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Barry Scott, Kimberly Green, Daniel Berry
Epichloë endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with aerial tissues of temperate grasses. Intercalary growth of hyphae within the leaves enables fungal growth to be synchronized with host leaf growth, leading to formation of a highly structured and tightly regulated symbiotic network. Mutations in fungal genes that disrupt cell-cell fusion and other key signalling pathways lead to an antagonistic interaction characterized by unregulated growth of endophytic hyphae and detrimental effects on host growth...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter, Mozhgan Sepehri
Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses...
February 16, 2018: Planta
Aradhana Mishra, Satyendra Pratap Singh, Sahil Mahfooz, Surendra Pratap Singh, Arpita Bhattacharya, Nishtha Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Endophytes have been explored to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remains elusive. The present study was aimed to assess the potential of endophytes singly as well as in combination on various physiological parameters and systemic defense mechanism against Alternaria alternata in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Seed priming with endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and in combination demonstrated enhanced vigor index and germination rate...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sahadevan Neethu, Sebastian Jose Midhun, M A Sunil, Soman Soumya, E K Radhakrishnan, Mathew Jyothis
The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using biological systems such as fungi has evolved to become an important area of nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report for the first time the light-induced extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using algicolous endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum ARA 10, isolated from the marine green alga Chetomorpha antennina. Parametric optimization, including the concentration of AgNO 3 , fungal biomass, ratio of cell filtrate and AgNO 3 , pH, reaction time and presence of light, was done for rapid AgNPs production...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Marta Pinto-Carbó, Karl Gademann, Leo Eberl, Aurelien Carlier
Various plant species establish intimate symbioses with bacteria within their aerial organs. The bacteria are contained within nodules or glands often present in distinctive patterns on the leaves, and have been used as taxonomic marker since the early 20th century. These structures are present in very diverse taxa, including dicots (Rubiaceae and Primulaceae) and monocots (Dioscorea). The symbionts colonize the plants throughout their life cycles and contribute bioactive secondary metabolites to the association...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Daiani C Savi, Khaled A Shaaban, Francielly Maria Wilke Ramos Gos, Larissa V Ponomareva, Jon S Thorson, Chirlei Glienke, Jürgen Rohr
Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Corina Diana Ceapă, Melissa Vázquez-Hernández, Stefany Daniela Rodríguez-Luna, Angélica Patricia Cruz Vázquez, Verónica Jiménez Suárez, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla, Sergio Sánchez
Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S...
2018: PloS One
Fehmida Bibi, Gary A Strobel, Muhammad I Naseer, Muhammad Yasir, Ahmed A Khalaf Al-Ghamdi, Esam I Azhar
Halophytes are associated with the intertidal forest ecosystem of Saudi Arabia and seemingly have an immense potential for yielding useful and important natural products. In this study we have aimed to isolate and characterize the endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities from the halophyte, Salsola imbricata , In addition these bacterial strains were identified and selected strains were further studied for bioactive secondary metabolites. At least 168 rhizspheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated and of these 22 were active antagonists against the oomycetous fungal plant pathogens, Phytophthora capsici and Pythium ultimum ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adnan Šišić, Jelena Baćanović-Šišić, Petr Karlovsky, Raphaël Wittwer, Florian Walder, Enio Campiglia, Emanuele Radicetti, Hanna Friberg, Jörg Peter Baresel, Maria R Finckh
Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp...
2018: PloS One
Hiroaki Takagi, Jinichi Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Osaka, Takeo Shibata, Satoko Fujita, Toshiyuki Sasagawa
Cervical cancer recently has become more common among younger women in Japan. Diagnosing early-stage cancer is straightforward using cervical cytodiagnosis and histological diagnosis. However, postmenopausal endophytic cervical cancer and skip lesions in cervical adenocarcinoma are difficult to detect. We compared the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for primary staging of cervical cancer and evaluated the relationship of the imaging findings to prognosis...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jose G Maciá-Vicente, Yan-Ni Shi, Zakaria Cheikh-Ali, Peter Grün, Kyriaki Glynou, Sevda Haghi Kia, Meike Piepenbring, Helge B Bode
Fungi are prolific producers of natural products routinely screened for biotechnological applications, and those living endophytically within plants attract particular attention because of their purported chemical diversity. However, the harnessing of their biosynthetic potential is hampered by a large and often cryptic phylogenetic and ecological diversity, coupled with a lack of large-scale natural products' dereplication studies. To guide efforts to discover new chemistries among root-endophytic fungi, we analyzed the natural products produced by 822 strains using an untargeted UPLC-ESI-MS/MS-based approach and linked the patterns of chemical features to fungal lineages...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Felix Moronta-Barrios, Fabrizia Gionechetti, Alberto Pallavicini, Edgloris Marys, Vittorio Venturi
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed a 16S rDNA taxonomic bacterial profiling of the rhizosphere and endorhizosphere of two high-yield rice cultivars-Pionero 2010 FL and DANAC SD20A-extensively grown in Venezuela in 2014...
