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Opiate addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667304/inhibition-of-alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-selectively-attenuates-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-and-associated-changes-in-ampa-receptor-binding
#1
Victoria L Wright, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexis Bailey, David J Heal, Christopher P Bailey, Susan Wonnacott
Recurrent relapse is a major problem in treating opiate addiction. Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in recurrent relapse whereby exposure to cues learned during drug intake can precipitate relapse to drug taking. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in attentional aspects of cognition and mechanisms of learning and memory. In this study we have investigated the role of α7 nAChRs in morphine-conditioned place preference (morphine-CPP). CPP provides a model of associative learning that is pertinent to associative aspects of drug dependence...
April 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649094/methadone-maintenance-treatment-a-15-year-retrospective-study-in-split-dalmatia-county-croatia
#2
Davorka Sutlovic, Zeljko Kljucevic, Livia Sliskovic, Helena Susnjar, Ivo Viskovic, Marija Definis-Gojanovic
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study is to use existing epidemiological data on patients in methadone maintenance treatment in Split Dalmatia County from 2001 to 2015 in order to evaluate the substitution treatment system and policy of opiate addicts treatment, the epidemiological trend, and risk of overdose mortality. In addition, we would like to highlight the problem of poor control of methadone therapy, and thus the possibility of selling methadone. The result is a greater number of deaths caused by methadone in people who were not in methadone therapy...
April 11, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616150/methadone-treatment-of-opiate-addiction-a-systematic-review-of-comparative-studies
#3
REVIEW
Shahid Ali, Barira Tahir, Shagufta Jabeen, Madeeha Malik
Opiate misuse is a chronic relapsing disease that has become an epidemic in the United States. Methadone is the mainstay of treatment for opiate addiction and has been researched widely. Recently, new avenues of treatment have been researched and developed. The objective of this review is to study methadone in comparison to other pharmacological options available or being considered for opiate addiction treatment through a methodical search and review of evidence provided by recent clinical trials conducted in this regard...
July 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593550/naltrexone-reverses-ethanol-preference-and-protein-kinase-c-activation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Rajeswari Koyyada, Nilesh Latchooman, Julius Jonaitis, Samir S Ayoub, Olivia Corcoran, Stefano O Casalotti
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE) in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578830/mortality-and-cause-of-death-a-30-year-follow-up-of-substance-misusers-in-sweden
#5
Ninive von Greiff, Lisa Skogens, Marie Berlin, Anders Bergmark
BACKGROUND: This article presents a 30-year follow-up study of a cohort of 1163 substance misusers who were in inpatient treatment in the early 1980s. Data was originally collected in the Swedish Drug Addict Treatment Evaluation (SWEDATE). OBJECTIVES: The aim is to examine the overall mortality and identify causes of death in different groups based on self-reported most dominant substance misuse among those who have died during January 1984-December 2013. METHODS: SWEDATE-data was linked to the National Cause of Death Register...
March 26, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578199/initial-treatment-dropout-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-attending-a-tertiary-care-de-addiction-centre-in-north-india
#6
Debasish Basu, Abhishek Ghosh, Siddharth Sarkar, Bichitra Nanda Patra, B N Subodh, Surendra Kumar Mattoo
Background & objectives: Dropout from substance use disorders treatment is associated with poor outcomes. Although many factors have been associated with an early dropout of patients, the reasons for dropping out of treatment prematurely remain poorly understood particularly in the Indian context. This study was aimed to study socio-demographic and clinical variables predicting initial dropout of patients attending a tertiary care de-addiction treatment centre in north India. Methods: Information was extracted from the records of consecutive newly registered patients from January 2011 to December 2014...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569991/examining-perceived-stress-childhood-trauma-and-interpersonal-trauma-in-individuals-with-drug-addiction
#7
Julia Garami, Ahmad Valikhani, Denise Parkes, Paul Haber, Justin Mahlberg, Blazej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Ahmed A Moustafa
The investigation of psychosocial factors in relation to opiate addiction is limited and typically uses binary measures to assess how incidences of childhood trauma correlate with addiction. There has also been a lack of enquiry into how experiences of noninterpersonal versus interpersonal trauma may impact drug use addiction. In this regard, the current study utilized a novel measurement of interpersonal versus noninterpersonal lifetime trauma and a scale assessing severity of childhood trauma to examine how these factors may impact patients with opioid addiction...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569392/factors-affecting-the-dose-of-methadone-among-patients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-therapy-in-taiwan
#8
Dian-Jeng Li, Kuan-Shang Chung, Hung-Chi Wu, Chih-Yao Hsu, Cheng-Fang Yen
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for opioid users. This study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of clinically predominant sleep disturbance (CPSD) on the dose of methadone among opiate users receiving MMT during a follow-up period of 6 years in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective study included 1,290 individuals with opioid dependence who visited our MMT clinic for the first time. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the effect of CPSD on the daily dose of methadone by controlling for the effects of demographic and MMT characteristics...
