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Güner Ekiz, Seda Duman, Erdal Bedir
The microbial transformation of cyclocanthogenol (CCG), Astragalus sp. originated sapogenin, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria eureka 1E1BL1 isolated from Astragalus angustifolius was investigated. Hydroxylation, oxidation, epoxidation, O-methylation, ring-expansion and methyl migration reactions were observed on the triterpenoid skeleton. As a result, eight metabolites were isolated and the structures of the previously undescribed compounds were established by 1-D, 2-D NMR and HR-MS analyses.
April 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi, Dai Hirose, Takuma Suzuki, Waka Nakayama, Wen-Ping Jiang, Orawan Monthakantirat, Jin-Bin Wu, Susumu Kitanaka, Toshiaki Makino
12- epi-Lycopodine (1), a Lycopodium alkaloid, along with lycopodine (2) and huperzine A (3), were discovered in the mycelium of Paraboeremia sp. Lsl3KI076, a UV-irradiated strain of Paraboeremia sp. Lsl3, an endophytic fungus from Lycopodium serratum Thunb. var. longipetiolatum Spring. Additionally, a trace of 1 was isolated from Phlegmariurus nummulariifolius (Blume) Ching, and the structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. This is the first report proving that a new naturally occurring Lycopodium alkaloid can be obtained from an endophytic fungus...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Honglong Chu, Ming Tang, Haihua Wang, Chuyan Wang
AIMS: This study was to investigate pinewood nematode's impacts on root mycoflora of P. tabulaeformis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biomass, colonization rate, community structure and diversity of root-associated fungi were investigated in pinewood nematode infected and non-infected P. tabulaeformis. The results indicated that the roots of P. tabulaeformis were colonized highly by root-associated fungi, mainly ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) and dark septate endophytes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Guillermo Nogueira-Lopez, David R Greenwood, Martin Middleditch, Christopher Winefield, Carla Eaton, Johanna M Steyaert, Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza
In Nature, almost every plant is colonized by fungi. Trichoderma virens is a biocontrol fungus which has the capacity to behave as an opportunistic plant endophyte. Even though many plants are colonized by this symbiont, the exact mechanisms by which Trichoderma masks its entrance into its plant host remain unknown, but likely involve the secretion of different families of proteins into the apoplast that may play crucial roles in the suppression of plant immune responses. In this study, we investigated T. virens colonization of maize roots under hydroponic conditions, evidencing inter- and intracellular colonization by the fungus and modifications in root morphology and coloration...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dominika Thiem, Agnieszka Piernik, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Alnus glutinosa (black alder) is a mycorrhizal pioneer tree species with tolerance to high concentrations of salt in the soil and can therefore be considered to be an important tree for the regeneration of forests areas devastated by excessive salt. However, there is still a lack of information about the ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) associated with mature individuals of A. glutinosa growing in natural saline conditions. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of soil salinity and other physicochemical parameters on root tips colonized by EMF, as well as on the species richness and diversity of an EMF community associated with A...
