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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035815/genipin-inhibits-allergic-responses-in-ovalbumin-induced-asthmatic-mice
#1
Je-Won Ko, Na-Rae Shin, Sung-Hyeuk Park, Young-Kwon Cho, Jong-Choon Kim, Chang-Seob Seo, In-Sik Shin
Genipin is a natural compound isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides with various pharmacological effects. In this study, we investigated whether genipin effectively alleviates allergic responses in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. The mice were administered an intraperitoneal injection of OVA on day 0 and 14 to boost the immune response; genipin was then administered from day 18 to 23 by oral gavage. On days 21 to 23, mice were OVA-challenged using am ultrasonic nebulizer, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was determined on day 24 by plethysmography...
October 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035263/developing-a-test-bed-for-robust-research-governance-of-geoengineering-the-contribution-of-ocean-iron-biogeochemistry
#2
Philip W Boyd, Matthieu Bressac
Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km(2)) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035132/hybrid-lipid-polymer-nanoparticles-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-sirna-development-and-fate-upon-in-vitro-deposition-on-the-human-epithelial-airway-barrier
#3
Ivana d'Angelo, Gabriella Costabile, Estelle Durantie, Paola Brocca, Valeria Rondelli, Annapina Russo, Giulia Russo, Agnese Miro, Fabiana Quaglia, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Francesca Ungaro
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the downregulation of genes involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung diseases through local siRNA delivery appears an interesting therapeutic approach. In this study, we propose novel hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles (hNPs) consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as siRNA inhalation system. METHODS: A panel of DPPC/PLGA hNPs was prepared by emulsion/solvent diffusion and fully characterized...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029057/patient-specific-modelling-of-regional-tobramycin-concentration-levels-in-airways-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-can-we-dose-once-daily
#4
Aukje C Bos, Johan W Mouton, Mireille van Westreenen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Pa ) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes. Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting Akita ® system or standard PARI-LC ® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027431/-determination-of-three-saponins-in-rhizoma-and-fibrous-root-of-trillium-tschonoskii-and-trillium-kamtschaticum
#5
Yin-Jun Yang, Xin-Guang Sun, Jie Yang, Qi Li, Jie Zhang, Yang Zhao, Bai-Ping Ma, Bao-Lin Guo
To compare the differences of main components between in rhizoma and fibrous root of Trillium tschonoskii and T. kamtschaticum, a simple, accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with the charged aerosol detector (HPLC-CAD) method was developed and then successfully applied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of three compounds, including polyphyllin Ⅶ (T1),pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2) [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (T2),polyphyllin Ⅵ (T3), in 16 batches of rhizome and 14 batches of fibrous root...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023104/quantitative-evaluation-of-cisplatin-uptake-in-sensitive-and-resistant-individual-cells-by-single-cell-icp-ms-sc-icp-ms
#6
Mario Corte Rodríguez, Roberto Álvarez-Fernández García, Elisa Blanco Gonzalez, Jorg Bettmer, Maria Montes-Bayon
One of the main limitations to the Pt-therapy in cancer is the development of associated drug resistance that can be associated to a significant reduction of the intracellular platinum concentration. Thus, intracellular Pt concentration could be considered as a biomarker of cisplatin resistance. In this work, an alternative method to address intracellular Pt concentration in individual cells is explored to permit the evaluation of different cell models and/or alternative therapies in a relatively fast way. For this aim, total Pt analysis in single cells has been implemented using a total consumption nebulizer coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection (ICP-MS)...
