Read by QxMD icon Read

Opiate addiction

Maria Elena Giusepponi, Carlo Cifani, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Laura Mattioli, Alan Hudson, Eleonora Diamanti, Fabio Del Bello, Mario Giannella, Valerio Mammoli, Corinne Dalila Paoletti, Alessandro Piergentili, Maria Pigini, Wilma Quaglia
Tolerance and dependence associated with chronic opioid exposure result from molecular, cellular, and neural network adaptations. Such adaptations concern opioid and nonopioid systems, including α2-adrenoceptors (α2-ARs) and I1- and I2-imidazoline binding sites (IBS). Agmatine, one of the hypothesized endogenous ligands of IBS, targeting several systems including α2-ARs and IBS, proved to be able to regulate opioid-induced analgesia and to attenuate the development of tolerance and dependence. Interested in the complex pharmacological profile of agmatine and considering the nature of its targets, we evaluated two series of imidazolines, rationally designed to simultaneously interact with I1-/I2-IBS or I1-/I2-IBS/α2-ARs...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Disa Dahlman, Åsa Palm, Christina Sunesdotter, Katja Troberg, Camilla Wallin
Low-threshold primary care for patients in opiate maintenance therapy. A pilot project in Malmö, Sweden, integrates primary care and OMT  This report illustrates how integration of primary care and opiate maintenance therapy (OMT) may improve OMT patients health and minimize obstacles for care seeking. OMT patients have poor health. Around 80 % have hepatitis C, a majority smoke tobacco, and socio-economic status is generally low. However, somatic health is often under-prioritized in this group. To improve OMT patients physical health', two OMT clinics and one primary care center in Malmö, Sweden, started a pilot project in 2014...
October 14, 2016: Läkartidningen
Maryam Farahmandfar, Mehdi Kadivar, Sareh Rastipisheh
Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
Miguel Garrido-Fernández, Juan A Marcos-Sierra, Ana López-Jiménez, Iñigo Ochoa de Alda
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of multi-family therapy at reducing the addiction severity and at improving the psychological and family dynamics of opiate addicts receiving methadone treatment at a public treatment center. The study compares multi-family therapy with a reflecting team (MFT-RT) and a standard treatment following a methadone maintenance treatment program. The results show that multi-family therapy with a reflecting team effectively reduces the addiction severity in several of the areas evaluated and noted that this effect is superior to standard treatment...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Shi-Xun Ma, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Jee-Yeon Seo, Ji-Young Hwang, Sa-Ik Hong, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. We previously demonstrated that TRPV1 in the dorsal striatum significantly contributes to morphine reward by using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice; however, it is unknown whether TRPV1 has the same effect in other reward models. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward by using a self-administration paradigm in rats...
October 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal-associated aversive memories might trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, changes in structural and synaptic plasticity, as well as epigenetic mechanisms, which may be critical for long-term aversive memory, have yet to be elucidated. We used male Wistar rats and performed conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to uncover the role of glucocorticoids (GCs) on plasticity-related processes that occur within the dentate gyrus (DG) during opiate-withdrawal conditioning (memory formation-consolidation) and after reactivation by re-exposure to the conditioned environment (memory retrieval)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Fair M Vassoler, David J Oliver, Cristina Wyse, Ashley Blau, Michael Shtutman, Jill R Turner, Elizabeth M Byrnes
The United States is in the midst of an opiate epidemic, with abuse of prescription and illegal opioids increasing steadily over the past decade. While it is clear that there is a genetic component to opioid addiction, there is a significant portion of heritability that cannot be explained by genetics alone. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal exposure to opioids prior to pregnancy alters abuse liability in subsequent generations. Female adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine at increasing doses (5-25 mg/kg, s...
October 8, 2016: Neuropharmacology
S Mücke, M Nagel, J P Siedentopf, C Bührer, D Hüseman
Background: Infants exposed to opiates antenatally display withdrawal symptoms after birth referred to as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Patients: A total of 366 newborns (166 females, 10 twins) from 361 mothers were diagnosed with NAS from 2000 to 2011 at a single large metropolitan referral center. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newborn infants exposed to opiates in utero. Results: 20% were premature (gestational age<37 weeks), 32% were small-for-gestational-age (<10(th) percentile)...
October 10, 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
Claudia Knothe, Bruno G Oertel, Alfred Ultsch, Mattias Kettner, Peter Harald Schmidt, Cora Wunder, Stefan W Toennes, Gerd Geisslinger, Jörn Lötsch
AIM: Exposure to opioids has been associated with epigenetic effects. Studies in rodents suggested a role of varying degrees of DNA methylation in the differential regulation of μ-opioid receptor expression across the brain. METHODS: In a translational investigation, using tissue acquired postmortem from 21 brain regions of former opiate addicts, representing a human cohort with chronic opioid exposure, μ-opioid receptor expression was analyzed at the level of DNA methylation, mRNA and protein...
