keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Opiate addiction

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534187/total-hypothalamic-volume-is-reduced-in-postmortem-brains-of-male-heroin-addicts
#1
Ulf J Müller, Kolja Schiltz, Christian Mawrin, Henrik Dobrowolny, Thomas Frodl, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Bernhard Bogerts, Kurt Truebner, Johann Steiner
The hypothalamus is at the core of the stress responses systems of the brain. Most interestingly, even though changes of HPA-function have been observed in opiate addiction not much is known about structural changes of the hypothalamus. Volumes of hypothalamus in heroin addicts (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 12) were assessed by using morphometry of serial whole-brain sections. Total brain volume was larger in the heroin group (mean 1478.85 ± 62.34 cm(3) vs. mean 1352.38 ± 103.24 cm(3)), as the heroin group was more than 10 years younger (p = 0...
May 22, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533165/analgesic-conopeptides-targeting-g-protein-coupled-receptors-reduce-excitability-of-sensory-neurons
#2
REVIEW
Mahsa Sadeghi, Jeffrey R McArthur, Rocio K Finol-Urdaneta, David J Adams
Conotoxins (conopeptides) are a diverse group of peptides isolated from the venom of marine cone snails. Conus peptides modulate pain by interacting with voltage-gated ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Opiate drugs targeting GPCRs have long been used, nonetheless, many undesirable side effects associated with opiates have been observed including addiction. Consequently, alternative avenues to pain management are a largely unmet need. It has been shown that various voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) respond to GPCR modulation...
May 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511485/spiritual-well-being-and-associated-factors-with-relapse-in-opioid-addicts
#3
Mohammad-Reza Noormohammadi, Masoud Nikfarjam, Fatemeh Deris, Neda Parvin
INTRODUCTION: Opioid dependence relapse is a complex and multidimensional problem, and lack of spiritual well-being is a major concern in opioid addicts. AIM: This study was conducted to determine spiritual well-being and factors associated with relapse among opioid addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2015 to September 2015. According to purposive sampling, 312 eligible addicted patients were enrolled in the study...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#4
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#5
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492416/cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-prevents-the-reinstatement-but-not-acquisition-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#6
Xin Zhao, Li Yao, Fang Wang, Han Zhang, Li Wu
The cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) signaling is strongly linked to conditioned rewarding effects of opiates. Learned associations between environmental contexts and discrete cues and drug use play an important role in the maintenance and/or relapse of morphine addiction. Although previous studies suggest that context-dependent morphine treatment alters endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, the role of endocannabinoid in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and reinstatement remains unknown...
May 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491463/-pro-dopamine-regulation-kb220z%C3%A2-as-a-long-term-therapeutic-modality-to-overcome-reduced-resting-state-dopamine-tone-in-opiate-opioid-epidemic-in-america
#7
K Blum, F Marcelo, K Dushaj, L Fried, R D Badgaiyan
Since it is known that relapse, morality, and hospitalizations have been tied to the presence of the Dopamine D2 Receptor A1 allele, as one example, and carriers of this gene variant have a proclivity to favor amino-acid therapy, it seems intuitive that the incorporation of modalities to provide a balance and or restoration of hypodopaminergia should be considered as a front-line tactic to overcome the current American opiate/opioid epidemic, saving millions from death and unwanted locked-in-addiction. If we continue down the prim road path of fighting addiction to narcotics with narcotics, we are doomed to fail...
September 2016: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488881/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-methadone-maintenance-a-feasibility-trial
#8
Sarah Bowen, Vanessa C Somohano, Rachel E Rutkie, Jacob A Manuel, Kristoffer L Rehder
OBJECTIVES: As rates of opiate misuse rise in the United States, so do significant associated health and financial consequences to afflicted individuals, their families, and society at large. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is one evidence-based approach to treating opiate addiction, yet supplemental psychosocial treatment to support this approach is lacking. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) has shown to be efficacious in various substance use populations, but has yet to be assessed with MMT clients...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485408/genetic-and-pharmacological-antagonism-of-nk1-receptor-prevents-opiate-abuse-potential
#9
A J Sandweiss, M I McIntosh, A Moutal, R Davidson-Knapp, J Hu, A K Giri, T Yamamoto, V J Hruby, R Khanna, T M Largent-Milnes, T W Vanderah
Development of an efficacious, non-addicting analgesic has been challenging. Discovery of novel mechanisms underlying addiction may present a solution. Here we target the neurokinin system, which is involved in both pain and addiction. Morphine exerts its rewarding actions, at least in part, by inhibiting GABAergic input onto substance P (SP) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), subsequently increasing SP release onto dopaminergic neurons. Genome editing of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in the VTA renders morphine non-rewarding...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462940/chronic-nicotine-alters-corticostriatal-plasticity-in-the-striatopallidal-pathway-mediated-by-nr2b-containing-silent-synapses
#10
Jianxun Xia, Allison M Meyers, Jeff A Beeler
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and success rates for quitting remain low. High relapse rates are attributed to pervasive nicotine-reinforced associative learning of incentive cues that is highly resistant to extinction. Why such learning is so persistent is poorly understood but may arise as a consequence of neuroadaptations in synaptic plasticity induced by chronic nicotine. We used whole-cell patch clamp recording to investigate the effect of chronic nicotine (cNIC) on synaptic plasticity in dopamine D2 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons in the indirect, striatopallidal pathway in dorsolateral striatum...