October 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017249/characterization-of-aerosols-generated-during-patient-care-activities
#7
Caroline A O'Neil, Jiayu Li, Anna Leavey, Yang Wang, Matthew Hink, Meghan Wallace, Pratim Biswas, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Hilary M Babcock
Background: Questions remain about the degree to which aerosols are generated during routine patient care activities and whether such aerosols could transmit viable pathogens to healthcare personnel (HCP). The objective of this study was to measure aerosol production during multiple patient care activities and to examine the samples for bacterial pathogens. Methods: Five aerosol characterization instruments were used to measure aerosols during 7 patient care activities: patient bathing, changing bed linens, pouring and flushing liquid waste, bronchoscopy, noninvasive ventilation, and nebulized medication administration (NMA)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994337/aerosol-therapy-through-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-pediatric-patients
#8
Awni M Al-Subu, Scott Hagen, Marlowe Eldridge, Juan Borriosi
High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used in pediatric patients suffering from respiratory failure. In some disease processes, patients may also benefit from aerosol therapy. Therefore, the use of HFNC to deliver aerosolized medications is a convenient and attractive option. Areas covered: This review aims to appraise available evidence concerning the efficiency of aerosol nebulized therapy delivery using HFNC in pediatric patients. Expert commentary: Delivery of aerosol particles is a very complex process and depends on the use of oxygen vs...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992055/amphotericin-b-concentrations-in-healthy-mallard-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-following-a-single-intratracheal-dose-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-using-an-atomizer
#9
Ashley Phillips, Christine V Fiorello, Rachel M Baden, Jack H Liu, Nathaniel C Burmas, Carlos A Ruvalcaba, Roger Monroy, F Charles Mohr, Ronette Gehring, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens, Lisa A Tell
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that primarily affects the respiratory tract. Amphotericin B has broad antifungal activity and is commonly used to treat aspergillosis, a fungal pneumonia that is a common sequela in oiled waterfowl as well as other birds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized amphotericin B in an avian model have been reported, but those of direct intratracheal delivery have yet to be established. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a single 3 mg/kg dose of liposomal amphotericin B delivered intratracheally using a commercial atomizer would achieve plasma and lung tissue concentrations exceeding targeted minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Aspergillus species in adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)...
August 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990958/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-long-term-care-setting-current-practices-challenges-and-unmet-needs
#10
Manuel Suarez-Barcelo, Joseph L Micca, Sharon Clackum, Gary T Ferguson
: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent and disabling disorder in the United States, especially affecting older individuals, women, and those with a history of smoking. Studies show that COPD may be underrepresented, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in elderly patients residing in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The quality of care for LTC residents with COPD is heterogeneous in regard to both the facility and the patient. For LTC facilities, care should be driven by staff education, interstaff communication, and interfacility communication...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990261/heated-air-humidification-versus-cold-air-nebulization-in-newly-tracheostomized-patients
#11
Richard Birk, Alexander Händel, Angela Wenzel, Benedikt Kramer, Christoph Aderhold, Karl Hörmann, Boris A Stuck, J Ulrich Sommer
BACKGROUND: After tracheostomy, the airway lacks an essential mechanism for warming and humidifying the inspired air with the consequent functional impairment and discomfort. The purpose of this study was to compare airway hydration with cold-air nebulization versus heated high-flow humidification on medical interventions and tracheal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). METHODS: Newly tracheostomized patients (n = 20) were treated either with cold-air nebulization or heated humidification...
October 9, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987804/pharmacodynamics-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-revefenacin-td-4208-a-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonist-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-results-of-two-randomized-double-blind-phase-2-studies
#12
Dean Quinn, Christopher N Barnes, Wayne Yates, David L Bourdet, Edmund J Moran, Peter Potgieter, Andrew Nicholls, Brett Haumann, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Revefenacin (TD-4208) is a potent, lung-selective, long-acting muscarinic antagonist currently in development for once-daily treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the pharmacodynamics (bronchodilator activity), pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single- and multiple-dose administrations of nebulized revefenacin in two clinical trials (Study 0059 and Study 0091) in patients with moderate to severe COPD. METHODS: In Study 0059, 32 patients were randomized to receive a single dose of revefenacin (350 or 700 μg), active control ipratropium (500 μg) or placebo inhalation solution administered via standard jet nebulizer in a double-blind, crossover fashion...
October 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985871/ex%C3%A2-vivo-treatment-with-inhaled-n-acetylcysteine-in-porcine-lung-transplantation
#13
Yoshito Yamada, Ilker Iskender, Stephan Arni, Sven Hillinger, Tugba Cosgun, Keke Yu, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr, Nikola Cesarovic, Walter Weder, Ilhan Inci
BACKGROUND: We have shown the beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on posttransplant lung function, when both donor and recipient were pretreated intravenously. However, systemic treatment of multiorgan donors may not be clinically relevant. Thus, we hypothesized that ex vivo treatment of donors with nebulized NAC would be adequate to prevent from ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation. METHODS: Lungs were retrieved from domestic pigs and stored at 4°C for 24 h followed by 2 h of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) to administer 50 mg/kg of NAC via nebulization in the NAC group (n = 6)...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984146/nonclinical-safety-assessment-of-spx-101-a-novel-peptide-promoter-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-internalization-for-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Matthew P Walker, Matt Cowlen, Dale Christensen, Mutsumi Miyamoto, Phillip Barley, Timothy Crowder
BACKGROUND: ENaC inhibition has long been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. However, previous attempts at developing ENaC inhibitors have been unsuccessful due to complications arising from systemic circulation of the compounds. Here, we describe the preclinical toxicology assessment of a new inhaled peptide promoter of ENaC internalization delivered as a nebulized aerosol. METHODS: Preclinical assessment of SPX-101 safety was determined using an in vitro hERG assay, bolus injection of SPX-101 in a canine cardiovascular and respiratory safety pharmacology model and 28-day inhalation toxicology studies of nebulized drug in rats and dogs...
