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Rixin Guo, Hongwei Wu, Xiankuo Yu, Mengying Xu, Xiao Zhang, Liying Tang, Zhuju Wang
Semen cassiae is the ripe seed of Cassia obtusifolia L. or Cassia tora L. of the family Leguminosae. In traditional Chinese medicine, the two forms of Semen cassiae are raw Semen cassiae (R-SC) and parched Semen cassiae (P-SC). To clarify the processing mechanism of Semen cassiae, the pharmacokinetics of R-SC and P-SC extracts were examined. A simple, rapid, sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven anthraquinone aglycones of Semen cassiae (aurantio-obtusin, obtusifolin, questin, 2-hydroxyemodin-1-methyl-ether, rhein, emodin, 1,2,7-trimethoxyl-6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) to compare the pharmacokinetics of raw and parched Semen cassiae in rat plasma...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Andrew S DeLoach, Brad R Conrad, T L Einstein, Daniel B Dougherty
A scanning tunneling microscopy study of anthraquinone (AQ) on the Au(111) surface shows that the molecules self-assemble into several structures depending on the local surface coverage. At high coverages, a close-packed saturated monolayer is observed, while at low coverages, mobile surface molecules coexist with stable chiral hexamer clusters. At intermediate coverages, a disordered 2D porous network interlinking close-packed islands is observed in contrast to the giant honeycomb networks observed for the same molecule on Cu(111)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yaqing Zhang, Zunjian Zhang, Rui Song
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rhubarb-Radix scutellariae is a classic herb pair, which is commonly used to clear away heat and toxin in clinic. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of compatibility of Rhubarb and Radix scutellariae on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of anthraquinones and flavonoids in rat plasma. METHODS: Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups, and were orally administered Rhubarb and/or Radix scutellariae extracts. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the concentrations of baicalin, baicalein, wogonside, wogonin, rhein, and emodin in rat plasma...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Jovan Popovic, Kevin T Finneran
Reports suggest that ferric iron and electron shuttling molecules will select for Fe(3+) -reducer dominated microbial biomass. We investigated the influence of the redox mediators anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and riboflavin using xylose as the sole fermentation substrate, with or without ferric iron. Electron shuttling to insoluble ferrihydrite enhanced solventogenesis, acidogenesis, hydrogen production, and xylose consumption, relative to the cells plus xylose controls in fermentations inoculated with woodland marsh sediment, wetwood disease, or raw septic liquid, over multiple transfers in 15-day batch fermentations...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Yi Chen, Pei-Dong Chen, Bei-Hua Bao, Ming-Qiu Shan, Kai-Cheng Zhang, Fang-Fang Cheng, Yu-Dan Cao, Li Zhang, An-Wei Ding
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rubia cordifolia is a common traditional Chinese medicine that promotes blood circulation and eliminates blood stasis, and has been used to cure diseases related to blood stasis syndrome (BSS) clinically for many years. It has been previously demonstrated that anti-thrombosis and pro-angiogenesis can improve BSS. However, the anti-thrombotic and pro-angiogenic activities of Rubia cordifolia have not been well investigated. AIM OF STUDY: To determine the potential anti-thrombotic and pro-angiogenic activities of Rubia cordifolia and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jian-Hua Zhang, Hai-Liang Xin, Yue-Ming Xu, Yi Shen, Yu-Qiong He, Hsien-Yeh, Bing Lin, Hong-Tao Song, Juan-Liu, Hai-Yue Yang, Lu-Ping Qin, Qiao-Yan Zhang, Juan Du
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights intopotential opportunities for future research and development of this plant...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Valentine C Mbatchou, David P Tchouassi, Rita A Dickson, Kofi Annan, Abraham Y Mensah, Isaac K Amponsah, Julia W Jacob, Xavier Cheseto, Solomon Habtemariam, Baldwyn Torto
BACKGROUND: The edible and medicinal leguminous plant Cassia tora L. (Fabaceae) is known to possess insecticidal properties against a wide range of plant-feeding insects. However, the bioactivity of extracts of this plant and their constituents against vectors of medical importance has been largely unexplored. We investigated the mosquito larvicidal activity of the seed extract and its major anthraquinones against larvae of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (s.s.). METHODS: Third-fourth instar larval mortality was observed after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure to varying doses of the extracts, and two anthraquinones isolates identified using liquid chromatography- quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QtoF-MS)...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Hongping Min, Miaomiao Niu, Weilin Zhang, Jia Yan, Jiachang Li, Xiying Tan, Bo Li, Mengxiang Su, Bin Di, Fang Yan
Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a continuous clinical challenge partially due to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. Herein, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L, on P-gp in P-gp positive K562/ADM cells. Competition experiments combined with molecular docking analysis were utilized to investigate the binding modes between emodin and binding sites of P-gp. Emodin reversed adriamycin resistance in K562/ADM cells accompanied with the decrease of P-gp protein expression, further increasing the uptake of rhodamine123 in both K562/ADM and Caco-2 cells, indicating the inhibition of P-gp efflux function...