2018: Symbiosis
Nianjie Shang, Qiaoqiao Zhu, Meixue Dai, Guoyan Zhao
The first complete genome sequence of a recently described Salinicola tamaricis species was determined for the strain F01T (=CCTCC AB 2015304T =KCTC 42855T ). The strain was isolated from the leaves of wetland plant Tamarix chinensis Lour and shows a high tolerance to heavy metals, such as manganese, nickel, lead, and copper ions.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
Kátia Aparecida de Siqueira, Rhavena Graziela Liotti, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Marcos Antônio Soares
Pseudomonas sp. strain 382 and Pantoea coffeiphila 342 are two endophytic bacterial strains isolated from Paullinia cupana (guarana) seeds. Their draft genome sizes were 5.96 and 6.38 Mbp, with 315 and 266 scaffolds and 52% and 62% GC content, respectively.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
Sonia Salazar-Cerezo, Nancy Martinez-Montiel, Maria Del Carmen Cruz-Lopez, Rebeca D Martinez-Contreras
Stanhopea tigrina is a Mexican endemic orchid reported as a threatened species. The naturally occurring microorganisms present in S. tigrina are unknown. In this work, we analyzed the diversity of endophytic and epiphytic culturable fungi in S. tigrina according to morphological and molecular identification. Using this combined approach, in this study we retrieved a total of 634 fungal isolates that presented filamentous growth, which were grouped in 134 morphotypes that were associated to 63 genera, showing that S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vivien Krell, Desirée Jakobs-Schoenwandt, Stefan Vidal, Anant V Patel
The recent discovery that entomopathogenic fungi can grow endophytically in plant tissues has spurred research into novel plant protection measures. However, current applications of fungi aiming at endophytism mostly lack targeted formulation strategies resulting in low efficacy. Here, we aimed at enhancing Metarhizium brunneum CB15 endophytism in potato plants by (i) improvement of fungal growth from beads and (ii) cellulase formation or addition to encapsulated mycelium. We found that beads supplemented with cellulose alone or in addition with inactivated baker's yeast exhibited cellulase activity and increased mycelial growth by 12...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Sophie Stroheker, Vivanne Dubach, Thomas N Sieber
Dark septate endophytes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are presumed to be the most abundant root colonizing endophytes of conifers across the Northern hemisphere. To test the competitiveness of different PAC strains, PAC-free Picea abies saplings were inoculated with five different PAC strains by planting them in pre-colonized substrates. Saplings were left to grow for six weeks and then transplanted crosswise into a substrate colonized by one of the other four strains for a further two weeks...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
David Correa-Galeote, Eulogio J Bedmar, Gregorio J Arone
The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiao Kong, Decai Jin, Shulan Jin, Zhigang Wang, Huaqun Yin, Meiying Xu, Ye Deng
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a type of plasticizer that has aroused great concern due to their mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects, wherefore dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and other PAEs have been listed as priority pollutants. In this study, the impacts of DBP on a soil-vegetable ecosystem were investigated. The results showed that DBP could accumulate within vegetable tissues, and the accumulative effect was enhanced with higher levels of DBP contamination in soils. DBP accumulation also decreased vegetable quality in various ways, including decreased soluble protein content and increased nitrate content...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhen Liu, Jingyi Zhao, Xiao Liang, Xiaoxi Lv, Yong Li, Jing Qu, Yunbao Liu
Nine new compounds (1-6 and 16-18) and nine known compounds (7-15) were isolated from the Diaporthe pseudomangiferaea, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of the toxic Chinese folk medicine Tylophora ouata. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry analyses. The absolute configurations were established according to the specific rotation or electron circular dichroism method. Compounds 1, 4, 9, 11, 14 and 15 inhibited the TFG-β induced activation of human lung fibroblasts MRC-5 cells by 17...
April 13, 2018: Fitoterapia
Cai-Juan Zheng, Hai-Xia Liao, Rong-Qing Mei, Guo-Lei Huang, Lu-Jia Yang, Xue-Ming Zhou, Tai-Ming Shao, Guang-Ying Chen, Chang-Yun Wang
Two new compounds penibenzophenones A-B (1-2), and the synthetic α,β-unsaturated amide alkaloid (E)-tert-butyl(3-cinnamamidopropyl)carbamate (4), newly identified as a natural product, alone with three known ones (3, 5-6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium citrinum HL-5126 isolated from the mangrove Bruguiera sexangula var. rhynchopetala collected in the South China Sea. Compound 1 was a chlorinated benzophenone. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive NMR spectral interpretation, MS data and X-ray analysis...
April 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
Jing Zhu, Lu Yan, Xiaoguang Xu, Yan Zhang, Junling Shi, Chunmei Jiang, Dongyan Shao
To improve the production yield of (+)-pinoresinol (Pin), (+)-pinoresinol monoglucoside (PMG), and (+)-pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG), different methods were conducted, including co-culture with resveratrol-producing Alternaria sp. MG1 spores and addition of Tu-chung in a medium at the start of cultivation, ultrasound treatment (40 kHZ, 10 min) on 5-day culture, and addition of ethanol and sodium butyrate on Day 3, followed by cultivation for an additional period of 2 days. At the end of the cultivation period (5 days), the liquid phase was collected for product analysis...
