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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231773/molecular-imaging-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Brian Jaeho Hwang, Mona Adel Mohamed, James Robert Brašić
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225192/effects-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-diclofensine-diphenidine-and-methoxphenidine-on-monoaminergic-systems
#2
Dino Luethi, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
Diclofensine, diphenidine, and methoxphenidine are new psychoactive substances (NPSs) that recently appeared on the illicit drug market. Pharmacological profiling of such newly emerged drugs is crucial for a better understanding of their psychotropic effects and toxicity. We therefore investigated the potential of these NPSs to inhibit the norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin transporters in human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with the respective transporters. In addition, we determined monoamine transporter and receptor affinities for the substances...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220382/anatomical-relationships-between-serotonin-5-ht2a-and-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-living-human-brain
#3
Tatsuya Ishii, Yasuyuki Kimura, Masanori Ichise, Keisuke Takahata, Soichiro Kitamura, Sho Moriguchi, Manabu Kubota, Ming-Rong Zhang, Makiko Yamada, Makoto Higuchi, Yoshinori Okubo, Tetsuya Suhara
METHODS: Seven healthy volunteers underwent PET scans with [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, respectively. As a measure of receptor density, a binding potential (BP) was calculated from PET data for 76 cerebral cortical regions. A correlation matrix was calculated between the binding potentials of [18F]altanserin and [11C]FLB 457 for those regions. The regional relationships were investigated using a bicluster analysis of the correlation matrix with an iterative signature algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209553/antidyskinetic-treatment-with-mtep-affects-multiple-molecular-pathways-in-the-parkinsonian-striatum
#4
Jing-Ya Lin, Zhen-Guo Liu, Cheng-Long Xie, Lu Song, Ai-Juan Yan
Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss and dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum. Standard treatment is still focused on the restoration of dopamine with exogenous L-Dopa, which however causes L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Several studies have shown that antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 alleviates LID, but the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. We set out to determine where this alleviation may depend on restoring the equilibrium between the two main striatofugal pathways...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209205/potentiation-of-morphine-induced-antinociception-by-propranolol-the-involvement-of-dopamine-and-gaba-systems
#5
Elham A Afify, Najlaa M Andijani
Tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine is a major clinical problem which can be managed by co-administration of another drug. This study investigated the ability of propranolol to potentiate the antinociceptive action of morphine and the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Antinociception was assessed in three nociceptive tests (thermal, hot plate), (visceral, acetic acid), and (inflammatory, formalin test) in mice and quantified by measuring the percent maximum possible effect, the percent inhibition of acetic acid-evoked writhing response, and the area under the curve values of number of flinches for treated mice, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198769/subtyping-of-primary-aldosteronism-with-adrenal-vein-sampling-hormone-and-side-specific-effects-of-cosyntropin-and-metoclopramide
#6
Giacomo Rossitto, Giuseppe Maiolino, Livia Lenzini, Valeria Bisogni, Teresa Maria Seccia, Maurizio Cesari, Maurizio Iacobone, Gian Paolo Rossi
BACKGROUND: Cosyntropin and metoclopramide can affect the subtyping of primary aldosteronism when used with adrenal vein sampling by exerting hormone- and side-specific effects on cortisol and aldosterone secretion. We investigated how these stimuli affect the selectivity index, the relative aldosterone secretion index, and the lateralization index in consecutive primary aldosteronism patients submitted to adrenal vein sampling. METHODS: We recruited 171 patients; of these, 149 underwent adrenal vein sampling before and after stimulation with cosyntropin (250 µg intravenous bolus, n= 53, 73% with an aldosterone-producing adenoma) or with metoclopramide (10 mg intravenous bolus, n= 96, 65% aldosterone-producing adenoma), and 32 with an aldosterone-producing adenoma were investigated for the relative gene expression of dopamine, melanocortin 2, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 4 receptor with microarrays...
