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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035918/dopaminergic-mechanisms-in-periaqueductal-gray-mediated-antinociception
#1
Glaucia Tobaldini, Rafael A Reis, Natalia F Sardi, Mayla K Lazzarim, Dabna H Tomim, Marcelo M S Lima, Luana Fischer
As important as perceiving pain is the ability to modulate this perception in some contextual salient situations. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is perhaps the most important site of endogenous pain modulation; however, little is known about dopaminergic mechanisms underlying PAG-mediated antinociception. In this study, we used a pharmacological approach to evaluate this subject. We found that µ-opioid receptor-induced antinociception (DAMGO, 0.3 μg) from PAG was blocked by the coadministration of either D1-like or D2-like dopaminergic antagonists (SCH23390, 2, 4, and 6 μg or raclopride, 2 and 4 μg, respectively) both in the tail-flick and in the mechanical paw-withdrawal test...
October 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033834/tc299423-a-novel-agonist-for-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#2
Teagan R Wall, Brandon J Henderson, George Voren, Charles R Wageman, Purnima Deshpande, Bruce N Cohen, Sharon R Grady, Michael J Marks, Daniel Yohannes, Paul J Kenny, Merouane Bencherif, Henry A Lester
(E)-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl)-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423) is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2(∗) (α6β2-containing), α4β2(∗), and α3β4(∗) nAChRs, using [(125)I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, synaptosomal (86)Rb(+) efflux, [(3)H]-dopamine release, and [(3)H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30-60 nM for α6β2(∗) nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [(3)H]-dopamine release assays...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033796/laminar-and-cellular-distribution-of-monoamine-receptors-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Noemí Santana, Francesc Artigas
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively), the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC). In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033349/a-polymorphism-in-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-refractory-hypotension-in-premature-infants
#4
Kei Ogasawara, Maki Sato, Koichi Hashimoto, Takashi Imamura, Hayato Go, Mitsuaki Hosoya
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids play an important role in endocrine control. The association of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms with altered sensitivity to glucocorticoid therapy has been reported in adults. However, there are few such reports in infants. The present study analyzed the prevalence of four GR polymorphisms in preterm infants born before 30 weeks of gestation and determined the associations between these polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in the infants. METHODS: Totally, 41 preterm infants born at two hospitals in Fukushima were retrospectively screened for the presence of four GR gene polymorphisms, using a TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay...
September 27, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031113/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-small-animal-pet-shows-pre-and-post-synaptic-striatal-dopaminergic-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-hiv
#5
Sanhita Sinharay, Dianne Lee, Swati Shah, Siva Muthusamy, Georgios Z Papadakis, Xiang Zhang, Dragan Maric, William C Reid, Dima A Hammoud
INTRODUCTION: In vivo imaging biomarkers of various HIV neuropathologies, including dopaminergic dysfunction, are still lacking. Towards developing dopaminergic biomarkers of brain involvement in HIV, we assessed the pre and postsynaptic components of the dopaminergic system in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a well-characterized model of treated HIV+ patients, using small-animal PET imaging. METHODS: Fifteen to 18 month-old Tg and wild type (WT) rats were imaged with both [18F]-FP-CMT, a dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand (n=16), and [18F]-Fallypride, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor (D2/D3DR) ligand (n=16)...
August 31, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024103/functional-interleukin-6-receptor-%C3%AE-is-located-to-tanycytes-at-the-base-of-the-third-ventricle
#6
Fredrik Anesten, Cristiano Santos, Edwin Gidestrand, Erik Schéle, Vilborg Pálsdóttir, Teodor Swedung-Wettervik, Björn Meister, Karolina Patrycja Skibicka, John-Olov Jansson
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (-) /(-) mice develop mature onset obesity, while intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 decreases obesity in rodents. Moreover, levels of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to be inversely correlated with obesity in humans. Tanycytes lining the base of the 3(rd) ventricle in the hypothalamus have recently been reported to be of importance for metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether tanycytes could respond to IL-6 in the CSF. With immunohistochemistry using a well characterized antibody directed against the ligand binding receptor for IL-6, IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα), it was found that tanycytes, identified by the two markers vimentin and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), contained IL-6Rα...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022279/the-role-of-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-subtypes-in-the-vasopressor-responses-induced-by-dihydroergotamine-in-ritanserin-pretreated-pithed-rats
#7
Eduardo Rivera-Mancilla, Victor H Avilés-Rosas, Guadalupe Manrique-Maldonado, Alain H Altamirano-Espinoza, Belinda Villanueva-Castillo, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink, Carlos M Villalón
BACKGROUND: Dihydroergotamine (DHE) is an acute antimigraine agent that displays affinity for dopamine D2-like receptors, serotonin 5-HT1/2 receptors and α1/α2-adrenoceptors. Since activation of vascular α1/α2-adrenoceptors results in systemic vasopressor responses, the purpose of this study was to investigate the specific role of α1- and α2-adrenoceptors mediating DHE-induced vasopressor responses using several antagonists for these receptors. METHODS: For this purpose, 135 male Wistar rats were pithed and divided into 35 control and 100 pretreated i...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017334/brexpiprazole-a-new-leaf-on-the-partial-dopamine-agonist-branch
#8
Judy Hope, David Castle, Nicholas A Keks
OBJECTIVES: Brexpiprazole is a new dopamine partial agonist antipsychotic in the same class as aripiprazole. This paper will briefly review brexpiprazole and compare it with aripiprazole. CONCLUSIONS: Brexpiprazole and aripiprazole are both partial agonists at dopamine D2, and serotonin 5-HT1A and antagonists at serotonin 5-HT2A and noradrenergic α1B receptors. However, the two drugs are significantly different in potencies at various receptors; neurochemical profiles predict that brexpiprazole may be comparable with aripiprazole in its antipsychotic efficacy but may cause less akathisia, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and activation...