May 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461172/upregulation-of-iras-nischarin-i1-imidazoline-receptor-a-regulatory-protein-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-trafficking-in-postmortem-prefrontal-cortex-of-long-term-opiate-and-mixed-opiate-cocaine-abusers
#11
Benjamin Keller, Romano La Harpe, Jesús A García-Sevilla
Imidazoline receptor antisera-selected (IRAS)/nischarin, a putative I1-imidazoline receptor, has recently been shown to regulate μ-opioid receptor (OR) trafficking and resensitisation. To study a possible involvement of this μ-OR regulator in opiate dependence, the present study assessed by Western blot analysis the contents of IRAS/nischarin and μ-OR in total homogenates and subcellular preparations of postmortem human prefrontal cortex (PFC/BA9) of long-term opiate and mixed opiate/cocaine abusers as well as of matched healthy control subjects...
April 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449351/long-term-plasticity-of-corticostriatal-synapses-is-modulated-by-pathway-specific-co-release-of-opioids-through-kappa-opioid-receptors
#12
Sarah L Hawes, Armando G Salinas, David M Lovinger, Kim T Blackwell
Synaptic plasticity in striatum adjusts behaviour adaptively during skill learning, or maladaptively in the case of addiction. Just as dopamine plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying normal skill learning and addiction, endogenous and exogenous opiates also modulate learning and addiction-related striatal plasticity. Though the role of opioid receptors in long-term depression in striatum has been characterized, their effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) remains unknown. In particular, direct pathway (Dopamine D1 Receptor containing; D1R) - spiny projection neurons (SPNs) co-release the opioid neuropeptide dynorphin, which acts at presynaptic kappa opioid receptors (KORs) on dopaminergic afferents and can negatively regulate dopamine release...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446883/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-profile-of-ppl-101-and-ppl-103-mixed-opioid-partial-agonist-analgesics-with-low-abuse-potential
#13
Taline V Khroyan, Andrea Cippitelli, Nicholas Toll, John A Lawson, William Crossman, Willma E Polgar, Lawrence Toll
Opiates are still the most effective and widely used treatments for acute and chronic pain. However, the problems associated with morphine and other standard opioid analgesics severely limit their effectiveness in the clinic. PPL-101 and PPL-103 derived from morphine and morphinan ring systems contain a chiral N-substituent, which confers it with a unique combination of high-binding affinities and partial agonist activities at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, leading to unique in vivo pharmacology compared to other conventional opioids...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422795/trial-design-and-endpoint-evaluation-in-clinical-studies-addressing-chronic-back-pain
#15
Peter Staats
STUDY DESIGN: A review of the literature evaluating clinical trials of chronic back pain. OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in assessing the quality of clinical trial data to make the most informed treatment decisions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic pain is a tremendous public health issue, affecting close to 100 million adults in the United States, and costs the American people billions of dollars. One traditional treatment approach, the long-term use of opiate medications, has recently come under intense scrutiny for problems with complications, diversion, abuse, addiction and lack of efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422138/abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-of-heroin-users-and-its-relationship-with-anxiety-a-pilot-fnirs-study
#16
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Drug addiction is widely linked to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which is essential for regulating reward-related behaviors, emotional responses, and anxiety. Over the past two decades, neuroimaging has provided significant contributions revealing functional and structural alternations in the brains of drug addicts. However, the underlying neural mechanism in the OFC and its correlates with drug addiction and anxiety still require further elucidation. We first presented a pilot investigation to examine local networks in OFC regions through resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) from eight abstinent addicts in a heroin-dependent group (HD) and seven subjects in a control group (CG)...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398354/global-genetic-variation-of-select-opiate-metabolism-genes-in-self-reported-healthy-individuals
#17
F R Wendt, G Pathak, A Sajantila, R Chakraborty, B Budowle
CYP2D6 is a key pharmacogene encoding an enzyme impacting poor, intermediate, extensive and ultrarapid phase I metabolism of many marketed drugs. The pharmacogenetics of opiate drug metabolism is particularly interesting due to the relatively high incidence of addiction and overdose. Recently, trans-acting opiate metabolism and analgesic response enzymes (UGT2B7, ABCB1, OPRM1 and COMT) have been incorporated into pharmacogenetic studies to generate more comprehensive metabolic profiles of patients. With use of massively parallel sequencing, it is possible to identify additional polymorphisms that fine tune, or redefine, previous pharmacogenetic findings, which typically rely on targeted approaches...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397130/antidiarrheal-drug-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea often runs a self-limited course and little by way of treatment is needed except for oral rehydration therapy. Chronic diarrhea poses a longer-term problem. If not treatable with specific therapy aimed at the underlying pathophysiology, chronic diarrhea often needs long-term symptomatic therapy. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to examine the options for symptomatic, nonspecific treatment of diarrhea. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequently used therapies are opiate antidiarrheal drugs...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394056/putting-a-face-to-opiate-addiction-for-students-at-a-needle-exchange-programme
#19
Rolando Tringale, Jo Marie Reilly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380057/specific-behavioral-and-cellular-adaptations-induced-by-chronic-morphine-are-reduced-by-dietary-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#20
Joshua Hakimian, Ani Minasyan, Lily Zhe-Ying, Mariana Loureiro, Austin Beltrand, Camille Johnston, Alexander Vorperian, Nicole Romaneschi, Waleed Atallah, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, Wendy Walwyn
Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA), could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
44151
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"