February 11, 2018: Microorganisms
Brian R Murphy, Fiona M Doohan, Trevor R Hodkinson
The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research pipeline for the production of a reliable, consistent and environmentally targeted fungal endophyte seed-delivered inoculant for barley cultivars. Our approach was developed de novo from an initial concept to source candidate endophyte inoculants from a wild relative of barley, Hordeum murinum (wall barley)...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Matthew Seager, Uday Patel, Christopher Anderson, Michael Gonsalves
Objective To study the influence of tumour diameter and anatomy on the success and complication rates of small renal mass (SRM,≤4 cm) core biopsy Methods Retrospective analysis of SRMs that underwent ultrasound or computed tomography-(CT) guided biopsy. Diagnostic and complication rates were compared according to tumour size (sub-categorised as axial diameter ≤2 cm,>2 to≤3 cm,>3 to≤4 cm) and anatomical disposition (exophytic/endophytic, centrality, polar location and anterior/posterior). Results Ninety-four patients (54 male; age range 21...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Neeraj Purushotham, Eirian Jones, Jana Monk, Hayley Ridgway
The role of plant endophytic Actinobacteria remains poorly understood with no reports of these communities in New Zealand native plants. This first investigation of endophytic Actinobacteria in New Zealand targeted the culturally significant medicinal shrub Pseudowintera colorata (horopito) as a model plant. Community analysis in plant tissues collected from ten geographically distinct sites showed that tissue type had the strongest influence on diversity and richness of endophytic Actinobacteria. More denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were obtained from stems (n = 18) compared to roots (n = 13)...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Weihong Sun, Zhi Xiong, Long Chu, Wei Li, Marcos A Soares, James F White, Haiyan Li
The endophytic bacterial community of two hyperaccumulators (Arabis alpine, Dysphania ambrosioides) and Veronica ciliate was investigated by Illumina sequencing technology. In addition, the culturable endophytic bacteria (EB) were isolated and their plant-growth promotion capabilities were studied. A dataset consisting of 221,075 filtered high-quality and classifiable unique 16S rDNA gene tags, and an average of 36,846 tags with a mean length of 464-bp for each sample was generated. In total, 10801 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, belonging to 18 bacterial phyla, 41 classes, 91 orders, 135 families, and 215 genera...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Byung Kwan Park, In Hyuck Gong, Min Yong Kang, Hyun Hwan Sung, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Soo Jeon, Hyun Moo Lee, Seong Il Seo
OBJECTIVE: To compare oncological and functional mid-term outcomes following robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for treating T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using propensity score-matching. METHODS: Between December 2008-April 2016, 63 patients from each treatment group were propensity score-matched for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumour size, tumour laterality, tumour histology, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score and preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
February 9, 2018: European Radiology
Yan Chen, Zhaoming Liu, Hongju Liu, Yahong Pan, Jing Li, Lan Liu, Zhigang She
Three new isocoumarins-dichlorodiaportintone (1), desmethyldichlorodiaportintone (2) and desmethyldichlorodiaportinol (3)-as well as six known analogues (4-9) were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Ascomycota sp. CYSK-4 from Pluchea indica. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by the modified Mosher's method. Compound 2 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of NO in LPS-induced RAW 264...
February 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Xiao-Wei Chen, Zhong-Duo Yang, Xiao-Fei Li, Jian-Hui Sun, Li-Jun Yang, Xin-Guo Zhang
One new compound, colletotrichine B (1), was produced by the fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kα) inhibitory activity of 1 was also evaluated. Compound 1 showed only AChE inhibiting activity with IC50 value of 38.0 ± 2.67 μg/mL.
February 8, 2018: Natural Product Research
Min Zhao, Lv-Yi Yuan, Da-Le Guo, Ye Ye, Zhuo-Ma Da-Wa, Xiao-Ling Wang, Feng-Wei Ma, Lei Chen, Yu-Cheng Gu, Li-Sheng Ding, Yan Zhou
Guided by the UPLC-ESIMS profile, seven previously undescribed halogenated dihydroisocoumarins, palmaerones A-G, along with eleven known dihydroisocoumarins, were isolated from Lachnum palmae, an endophytic fungus from Przewalskia tangutica by exposure to a histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by analysis of their NMR, MS and optical rotation values. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of palmaerones A-G were evaluated. Palmaerones A-G showed antimicrobial activities against the strains (C...
February 3, 2018: Phytochemistry
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