October 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016872/affinity-states-of-striatal-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-antipsychotic-free-patients-with-schizophrenia
#9
Manabu Kubota, Tomohisa Nagashima, Harumasa Takano, Fumitoshi Kodaka, Hironobu Fujiwara, Keisuke Takahata, Sho Moriguchi, Yasuyuki Kimura, Makoto Higuchi, Yoshiro Okubo, Hidehiko Takahashi, Hiroshi Ito, Tetsuya Suhara
Background: Dopamine D2 receptors are reported to have high-affinity (D2High) and low-affinity (D2Low) states. Although an increased proportion of D2High has been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia, few clinical studies have investigated this alteration of D2High in schizophrenia in vivo. Methods: Eleven patients with schizophrenia, including 10 antipsychotic-naive and 1 antipsychotic-free individuals, and 17 healthy controls were investigated. Psychopathology was assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and a 5-factor model was used...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016850/mice-lacking-cyclin-dependent-kinase-like-5-manifest-autistic-and-adhd-like-behaviors
#10
Cian-Ling Jhang, Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh, Wenlin Liao
Neurodevelopmental disorders frequently share common clinical features and appear high rate of comorbidity, such as those present in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While characterizing behavioral phenotypes in the mouse model of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding CDKL5, we found that these mice manifested behavioral phenotypes mimicking multiple key features of ASD, such as impaired social interaction and communication, as well as increased stereotypic digging behaviors...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993814/a-dopamine-receptor-genetic-variant-enhances-perceptual-speed-in-cognitive-healthy-subjects
#11
S Barral, C Habeck, E Gazes, P L De Jager, D A Bennett, Y Stern
Cognition is under strong genetic control, yet the specific genes are unknown. To investigate genetic influences on specific cognitive domains, 153 cognitive healthy subjects of European ancestry from the Reference Abilities Study (RANN) were genotyped for 1,160 variants within 446 neuropsychiatric genes. Adjusted linear regression models evaluated the association between the genetic variants and four reference abilities, which capture variance in age-related cognitive function (Vocabulary, Episodic Memory, Perceptual Speed, and Reasoning)...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988906/fluorinated-phenmetrazine-legal-highs-act-as-substrates-for-high-affinity-monoamine-transporters-of-the-slc6-family
#12
REVIEW
Felix P Mayer, Nadine V Burchardt, Ann M Decker, John S Partilla, Yang Li, Gavin McLaughlin, Pierce V Kavanagh, Walter Sandtner, Bruce E Blough, Simon D Brandt, Michael H Baumann, Harald H Sitte
A variety of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in recreational drug markets worldwide. NPS are compounds that target various receptors and transporters in the central nervous system to achieve their psychoactive effects. Chemical modifications of existing drugs can generate NPS that are not controlled by current legislation, thereby providing legal alternatives to controlled substances such as cocaine or amphetamine. Recently, 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), a derivative of the anorectic compound phenmetrazine, appeared on the recreational drug market and adverse clinical effects have been reported...
October 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987282/antidepressants-promote-formation-of-heterocomplexes-of-dopamine-d2-and-somatostatin-subtype-5-receptors-in-the-mouse-striatum
#13
Kinga Szafran-Pilch, Agata Faron-Górecka, Magdalena Kolasa, Dariusz Żurawek, Marta Szlachta, Joanna Solich, Maciej Kuśmider, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
The interaction between the dopaminergic and somatostatinergic systems is considered to play a potential role in mood regulation. Chronic administration of antidepressants influences release of both neurotransmitters. The molecular basis of the functional cooperation may stem from the physical interaction of somatostatin receptor subtypes and dopamine D2 receptors since they colocalize in striatal interneurons and were shown to undergo ligand-dependent heterodimerization in heterologous expression systems. In present study we adapted in situ proximity ligation assay to investigate the occurrence of D2-Sst5 receptor heterocomplexes, and their possible alterations in the striatum of mice treated acutely and repeatedly (21days) with antidepressant drugs of different pharmacological profiles (escitalopram and desipramine)...