2017: PloS One
Xuan Wang, Li Zhou, Fengjian Luo, Xinzhong Zhang, Hezhi Sun, Mei Yang, Zhengyun Lou, Zongmao Chen
9,10-Anthraquinone (AQ) was a new contaminant, with unknown sources, occurred globally in tea. European Union (EU) fixed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02mg/kg. The pollution source of AQ in tea was traced from the view of AQ deposit on tea crop by simulation. The possible contamination pathway and main factors to decrease AQ were explored in tea cultivation- tea manufacture- tea infusion, on the basis of AQ analytical methods by using solvent extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) quantification...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Joydip De, Santosh Prasad Gupta, Indu Bala, Sandeep Kumar, Santanu Kumar Pal
Five novel columnar liquid crystalline compounds (4.1 - 4.5) consisting of a central anthraquinone core carrying four alkoxy chains (R = n-C6H13, n-C8H17, n-C10H21, n-C12H25, and 3,7-dimethyl octyl) with two diagonally opposite 1-ethynyl-4-pentylbenzene units were synthesized and their phase transitions were investigated between changes in the molecular structure & their self-assembly into the columnar mesophases. Small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) studies were performed to deduce the exact nature of the mesophases and their corresponding electron density maps were derived from the intensities of the peaks observed in the diffraction patterns...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Fengli Yuan, Liang Qiao, Yinghan Chen, Xin Qi, Yankai Liu, Dehai Li, Qianqun Gu, Jing Li, Ming Liu
AS1041 is a novel synthesized anthraquinone lactone derivative of marine natural compound aspergiolide A (ASP-A) with new structure skeleton and marked cytotoxicity in cancer cells. To study its cytotoxicity in detail, we evaluated its activity on human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and investigated the related molecule mechanisms. AS1041 significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of K562 cells. Moreover, AS1041 arrested cell cycle progression at G2/M phase in a concentration-dependent manner, and also caused concentration- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis...
November 4, 2017: Marine Drugs
Weiyi Wang, Yanyan Liao, Chao Tang, Xiaomei Huang, Zhuhua Luo, Jianming Chen, Peng Cai
Three novel compounds, 4-methyl-candidusin A (1), aspetritone A (2) and aspetritone B (3), were obtained from the culture of a coral-derived fungus Aspergillus tritici SP2-8-1, together with fifteen known compounds (4-18). Their structures, including absolute configurations, were assigned based on NMR, MS, and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) ECD calculations. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited better activities against methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA CGMCC 1...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
Yanzheng Jin, Shidong Qin, Hai Gao, Guoliang Zhu, Wei Wang, Weiming Zhu, Yi Wang
To obtain new bioactive natural products, the effect of acidic stress on the metabolites of an aciduric fungus was investigated. This fungus, Penicillium sp. OUCMDZ-4736, which was isolated from the sediment around roots of mangrove (Acanthus ilicifolius), produced different compounds and higher yields under pH 2.5 than under neutral conditions. Using spectroscopic analyses and calculations, three new anthraquinone derivatives (1-3) were isolated and identified from the acidic fermentation broth (pH 2.5) of OUCMDZ-4736...
