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April 23, 2018: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
Pradum P Ige, Sagar R Pardeshi, Raju O Sonawane
The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro performance of nebulized nanosuspension formulation when nebulized using ultrasonic nebulizer. The present investigation deals with successful formulation of Beclomethasone dipropionate loaded HPMCP nanospheres prepared by solvent evaporation technique using PEG 400 as a stabilizer. Beclomethasone dipropionate is a water insoluble drug molecule was encapsulated in HPMCP nanospheres to have pH dependent solubility at basic pH for targeted drug delivery in lung and studied for in vitro cytotoxicity and immediate release capability...
April 17, 2018: Drug Research
Steven Brennan, Lia Lowrie, Jamie Wooldridge
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the effects of an asthma de-escalation clinical pathway on selected outcomes for patients admitted to a PICU with status asthmaticus. DESIGN: Time series quality improvement trial. SETTING: PICU in a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Children age 2-18 years old with a known diagnosis of asthma presenting with status asthmaticus. INTERVENTION: One-hundred five admissions to a PICU for status asthmaticus were treated according to a new de-escalation pathway between August 15, 2015, and August 30, 2016...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, acetazolamide and its structurally similar analogue, methazolamide prevent or reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and humans in vivo, by a mechanism unrelated to CA inhibition. In rodent blood and isolated blood vessels, Aamand et al. (2009) reported that inhibition of CA led to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and vascular relaxation in vitro. We tested the physiological relevance of augmented NO generation by CA from nitrite with acetazolamide in anaesthetized pigs during alveolar hypoxia in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Gunther Antonissen, An Martel
The use of antifungals in birds is characterized by interspecies and interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics, affecting drug safety and efficacy. Oral antifungal drug absorption is a complex process affected by drug formulation characteristics, gastrointestinal anatomy, and physiology. New antifungal drug delivery systems can enhance drug stability, reduce off-target side effects, prolong residence time in the blood, and improve efficacy. Topical administration of antifungals through nebulization shows promising results...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Nur Eni Lestari, Nani Nurhaeni, Siti Chodidjah
OBJECTIVE: There is controversy regarding the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy to solve airway obstruction problems experienced by children younger than five years of age with pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy and nebulization on the respiratory status of these children. METHOD: This study was quasi-experimental with a pre- and post-test nonequivalent control group design. Thirty-four respondents selected by consecutive sampling were divided into two groups: one that received nebulization and one that received nebulization with chest physiotherapy...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Abolfazl Jokar, Maryam Babaei, Sahar Pourmatin, Majid Taheri, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Arash Yazdanbakhsh
Background: Endotracheal intubation is one of the most common measures in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) which plays an important role in airway management of the critically ill patients. Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of lignocaine spray on hemodynamic response of endotracheal intubation patients. Settings and Design: This study is a randomized clinical trial on a study population comprising patients admitted to the ICU. Subjects and Methods: The patients were divided into three groups using a permuted block randomization...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Chenming Xu, Qiwen Shi, Leifang Zhang, Hang Zhao
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is asscoiated with lung injury. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is an essential constituent of extracellular matrix (ECM), exhibiting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties when administered by injection, inhalation, nebulization or gene delivery of HA synthases. The aim of the present study is to determine whether HMW-HA alleviates PM2.5 -induced acute lung injury (ALI) and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We observed that HMW-HA suppressed pathological injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, edema and epithelial damage caused by PM2...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Emily P Nguyen, Lillian Lee, Amgad R Rezk, Ylias M Sabri, Suresh K Bhargava, Leslie Y Yeo
While many microfluidic devices have been developed for sensing and others for actuation, few devices can perform both tasks effectively and simultaneously on the same platform. In piezoelectric sensors and actuators, this is due to the opposing operating requirements for sensing and actuation. Sensing ideally requires narrow resonant peaks characterized by high quality factors, such as those found in quartz crystals. However, these materials usually have poor electromechanical coupling coefficients that are not ideal for actuation...
April 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Pooja Rawat Mathur, Neena Jain, Aji Kumar, Beena Thada, Veena Mathur, Deepak Garg
BACKGROUND: The preferred management strategy for difficult airways is awake fiberoptic bronchoscopy-guided intubation, which requires effective airway anesthesia to ensure patient comfort and acceptance. This randomized single-blind prospective study was conducted to compare lignocaine nebulization and airway nerve block for airway anesthesia prior to awake fiberoptic bronchoscopy-guided intubation. METHODS: Sixty adult patients scheduled for surgical procedures under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Sooyeon Hwang, Zhenpeng Yao, Lei Zhang, Maosen Fu, Kai He, Liqiang Mai, Chris Wolverton, Dong Su
Two-dimensional metal sulfides have been widely explored as promising electrodes for lithium ion batteries since their two-dimensional layered structure allows lithium ions to intercalate between layers. For tin disulfide, the lithiation process proceeds via a sequence of three different types of reactions: intercalation, conversion, and alloying but the full scenario of reaction dynamics remains nebulous. Here, we investigate the dynamical process of the multi-step reactions using in situ electron microscopy and discover the formation of an intermediate rock-salt phase with the disordering of Li and Sn cations after initial 2-dimensional intercalation...