March 23, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564682/opioid-exposure-is-associated-with-aberrant-dna-methylation-of-oprm1-promoter-region-in-a-chinese-han-population
#9
Jiawei Xu, Teng Wang, Zhiyang Su, Xinyao Zhou, Yuqian Xiang, Lin He, Candong Li, Zhaoyang Yang, Xinzhi Zhao
The μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) plays an important role in opiate addiction. The OPRM1 gene promoter showed hypermethylation in lymphocytes of opiate addicts as well as opioid medications users, while the methylation status displayed ethnic diversity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methylation pattern of OPRM1 promoter in the Han Chinese population. We analyzed 22 CpG sites located in OPRM1 promoter in 186 former opiate addicts (94 males and 92 females) and 184 healthy controls (102 males and 82 females)...
March 21, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562165/mind-reading-abilities-in-opiate-dependent-patients-an-exploratory-study
#10
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Bérénice Lecluyse, Claire Triquet, Emmanuel Brunelle, Jean-Paul Duparcq, Jean-Louis Nandrino
OBJECTIVES: Impairments in social cognition have been described as playing a major role in the maintenance of addictive behavior in substance abusers. This study aimed to investigate the Theory of Mind (ToM) ability of opiate-dependent (OD) patients and to explore whether TOM ability was correlated with length of substance abuse, age at onset of substance abuse and length of abstinence. METHODS: OD patients (N = 29) and non-dependent individuals (NDI) (N = 29) were submitted to the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th...
March 12, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544981/-state-of-addiction-care-by-general-practitioners-in-north-paris
#11
V Clergue-Duval, E Pot, J Azuar
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are fully concerned with the care of patients suffering from addiction and must have the support of a specialized network. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of the addict follow-up care by GPs, their use of addictological care facilities and their needs in communicating with specialists. METHODS: Private and salaried GPs working in the 9th, 10th, 18th and 19th districts of Paris were contacted by phone, and a questionnaire was sent to those who agreed to respond...
March 12, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514413/heroin-seeking-becomes-dependent-on-dorsal-striatal-dopaminergic-mechanisms-and-can-be-decreased-by-n-acetylcysteine
#12
Ritchy Hodebourg, Jennifer E Murray, Maxime Fouyssac, Mickaël Puaud, Barry J Everitt, David Belin
The alarming increase in heroin overdoses in the USA is a reminder of the need for efficacious and novel treatments for opiate addiction. This may reflect the relatively poor understanding of the neural basis of heroin, as compared to cocaine, seeking behavior. While cocaine reinforcement depends on the mesolimbic system, well established cocaine seeking is dependent on dorsolateral striatum (aDLS) dopamine-dependent mechanisms which are disrupted by N-acetylcysteine, through normalisation of corticostriatal glutamate homeostasis...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505462/opiate-dependence-or-addiction-a-review-of-the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-guidelines-for-management-of-chronic-pain
#13
Gina C Dobbs, Susanne A Fogger
In the wake of epidemic of opioid overdoses in the United States, patients who are receiving treatment for chronic pain with opioid have come under increasing scrutiny. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a guideline for managing chronic pain in 2016, which makes recommendations for opioids based on current evidence. This review will highlight key components of the guideline including differentiating addiction from dependence to assist nurses to better inform patient care in managing chronic pain...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472948/craving-and-drug-reward-a-comparison-of-celecoxib-and-ibuprofen-in-detoxifying-opiate-addicts
#14
Sara Jafari, Sana Khajehpour, Emran Mohammad Razzaghi, Kazem Heidari, Mehdi Soleimani, Padideh Ghaeli
Objective: Craving for substance abuse is a usual and complicated problem in patients, with opioid addiction who are in opioid detoxifying process. Craving has been added as one of the diagnostic criteria of substance use disorders in DSM-5. The present trial aimed at comparing the effects of celecoxib versus ibuprofen in reducing pain and decreasing the desire to use opiates in patients undergoing opiate detoxification (n = 32). Method: A total of 32 patients (both inpatients and outpatients), who were undergoing opiate detoxification procedure and met the inclusion criteria entered this 4- week study...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453925/impact-of-opioid-therapy-on-gonadal-hormones-focus-on-buprenorphine