April 16, 2018: AMB Express
Waheda Rahman Ansary, Ferdous Rezwan Khan Prince, Effi Haque, Farzana Sultana, Helen M West, Mahbubur Rahman, Abdul Mojid Mondol, Abdul Mannan Akanda, Mahfuz Rahman, Michele L Clarke, Tofazzal Islam
Plant growth-promoting bacteria that are also capable of suppressing plant pathogenic fungi play an important role in sustainable agriculture. There is a critical need for conducting research to discover, characterize and evaluate the efficacy of new strains of such bacteria in controlling highly aggressive plant pathogens. In this study, we isolated endophytic bacteria from medicinal plants of Bangladesh and evaluated their antagonistic capacity against an important phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum...
April 11, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Ning-Ning Shang, Zhouxin Zhang, Jian-Ping Huang, Li Wang, Jianying Luo, Jing Yang, Teng Peng, Yijun Yan, Ya-Tuan Ma, Sheng-Xiong Huang
Two new glycosylated piericidins, glucopiericidinol A3 (1) and 7-demethyl-glucopiericidin A (2), along with four known analogs were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KIB-H1083. The chemical structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 cell lines, as well as antimicrobial activities was evaluated. The results showed that glucopiericidin A (4) has potent cytotoxicity against HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values of 0...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Xiaoming Tan, Yaqin Zhou, Xiaolei Zhou, Xianghua Xia, Ying Wei, Lili He, Hongzhen Tang, Liyin Yu
The plant Dysosma versipellis is known for its antimicrobial and anticancer properties but is a rare and vulnerable perennial herb that is endemic to China. In this study, 224 isolates were isolated from various tissues of D. versipellis, and were classified into 53 different morphotypes according to culture characteristics and were identified by sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. Although nine strains were not assignable at the phylum level, 44 belonged to at least 29 genera of 15 orders of Ascomycota (93%), Basidiomycota (6%), and Zygomycota (1%)...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fábio de Azevedo Silva, Rhavena Graziela Liotti, Ana Paula de Araújo Boleti, Érica de Melo Reis, Marilene Borges Silva Passos, Edson Lucas Dos Santos, Olivia Moreira Sampaio, Ana Helena Januário, Carmen Lucia Bassi Branco, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Elisabeth Aparecida Furtado de Mendonça, Marcos Antônio Soares
Paullinia cupana is associated with a diverse community of pathogenic and endophytic microorganisms. We isolated and identified endophytic fungal communities from the roots and seeds of P. cupana genotypes susceptible and tolerant to anthracnose that grow in two sites of the Brazilian Amazonia forest. We assessed the antibacterial, antitumor and genotoxic activity in vitro of compounds isolated from the strains Trichoderma asperellum (1BDA) and Diaporthe phaseolorum (8S). In concert, we identified eight fungal species not previously reported as endophytes; some fungal species capable of inhibiting pathogen growth; and the production of antibiotics and compounds with bacteriostatic activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both susceptible and multiresistant host strains...
2018: PloS One
Jianfeng Wang, Zhibiao Nan, Michael J Christensen, Xingxu Zhang, Pei Tian, Zhixin Zhang, Xueli Niu, Peng Gao, Tao Chen, Lixia Ma
The systemic fungal endophyte of the grass Achnatherum inebrians, Epichloë gansuensis, has important roles in enhancing resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, we first evaluated the effects of E. gansuensis on nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen use efficiency, and stoichiometry of A. inebrians under varying nitrogen concentrations. The results demonstrated that E. gansuensis significantly improved the growth of A. inebrians under low nitrogen conditions. The fresh and dry weights, nitrogen reductase, nitrite reductase, and glutamine synthetase activity, NO3 - , NH4 + , N, and P content, and also the total N accumulation, N utilization efficiency, and N uptake efficiency were all higher in leaves of A...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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