September 29, 2016: Epigenomics
Giovanni Ottaviani, Roberto Cameriere, Marta Cippitelli, Rino Froldi, Giovanna Tassoni, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect drugs of abuse in a single sample of tooth. Pulverized samples of dental materials were subjected to acid hydrolysis to detect opiates, cocaine and their metabolites. The residual dental materials from these analyses were subjected to basic extraction to detect cannabis products (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol). The method showed a good linearity between 0.05 and 2 ng/mg for all substances...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Nihit Kumar, Zachary N Stowe, Xiaotong Han, Michael J Mancino
BACKGROUND: Early adverse life events such as childhood trauma have been linked to development of substance use disorders. The prevalence and impact on treatment of early childhood trauma in opioid-dependent individuals has received limited research attention. The present study examined reported childhood trauma and its relation to retention and adherence in an outpatient buprenorphine treatment program. METHODS: Medical records of individuals who completed childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) were reviewed to extract baseline data and demographics (N = 113)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Liam J Nestor, Anna Murphy, John McGonigle, Csaba Orban, Laurence Reed, Eleanor Taylor, Remy Flechais, Louise M Paterson, Dana Smith, Edward T Bullmore, Karen D Ersche, John Suckling, Roger Tait, Rebecca Elliott, Bill Deakin, Ilan Rabiner, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, Barbara Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
There is a concerted research effort to investigate brain mechanisms underlying addiction processes that may predicate the development of new compounds for treating addiction. One target is the brain's opioid system, because of its role in the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse. Substance-dependent populations have increased numbers of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in fronto-striatal regions that predict drug relapse, and demonstrate disturbances in these regions during the processing of non-drug rewards...
September 6, 2016: Addiction Biology
Giovanna Tassoni, Marta Cippitelli, Dora Mirtella, Rino Froldi, Giovanni Ottaviani, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
Under Italian law drug addiction and regular drug abuse are incompatible with driving ability. One important problem with the enforcement of the impaired driving law is the large number of people that re-offend. To regain their license, offenders must be drug-free for the duration of an observation period, according to the judgement of a medical commission. The exclusion of illicit drug use is determined by toxicological analysis. A few studies exist that have used a hair matrix to monitor recidivism. Hair is an attractive matrix for monitoring drug recidivism, due to the large time window for drug detection, and to the non-alterability of this matrix...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
J G Jones, K A J White, M B Delgado-Charro
It has been shown that prolonged systemic presence of a drug can cause a build-up of that drug in the skin. This drug 'reservoir', if properly understood, could provide useful information about recent drug-taking history of the patient. We create a pair of coupled mathematical models which combine to explore the potential for a drug reservoir to establish based on the kinetic properties of the drug. The first compartmental model is used to characterise time-dependent drug concentrations in plasma and tissue following a customisable drug regimen...
November 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Amélie Daveluy, Elisabeth Frauger, Hélène Peyrière, Christophe Moracchini, Françoise Haramburu, Joëlle Micallef
Addiction to illicit substances or medicines is influenced by cultural, religious, ethnic factors as well as local availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profile of drug users and characteristics of the psychoactive substances used in French overseas territories, using data from the OPPIDUM survey. OPPIDUM is an annual, nationwide, multicentric, cross-sectional study based on specialized care centres that included subjects presenting a drug addiction or under opiate maintenance treatment...
September 1, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Sava V Petrov, Maria M Orbetzova, Yanko T Iliev, Doychin T Boyadzhiev
INTRODUCTION: Drug addictions to psychoactive substances are disorders with a complex bio-psycho-social genesis, which are characterized with chronic relapses. Substance addiction causes multifactorial damage to the normal functioning of individuals and requires a multicenter approach for the treatment process. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life of patients undergoing chronic treatment with the opiate agonist methadone using a standardized questionnaire method in Bulgarian...
April 2016: Folia Medica
Zhong-Guo Chen, Xing Liu, Weisheng Wang, Fan Geng, Jing Gao, Chen-Ling Gan, Jing-Rui Chai, Ling He, Gang Hu, Hu Zhou, Jing-Gen Liu
Addiction is characterized by drug craving, compulsive drug taking and relapse, which is attributed to aberrant neuroadaptation in brain regions implicated in drug addiction, induced by changes in gene and protein expression in these regions after chronic drug exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that the dorsal hippocampus (DH) plays an important role in mediating drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior and relapse. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects of the DH are unclear. In the present study, we employed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to analyze the proteins altered in the DH of heroin self-administering rats...
August 22, 2016: Addiction Biology
U Barahmand, E Tavakolian, A Khazaee, K Mohammadi
CONTEXT: Methadone maintenance is a standard treatment for opiate-dependent individuals. However, deficits in cognitive functioning have been associated with this treatment. AIM: This study aimed to determine the dose and treatment duration-related effects of methadone on executive functions. SETTING AND DESIGN: Pure male opioid users with no considerable history of other drug abuse, undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) were recruited from a major government-run de-addiction center...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"