#15
REVIEW
Anjali Varma, Mamta Sapra, Ali Iranmanesh
Objective The USA is in the midst of an opioid crisis. Understanding the impact of opioids and commonly used treatments for opioid dependence is essential for clinicians and researchers in order to educate and treat the nation's growing population with opioid use disorders. As a relatively new treatment for opioid dependence, buprenorphine is gaining popularity to the extent of becoming not only a preferred approach to the maintenance of opiate addiction, but also an option for chronic pain management. The purpose of this report is to review the available evidence on the endocrine effects of buprenorphine, particularly as it relates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controversial and not fully defined...
February 17, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447356/barriers-to-the-availability-and-accessibility-of-controlled-medicines-for-chronic-pain-in-africa
#16
Elmang Nchako, Scottie Bussell, Carlos Nesbeth, Chisom Odoh
Africans endure a high burden of pain and suffering from HIV/AIDS and cancer, yet receive a meager amount of the world's pain medication. This tragedy occurs needlessly, given that inexpensive, effective and easily administered interventions are available. WHO has a 'three-step analgesic ladder' framework for managing cancer pain. This widely adopted clinical practice guideline is an integral part of palliative care programs and has also been applied to non-cancer pain. However, untreated pain is a major public health problem due to the discordance between scientific evidence and public policy...
February 13, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428330/predictors-of-craving-and-substance-use-among-patients-with-alcohol-tobacco-cannabis-or-opiate-addictions-commonalities-and-specificities-across-substances
#17
Fuschia Serre, Melina Fatseas, Cécile Denis, Joel Swendsen, Marc Auriacombe
INTRODUCTION: Craving has been proposed as a major contributor to addiction relapse and the influence of mood on craving and substance use has been extensively documented. However, information is lacking concerning the extent to which the magnitude of these effects may vary according to different types of substances. The aim of the present study was to compare the prospective links between emotions, craving and substance use in four groups of patients beginning treatment for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or opiate addiction...
February 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422449/attention-bias-in-individuals-with-addictive-disorders-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Melvyn Zhang, JiangBo Ying, Guo Song, Roger Cm Ho, Daniel Ss Fung, Helen Smith
BACKGROUND: Globally, substance disorders, particularly that of opiate use, cannabis use, and stimulant use disorders, are highly prevalent. Psychological treatments are an integral aspect of intervention, but a proportion of individuals still relapse despite having received such an intervention. Recently, the dual-process theory proposed that the unconscious processes of attention biases are responsible for these relapses. Prior meta-analyses have reported the presence of attention bias in alcohol and tobacco use disorders...
February 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373310/-obstetrical-follow-up-and-perinatal-prognosis-in-drug-addict-pregnant-women
#19
B Fanjeaux, A Braconnier, I Clerc-Urmès, O Morel, E Gauchotte
OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with a good obstetric follow-up and a good perinatal prognosis, in order to adapt the management of pregnant women with addiction to opiates. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in our maternity between January 2012 and December 2014, including 104 women who were addicted to opiates, whether or not they were substituted, with or without associated consumptions, regardless of the term of delivery beyond 22 weeks of amenorrhea...
January 16, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363042/potential-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathophysiology-of-drug-addiction
#20
REVIEW
P S S Rao, Kelly O'Connell, Thomas Kyle Finnerty
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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