April 3, 2018: ACS Nano
Susanta Mondal, Suresh B Rangasamy, Supurna Ghosh, Richard L Watson, Kalipada Pahan
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The Figure 3, 4, 5 legends have been misplaced. The updated legends along with the figures are corrected with this erratum.
April 2, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Lixia Wang, Muzi Wang, Shuai Li, Huimei Wu, Qiying Shen, Shihai Zhang, Lei Fang, Rongyu Liu
Nebulized lidocaine has been suggested to be beneficial in asthma therapy, but the underlying mechanisms are little known. We aimed to investigate whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 was involved in the protective effect of lidocaine on allergic airway inflammation. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Meanwhile, some of the mice were treated with TLR2 agonist (Pam3CSK4, 100 μg) intraperitoneally in combination with OVA on day 0. Just after allergen provocation, mice were treated with inhaled lidocaine or vehicle for 30 min...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Heba Ahmed, Amgad R Rezk, Benjamin J Carey, Yichao Wang, Md Mohiuddin, Kyle J Berean, Salvy P Russo, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Leslie Y Yeo
While the remarkable properties of 2D crystalline materials offer tremendous opportunities for their use in optics, electronics, energy systems, biotechnology, and catalysis, their practical implementation largely depends critically on the ability to exfoliate them from a 3D stratified bulk state. This goal nevertheless remains elusive, particularly in terms of a rapid processing method that facilitates high yield and dimension control. An ultrafast multiscale exfoliation method is reported which exploits the piezoelectricity of stratified materials that are noncentrosymmetric in nature to trigger electrically-induced mechanical failure across weak grain boundaries associated with their crystal domain planes...
March 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jennifer L Goralski, Dan Wu, William R Thelin, Richard C Boucher, Brian Button
RATIONALE: Inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) is an effective therapy for muco-obstructive lung diseases. However, the mechanism of action and principles pertinent to HS administration remain unclear. METHODS: An in vitro system aerosolized HS to epithelial cells at rates comparable to in vivo conditions. Airway surface liquid (ASL) volume and cell height responses were measured by confocal microscopy under normal and hyperconcentrated mucus states. MAIN RESULTS: Aerosolized HS produced a rapid increase in ASL height and decrease in cell height...
March 29, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Keila K Ida, Aurélie Sauvage, Alexandra Gougnard, Magda Grauwels, Didier Serteyn, Charlotte Sandersen
Ponies with tracheal collapse may have an increased anesthetic risk due to airway obstruction during induction and recovery. To our knowledge, there are no anesthetic descriptions of these patients, despite a reported 5.6% incidence and 77% mortality rate. Two Shetland ponies with tracheal collapse, a 12-year-old male (pony 1) and a 27-year-old female (pony 2), were referred for right eye enucleation due to a perforating corneal ulcer and severe recurrent uveitis, respectively. Pony 1 was stressed, had lung stridor and hyperthermia, and developed inspiratory dyspnea with handling...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Wubin Weng, Tomas Leffler, Christian Brackmann, Marcus Aldén, Zhongshan Li
Spectrally resolved ultraviolet (UV) absorption cross-sections of gas-phase sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were measured, for the first time, in hot flue gases at different temperatures. Homogenous gas-phase NaCl, KCl (potassium chloride), NaOH, and KOH at temperatures 1200 K, 1400 K, 1600 K, and 1850 K were prepared in the post-flame zone of laminar flames by seeding nebulized droplets out of aqueous solution of corresponding alkali species. The amount of droplets seeded into the flame was kept constant, so the relative concentration of different alkali species can be derived...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Kailash C Petkar, Sandip Chavhan, N Kunda, I Saleem, S Somavarapu, Kevin M G Taylor, Krutika K Sawant
A novel hydrophobic chitosan derivative, octanoyl chitosan (OC) with improved organic solubility was synthesized, characterized, and employed for the preparation of rifampicin (Rif) encapsulated nanoparticle formulations for pulmonary delivery. OC was characterized to confirm acyl group substitution and cytotoxicity in A549 epithelial lung cells. OC nanoparticles were produced by the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique without cross-linking and characterized for particle size distribution, morphology, crystallinity, thermal stability, aerosol delivery, and drug release rate...
March 27, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuko Uchida, Toshihiro Ito, Takehiko Saito
BACKGROUND: Experimental infection of pigs via direct intranasal or intratracheal inoculation has been mainly used to study the infectious process of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S). Nebulization is known to be an alternative method for inoculating pigs with IAVs-S, because larger quantities of virus potentially can be delivered throughout the respiratory tract. However, there is very little data on the experimental infection of pigs by inhalation using nebulizer. In the current study, we used intranasal nebulization to inoculate pigs with 9 different IAVs-S-3 H1N1, 2 H1N2, and 4 H3N2 strains...
March 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Erica Bäckström, Gregory Hamm, Anna Nilsson, Britt-Marie Fihn, Nicole Strittmatter, Per Andrén, Richard J A Goodwin, Markus Fridén
Treatment of respiratory disease with a drug delivered via inhalation is generally held as being beneficial as it provides direct access to the lung target site with a minimum systemic exposure. There is however only limited information of the regional localization of drug retention following inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate the regional and histological localization of salmeterol retention in the lungs after inhalation and to compare it to systemic administration. Lung distribution of salmeterol delivered to rats via nebulization or intravenous (IV) injection was analyzed with high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
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