October 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984746/late-reduction-of-cocaine-cravings-in-a-randomized-double-blind-trial-of-aripiprazole-vs-perphenazine-in-schizophrenia-and-comorbid-cocaine-dependence
#14
Thomas Beresford, Jennifer Buchanan, Elizabeth Brie Thumm, Chad Emrick, David Weitzenkamp, Patrick J Ronan
PURPOSE: Co-occurring schizophrenia spectrum disorder and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision cocaine dependence present a particularly destructive constellation that is often difficult to treat. Both conditions raise dopamine transmission effects in the brain. Traditional neuroleptics block dopamine receptors, whereas aripiprazole modulates dopamine activity as an agonist/antagonist. We tested whether dopamine modulation is superior to dopamine blocking in dual-diagnosis patients...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981273/chronic-dietary-selenomethionine-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-dopaminergic-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Mohammad Naderi, Arash Salahinejad, Ankur Jamwal, Douglas P Chivers, Som Niyogi
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic dietary exposure to selenium (Se) on zebrafish cognition and also to elucidate possible mechanism(s) by which Se exerts its neurotoxicity. To this end, adult zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of dietary L-selenomethionine (control, 2.3, 9.7, 32.5 or 57.7 µg Se/g dry weight) for 30 days. Cognitive performance of fish was tested using a latent learning paradigm in a complex maze. In addition, we also evaluated oxidative stress biomarkers and the expression of genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the zebrafish brain...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978206/overview-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-and-evidence-based-therapies
#16
Nelly Adel
Among patients with cancer, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common adverse effect that not only impacts quality of life, but also treatment outcomes. It is important to address these issues from both prevention and treatment standpoints so that patients remain adherent to their regimens. With CINV being classified into 5 different types, the primary medication options for prevention and treatment include 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, NK1 receptor antagonists, and corticosteroids. Other medications used, but to a lesser extent, include dopamine antagonists, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, and olanzapine...
September 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978003/multifunctional-targeted-liposomal-drug-delivery-for-efficient-glioblastoma-treatment
#17
Zakia Belhadj, Changyou Zhan, Man Ying, Xiaoli Wei, Cao Xie, Zhiqiang Yan, Weiyue Lu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been considered to be the most malignant brain tumors. Due to the existence of various barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) greatly hinder the accumulation and deep penetration of chemotherapeutics, the treatment of glioma remains to be the most challenging task in clinic. In order to circumvent these hurdles, we developed a multifunctional liposomal glioma-targeted drug delivery system (c(RGDyK)/pHA-LS) modified with cyclic RGD (c(RGDyK)) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHA) in which c(RGDyK) could target integrin αvβ3 overexpressed on the BBTB and glioma cells and pHA could target dopamine receptors on the BBB...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971230/effects-of-2-bromoterguride-a-dopamine-d2-receptor-partial-agonist-on-cognitive-dysfunction-and-social-aversion-in-rats
#18
Emilia Tarland, Robert T Franke, Heidrun Fink, Heinz H Pertz, Jan Brosda
RATIONALE: 2-Bromoterguride, a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist with antagonist properties at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and α2C-adrenoceptors, meets the prerequisites of a putative atypical antipsychotic drug (APD). We recently showed that 2-bromoterguride is effective in tests of positive symptoms of schizophrenia in rats without inducing extrapyramidal side effects or metabolic changes. OBJECTIVE: In continuation of our recent work, we now investigated the effect of 2-bromoterguride on apomorphine and phencyclidine (PCP)-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, a measure of sensory gating...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970253/characterization-of-soy-deprestatin-a-novel-orally-active-decapeptide-that-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-via-gut-brain-communication
#19
Yukiha Mori, Saho Asakura, Akane Yamamoto, Saori Odagiri, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Keiji Wada, Masaru Sato, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Hideyuki Suzuki, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
We found that the orally administered thermolysin digest of β-conglycinin exhibits antidepressant-like effects in tail suspension and forced swim tests in mice. A comprehensive peptide analysis of the digest using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was performed, and LSSTQAQQSY emerged as a candidate antidepressant-like peptide. Orally administered synthetic LSSTQAQQSY exhibited antidepressant-like effects at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg; therefore, we named the decapeptide soy-deprestatin. In contrast, intraperitoneally administered soy-deprestatin was ineffective...
September 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966549/myopia-induced-by-flickering-light-in-guinea-pig-eyes-is-associated-with-increased-rather-than-decreased-dopamine-release
#20
Xiumei Luo, Bing Li, Tao Li, Yue Di, Changyue Zheng, Shunmei Ji, Yuanyuan Ma, Jie Zhu, Xuefeng Chen, Xiaodong Zhou
PURPOSE: It is well known that the dopaminergic signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the control of axial elongation. Much research has shown that retinal dopamine (DA) is decreased in experimental myopia, but the exact alteration in DA quantity underlying the myopia model induced by flickering light (FL) has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we first attempted to prove the feasibility of the myopia model induced by FL and then to determine whether and how DA and its receptors changed in myopia induced by FL...
2017: Molecular Vision
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