November 4, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
C Anisha, P Sachidanandan, E K Radhakrishnan
The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp...
November 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
Ashok Keerthi, Boya Radha, Daniele Rizzo, Hao Lu, Valentin Diez Cabanes, Ian Cheng-Yi Hou, David Beljonne, Jérôme Cornil, Cinzia Casiraghi, Martin Baumgarten, Klaus Müllen, Akimitsu Narita
Edge functionalization of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with anthraquinone and naphthalene/perylene monoimide units has been achieved through a Suzuki coupling of polyphenylene precursors bearing bromo groups, prior to the intramolecular oxidative cyclo-dehydrogenation. High efficiency of the substitution has been validated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the functionalized precursors and FT-IR, Raman, and XPS analyses of the resulting GNRs. Moreover, AFM measurements demonstrated the modulation of the self-assembling behavior of the edge-functionalized GNRs, revealing that GNR-PMI formed an intriguing rectangular network...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Peng Tan, Hai-Zhu Zhang, Ding-Kun Zhang, Shan-Na Wu, Ming Niu, Jia-Bo Wang, Xiao-He Xiao
This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Paula J Celis-Salazar, Charity C Epley, Spencer R Ahrenholtz, William A Maza, Pavel M Usov, Amanda J Morris
The ditopic ligands 2,6-dicarboxy-9,10-anthraquinone and 1,4-dicarboxy-9,10-anthraquinone were used to synthesize two new UiO-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs; namely, 2,6-Zr-AQ-MOF and 1,4-Zr-AQ-MOF, respectively). The Pourbaix diagrams (E vs pH) of the MOFs and their ligands were constructed using cyclic voltammetry in aqueous buffered media. The MOFs exhibit chemical stability and undergo diverse electrochemical processes, where the number of electrons and protons transferred was tailored in a Nernstian manner by the pH of the media...
November 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Kai Hu, Yonghui Qiao, Zhifen Deng, Mingxia Wu, Wei Liu
The five anthraquinones compounds (including aloe-emodin, emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, and rhein) are regarded as the main effective ingredients in rhubarb (Dahuang in Chinese, one of the commonly used Chinese herbal medicines). In this work, a simple and effective solid phase extraction (SPE) method based on bis(tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine) modified silica gel as adsorbent was developed. Coupled with UHPLC-FLD, the developed method was successfully applied for the measuring of main anthraquinones in human urine after oral administration of the extracts of rhubarb...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Meng-Jiao Liu, Yun Wang, Ling-Yun Li, Xiao-Qing Li, Ye-Jia Dai, Xue Zhang, Yin-Lian Ma, Cun Zhang, Wen-Lan Li
The qualitative analysis method of ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was established for the chemical constituents in Sanhuang tablets. Waters ACQUITY BEH C₁₈ (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) column was used with 0.1% formic acid solution (A)-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.2 mL•min⁻¹; the sample volume was 1 μL and the column temperature was 30 ℃. The high-resolution quadrupole time-flight mass spectrometry was used as detector with electrospray ion source in both positive and negative models, and the dry gas temperature was 325 ℃...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Nadja Meier, Beat Meier, Samuel Peter, Evelyn Wolfram
For the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) herbal monograph draft of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. and Cassia senna L. leaves and pods, a safety limitation of aloe-emodin and rhein was proposed, due to toxicological concerns. A quantitative, analytical method of the anthraquinone aglycones in all Ph. Eur. monographed herbal laxatives is of interest. A rational method development for the aglycones aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion in five herbal drugs was realized by using 3D chromatographic modelling (temperature, solvent, and gradient time) and design of experiment (DOE) software (DryLab(®) 4)...
October 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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