones, C-glucoxanthone mangiferin, and C-glucoflavones) that have a medicinal value for various acute and chronic diseases...
October 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Liuhong Zhang, Shah Iram Niaz, Zhen Wang, Yonghong Zhu, Yongcheng Lin, Jing Li, Lan Liu
One new depsidone, botryorhodine H (1), together with three known analogues, botryorhodines C, D and G (2-4), were obtained from the mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 by co-culturing with Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR analyses and high-resolution mass spectrum. Compounds 1-3 showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 ranging from 8.1 to 11.2 μM, and compound 1 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against rat prolactinoma MMQ and rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cell lines (IC50 = 3...
October 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
Masahiko Isaka, Somporn Palasarn, Sujinda Sommai, Pattiyaa Laksanacharoen, Kitlada Srichomthong
A maleic anhydride derivative, botryoanhydride (1), and a chromone derivative, botryochromone (2), together with three known chromones, eugenitin (3), 6-hydroxymethyleugenin (4) and 6-methoxymethyleugenin (5), were isolated from cultures of the endophytic fungus BCC 54265 of the family Botryosphaeriaceae. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, HRMS and CD data. Compound 2 showed weak cytotoxic activity to cancer cell-lines.
October 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
Chenjia Guo, Ping Wu, Jinghua Xue, Hanxiang Li, Xiaoyi Wei
Two new γ-pyrones, xylaropyrones B (1) and C (2), together with three known compounds, xylaropyrone (3), annularin A (4) and annularin C (5), were isolated from solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. SC1440. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data. The relative configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of J-based configurational analysis, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and TDDFT calculated ECD spectra...
October 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
Khaidem A Devi, Garima Pandey, A K S Rawat, Gauri D Sharma, Piyush Pandey
A plant growth promoting bacterial endophyte designated as AL2-14B isolated from the leaves of Achyranthes aspera L. was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on its phenotypic and physiological features, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. AL2-14B had plant growth stimulating attributes including siderophore and indole acetic acid release, inorganic phosphate solubilization, along with nitrogenase, ammonification, and protease activities. It also exhibited antifungal property against Rhizoctonia solani...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stephen W Peterson, Željko Jurjević
Talaromyces strains isolated from maize seeds and the built environment were examined taxonomically because they could not be identified as previously described species. Using phenotypic analysis, DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic and concordance analyses, the authors discovered and described 10 new species in sect. Islandici and 1 new species in sect. Subinflati. Taxonomic novelties in sect. Islandici are Talaromyces delawarensis, T. herodensis, T. juglandicola, T. kilbournensis, T. novojersensis, T. ricevillensis, T...
September 18, 2017: Mycologia
Yonggang Zhang, Airong Jia, Huabin Chen, Menghua Wang, Gang Ding, Liyan Sun, Li Li, Meixue Dai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Heng-Gang Yang, Huan Zhao, Jiao-Jiao Li, Shao-Meng Chen, Lang-Ming Mou, Jian Zou, Guo-Dong Chen, Sheng-Ying Qin, Chuan-Xi Wang, Dan Hu, Xin-Sheng Yao, Hao Gao
Phyllomeroterpenoids A-C (1-3), multi-biosynthetic pathway derived meroterpenoids from amino acid/pentose phosphate/terpenoid pathways, were isolated from the TCM endophytic fungus Phyllosticta sp. J13-2-12Y, together with six biosynthetically related compounds (4-9). All structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical derivatization, and ECD experiments. A plausible biosynthetic pathway of 1-3 was proposed. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of all isolated compounds were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus 209P (bacterium) and Candida albicans FIM709 (fungus)...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xu Pang, Jian-Yuan Zhao, Xiao-Mei Fang, Tao Zhang, De-Wu Zhang, Hong-Yu Liu, Jing Su, Shan Cen, Li-Yan Yu
Thirty-three metabolites including five phenalenone derivatives (1-5), seven cytochalasins (6-12), thirteen butenolides (13-25), and eight phenyl derivatives (26-33) were isolated from Aspergillus sp. CPCC 400735 cultured on rice. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by NMR, MS, and CD experiments, of which 1-5 (asperphenalenones A-E), 6 (aspochalasin R), and 13 (aspulvinone R) were identified as new compounds. Specifically, asperphenalenones A-E (1-5) represent an unusual structure composed of a linear diterpene derivative linked to a phenalenone derivative via a C-C bond...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Xiao-Li Wu, Xu-Hong Song, Hong-Guo Yang, Fei Liu, Xue Zhang, Jin-Liang Liu, Da-Xia Chen, Long-Yun Li
The endophytic fungi from root, main stem, branch and leaf of Scrophularia ningpoensis were isolated and identified from Wulong and Chongqing, and the population diversity analysis and phylogenetic analysis were followed. The result indicated that, as to population diversity index, S. ningpoensis from Wulong: leaf>main stem=branch>root, branch from Chongqing>branch from Wulong. Fifty-eight endophytic fungi were obtained, most of which were the pathogens of the plant. Colletotrichum was the prevailing genus, of which C...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Zihong Ye, Yao Pan, Yafen Zhang, Haifeng Cui, Gulei Jin, Alice C McHardy, Longjiang Fan, Xiaoping Yu
Ustilago esculenta, infects Zizania latifolia, and induced host stem swollen to be a popular vegetable called Jiaobai in China. It is the long-standing artificial selection that maximizes the occurrence of favourable Jiaobai, and thus maintaining the plant-fungi interaction and modulating the fungus evolving from plant pathogen to entophyte. In this study, whole genome of U. esculenta was sequenced and transcriptomes of the fungi and its host were analysed. The 20.2 Mb U. esculenta draft genome of 6,654 predicted genes including mating, primary metabolism, secreted proteins, shared a high similarity to related Smut fungi...