November 30, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198512/understanding-the-role-of-serotonin-in-female-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-and-treatment-options
#7
REVIEW
Harry A Croft
BACKGROUND: The neurobiology of sexual response is driven in part by dopamine and serotonin-the former modulating excitatory pathways and the latter regulating inhibitory pathways. Neurobiological underpinnings of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) are seemingly related to overactive serotonin activity that results in underactive dopamine activity. As such, pharmacologic agents that decrease serotonin, increase dopamine, or some combination thereof, have therapeutic potential for HSDD...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196145/effects-of-imipramine-on-cytokines-panel-in-the-rats-serum-during-the-drug-treatment-and-discontinuation
#8
M Kuśmider, A Faron-Górecka, P Pabian, J Solich, M Szlachta, M Kolasa, D Żurawek, J Wójcikowski, W Daniel, M Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
Time dependent sensitization (TDS) - phenomenon described originally by Chiodo and Antelman (1980) in context of dopamine receptors, refers to cascade of events that continue to develop in the organism, after the initiating stimulus is no longer available. Treatment could be recognized as such a initiating stimulus (in case of depression, example of electroconvulsive therapy would be obvious, but some aspects of pharmacotherapy too). The process leads to improvement, but, on the other hand, phenomena of kindling in recurrent depression is well known (more relapses and therapies make heavier and longer lasting subsequent episodes)...
November 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188780/dizocilpine-induced-psychosis-like-behavior-in-rats-a-possible-animal-model-with-full-spectrum-of-schizophrenia
#9
Sidrah Shahzad, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Saima Khaliq, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Sahar Rafiq, Saiqa Tabassum, Zehra Batool, Saida Haider
Schizophrenia (SZ) is categorized as neuropsychiatric disorder with reduced lifespan and significant impairments in social and vocational functioning. One of the best proposed pharmacological animal models is dizocilpine, as it can mimic the full spectrum of schizophrenic disorder including positive and negative symptoms along with cognitive deficits. Dizocilpine is N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist known to induce hyper-locomotion and stereotyped behavior in rodents. Present study was designed to develop an animal model of SZ via intraperitoneal administration of dizocilpine in rats (100-150g) at a dose of 0...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182715/modulation-of-rat-50-khz-ultrasonic-vocalizations-by-glucocorticoid-signaling-possible-relevance-to-reward-and-motivation
#10
Nicola Simola, Elena Paci, Marcello Serra, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli
Background: Rats emit 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) to communicate positive emotional states, and these USVs are increasingly being investigated in preclinical studies on reward and motivation. Although it is the activation of dopamine receptors that initiates the emission of 50-kHz USVs, non-dopaminergic mechanisms may modulate calling in the 50 kHz frequency band. To further elucidate these mechanisms, the present study investigated whether the pharmacological manipulation of glucocorticoid signaling influenced calling...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182037/drd4-exon-3-genotype-and-adhd-randomized-pharmacodynamic-investigation-of-treatment-response-to-methylphenidate
#11
Darya Naumova, Natalie Grizenko, Sarojini M Sengupta, Ridha Joober
OBJECTIVES: Dopamine plays an important role in modulating attention and motor behaviors, dimensions altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Numerous association studies have linked dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) to increased risk of ADHD. This study investigated the effect of DRD4 exon 3 polymorphism on child behaviours in response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). METHODS: 374 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 6-12) were evaluated under three experimental conditions: baseline, placebo and MPH (0...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180955/dissociable-role-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-subtype-1-on-dopaminergic-and-d1-dopaminoceptive-neurons-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#12
Rick E Bernardi, Laura Broccoli, Natalie Hirth, Nicholas J Justice, Jan M Deussing, Anita C Hansson, Rainer Spanagel
The ability of many drugs of abuse, including cocaine, to mediate reinforcement and drug-seeking behaviors is in part mediated by the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system, in which CRH exerts its effects partly via the CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRHR1) in extra-hypothalamic areas. In fact, CRHR1 expressed in regions of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system have been demonstrated to modify cocaine-induced DA release and alter cocaine-mediated behaviors. Here we examined the role of neuronal selectivity of CRHR1 within the mesolimbic system on cocaine-induced behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163081/activation-of-d1-5-dopamine-receptors-in-the-dorsal-medial-prefrontal-cortex-promotes-incubated-like-aversive-responses
#13
Fernando Castillo Díaz, Cecilia P Kramar, Micaela A Hernandez, Jorge H Medina