October 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982141/experimental-human-like-model-to-assess-the-part-of-viable-legionella-reaching-the-thoracic-region-after-nebulization
#15
Jérémie Pourchez, Lara Leclerc, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Nathalie Prevot, Séverine Allegra
The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella), we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i) recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii) a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972463/inhaled-simvastatin-nanoparticles-for-inflammatory-lung-disease
#16
Alaa S Tulbah, Elvira Pisano, Santo Scalia, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini, Hui Xin Ong
AIM: Current inhaled treatments are not adequate to treat all lung diseases. In this study, a promising nanotechnology has been developed to deliver a potential anti-inflammatory and muco-inhibitory compound, simvastatin, for treatment of inflammatory lung diseases via inhalation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Simvastatin nanoparticles (SV-NPs) encapsulated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid were fabricated using the solvent and anti-solvent precipitation method. RESULTS: SV-NPs were found to be stable up to 9 months at 4°C in a freeze-dried form prior to reconstitution...
October 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970663/iatrogenic-bilateral-simultaneous-pneumothorax-call-for-vigilance
#17
Sunil Kumar Garg, Pragya Garg, Nidhi Anchan, Ashish Jaiswal
Iatrogenic pneumothorax refers to the pneumothorax generated after diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. We report the case of a 40-year-old male who had bilateral simultaneous iatrogenic pneumothorax with pneumomediastinum leading to cardiac arrest situation, due to wrong placement of nebulization kit in spontaneously breathing intubated patient. We report this case for its rarity, due to the critical importance of this cause as a etiology of bilateral simultaneous iatrogenic pneumothorax leading to cardiac arrest situation, and need to understand the importance of continuous training and stress of emergency environment...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968931/determination-of-rare-earth-elements-in-multi-year-high-resolution-arctic-aerosol-record-by-double-focusing-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-with-desolvation-nebulizer-inlet-system
#18
Fabio Giardi, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Laura Caiazzo, Claudia Ancillotti, Roberto Udisti
An inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) was used to develop an analytical method for the fast determination of Na, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Y, Mo, Cd, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Pb in Arctic size-segregated aerosol samples (PM10), after microwave acidic digestion. The ICP-SFMS was coupled with a microflow nebulizer and a desolvation system for the sample introduction, which reduced the isobaric interferences due to oxides and the required volume of sample solutions, compared to the usual nebulization chamber methods...
September 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964835/inhaled-nebulized-sodium-nitrite-decreases-pulmonary-artery-pressure-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Teerapat Yingchoncharoen, Teewin Rakyhao, Suporn Chuncharunee, Piyamitr Sritara, Pavit Pienvichit, Kittiphong Paiboonsukwong, Piyadon Sathavorasmith, Kanjana Sirirat, Thanaporn Sriwantana, Sirada Srihirun, Nathawut Sibmooh
Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening complication in β-thalassemia. Inhaled sodium nitrite has vasodilatory effect on pulmonary vasculature. However, its effect on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in β-thalassemia subjects with pulmonary hypertension has never been reported. In this study, we investigated the change in PAP during inhalation of sodium nitrite in 5 β-thalassemia patients. We demonstrated that sodium nitrite administered by nebulization rapidly decreased PAP as measured by echocardiography and right heart catheterization...
September 27, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962626/efficacy-and-usability-of-a-novel-nebulizer-targeting-both-upper-and-lower-airways
#20
Daniela Posa, Antonio Pizzulli, Petra Wagner, Serena Perna, Stephanie Hofmaier, Paolo Maria Matricardi, Susanne Lau
BACKGROUND: Upper and lower airways diseases share in part their pathogenic mechanisms and frequently occur simultaneously as "United Airway Disease." Local treatment with nebulizers delivers anti-symptomatic drugs in either the upper or the lower airways, according to the particle size generated by the nebulizer. To our knowledge, no nebulizer combines both application ways. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy and usability of a new nebulizer (OMRON A3 complete), generating aerosols with particles diameters of 2-4...
September 29, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
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