July 19, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Rémy B Teponno, Sara R Noumeur, Soleiman E Helaly, Stephan Hüttel, Daoud Harzallah, Marc Stadler
Extracts from an endophytic fungus isolated from the roots of the Algerian plant Globularia alypum showed prominent antimicrobial activity in a screening for novel antibiotics. The producer organism was identified as Dendrothyrium variisporum by means of morphological studies and molecular phylogenetic methods. Studies on the secondary metabolite production of this strain in various culture media revealed that the major components from shake flasks were massarilactones D (1) and H (2) as well as two new furanone derivatives for which we propose the trivial names (5S)-cis-gregatin B (3) and graminin D (4)...
October 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ruimin Yang, Jing Yang, Li Wang, Jian-Ping Huang, Zijun Xiong, Jianying Luo, Mingming Yu, Yijun Yan, Sheng-Xiong Huang
Our natural products discovery program utilizes endophytic actinomycetes associated with plants and employs biological assays and HPLC-based metabolite profiles as the preliminary screen to identify strains of interest, followed by large-scale fermentation and isolation, leading to new and/or bioactive natural products. Six new trialkyl-substituted aromatic acids, namely, lorneic acids E-J (1-6), together with two known analogues (7 and 8), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Streptomyces sp...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Milena Mitic, Daniel Berry, Emma Brasell, Kimberly Green, Carolyn A Young, Sanjay Saikia, Jasna Rakonjac, Barry Scott
Calcineurin is a conserved calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, consisting of a catalytic subunit A and a regulatory subunit B, which is involved in calcium-dependent signalling and regulation of various important cellular processes. In this study we functionally characterised the catalytic subunit A (CnaA) of the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae that forms a symbiotic association with the grass host Lolium perenne. We deleted the CnaA-encoding gene cnaA in E. festucae and examined its role in hyphal growth, cell wall integrity and symbiosis...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Tirtza Zahavi, Roni Barkai, Shiri Freilich, Einat Zchori-Fein, Vered Naor
Yellows diseases, caused by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Phytoplasma, are a major threat to grapevines worldwide. Because conventional applications against this pathogen are inefficient, and disease management is highly challenging, the use of beneficial bacteria has been suggested as a biocontrol solution. A Dyella-like bacterium (DLB), isolated from the Israeli insect vector of grapevine yellows Hyalesthes obsoletus, was suggested to be an endophyte. To test this hypothesis, the bacterium was introduced by spraying the plant leaves, and it had no apparent phytotoxicity to grapevine...
October 9, 2017: Phytopathology
Zhichang Qiu, Xiaoming Lu, Ningyang Li, Mingjie Zhang, Xuguang Qiao
The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify garlic endophytes, and explore the characteristics of dominant strains. Garlic endophytes were studied through phenotypical characterization and comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA based on culture-dependent approaches. Representative strains inferred from 16S rDNA sequencing were selected for further identification by gyrA and rpoB gene loci and phylogenetic analysis based on concateneted house-keeping sequences. Seven kinds of Bacillus were found from garlic and black garlic, respectively...
October 9, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
José Manuel Álvarez-Pérez, Sandra González-García, Rebeca Cobos, Miguel Ángel Olego, Ana Ibañez, Alba Díez-Galán, Enrique Garzón-Jimeno, Juan José R Coque
Endophytic and rhizospheric actinobacteria isolated from the root system of one-year-old grafted Vitis vinifera plants were evaluated for their activities against fungi that cause grapevine trunk diseases. A total of 58 endophytic and 94 rhizospheric isolates were tested. Based on an in vitro bioassay, 15.5% of the endophytic isolates and 30.8% of the rhizospheric isolates exhibited antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Diplodia seriata, whereas 13.8% of the endophytic isolates and 16.0% of the rhizospheric isolates showed antifungal activity against Dactylonectria macrodidyma (formerly Ilyonectria macrodidyma)...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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