It is well established that neurons of the mammalian medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) modulate different behavioral outputs, including several memory types. This behavioral modulation is, at least in part, under the control of the D1-like Dopamine (DA) receptor (D1/5R) which comprises D1 and D5-specific subtypes (D1R and D5R, respectively). Here, combining a set of behavioral assays with pharmacology, we determined whether the activation of D1/5R in the mPFC during almost neutral or weak negative-valence experiences induces aversive behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162966/a-qsar-model-of-olanzapine-derivatives-as-potential-inhibitors-for-5-ht2a-receptor
#14
Pooja Mitra, Aishwarya Rastogi, Mayank Rajpoot, Ajay Kumar, Vivek Srivastava
Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic mental disorder, affecting about 21 million people worldwide. It is characterized by symptoms, including distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, disorganized speech, sense of self and behavior. Recently, a numbers of marketed drugs for Schizophrenia are available against dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we docked Olanzapine derivatives (collected from literature) with 5-HT2A Receptor using the program AutoDock 4.2. The docked protein inhibitor complex structure was optimized using molecular dynamics simulation for 5ps with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD (NAnoscale Molecular Dynamics program) incorporated in visual molecular dynamics (VMD 1...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161023/in-vivo-neurochemical-profile-of-selectively-bred-high-responder-and-low-responder-rats-reveals-baseline-cocaine-and-novelty-evoked-differences-in-monoaminergic-systems
#15
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, are more risk-taking, more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the current study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs/bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158584/ketamine-enhances-structural-plasticity-in-mouse-mesencephalic-and-human-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-via-ampar-driven-bdnf-and-mtor-signaling
#16
L Cavalleri, E Merlo Pich, M J Millan, C Chiamulera, T Kunath, P F Spano, G Collo
Among neurobiological mechanisms underlying antidepressant properties of ketamine, structural remodeling of prefrontal and hippocampal neurons has been proposed as critical. The suggested mechanism involves downstream activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which trigger mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent structural plasticity via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein neo-synthesis. We evaluated whether ketamine elicits similar molecular events in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, known to be affected in mood disorders, using a novel, translational strategy that involved mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154107/aripiprazole-in-treatment-of-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-new-therapeutic-option
#17
REVIEW
Piotr Janik, Natalia Szejko
Aripiprazole is a dopamine D2- and serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor partial agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist primarily used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression with psychotic ideation. However, recently a number of new possible indications have been suggested, among them Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in children and adolescents with GTS has been confirmed the efficacy of aripiprazole in tic reduction...
November 9, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#18
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145140/fluoxetine-modulates-the-transcription-of-genes-involved-in-serotonin-dopamine-and-adrenergic-signalling-in-zebrafish-embryos
#19
V Cunha, P Rodrigues, M M Santos, P Moradas-Ferreira, M Ferreira
Neurotransmitters pathways in fish and mammals are phylogenetically conserved. Therefore, the environmental presence of psychopharmaceuticals, such as fluoxetine (FLU), are likely to interact with fish serotonergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems, affecting their response and associated biological functions. Hence, the present work aimed at evaluating the effects of FLU in the transcription of genes involved in serotonin, dopamine and adrenergic transporters and receptors signalling in early stages of Danio rerio development...
January 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142341/in-house-preparation-and-quality-control-of-tc99m-trodat-1-for-diagnostic-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-computed-tomography-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Rakhee Vatsa, Jaya Shukla, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Apurva Sood, Raman Kumar Joshi, Kanchan Palarwal, Priya Bhusari, Manish Modi
Purpose of Study: Loss of dopamine neurons in the brain is a characteristic feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). TRODAT-1 is a tropane derivative that binds to dopamine transporter (DAT) receptors. It can be used for noninvasive in vivo imaging of DAT receptors leading to the early detection of PD. The present study aims to optimize the in-house radiolabeling of TRODAT-1 with Tc-99 m in hospital radiopharmacy set up along with performing single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging in patients with PD...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
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