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mucus dopamine

Michael Hoggard, Angela Nocera, Kristi Biswas, Michael W Taylor, Richard G Douglas, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: The complex relationships between the human microbiota, the immune system, and the brain play important roles in both health and disease, and have been of increasing interest in the study of chronic inflammatory mucosal conditions. We hypothesized that the sinonasal microbiota may act as a modifier of interkingdom neural signaling and, subsequently, mental health, in the upper respiratory inflammatory condition chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study we investigated associations between the sinonasal microbiota; local concentrations of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); and depression severity in a cohort of 14 CRS patients and 12 healthy controls...
March 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Ron P Dirks, Erik Burgerhout, Sebastiaan A Brittijn, Danielle L de Wijze, Hulya Ozupek, Nynke Tuinhof-Koelma, Yuki Minegishi, Susanne A Jong-Raadsen, Herman P Spaink, Guido E E J M van den Thillart
The European eel is a critically endangered species that cannot be reproduced in captivity yet. Artificial maturation of female European eels can be achieved via a laborious and expensive procedure, including weekly injections with pituitary extracts for up to 6 months. The success rate is highly variable and a minimally invasive method for early selection of responsive eels would prevent the unnecessary and lengthy treatment of non-responding individuals. Since sexual maturation of European eels is accompanied by morphological changes of the pectoral fin, we examined whether fin could be used to monitor the response to the hormone treatment...
August 1, 2014: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hiroki Kabata, Kazuyo Moro, Koichi Fukunaga, Yusuke Suzuki, Jun Miyata, Katsunori Masaki, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Shigeo Koyasu, Koichiro Asano
Type-2 innate immune responses that occur in airways and are accompanied by goblet-cell hyperplasia and mucus production are largely driven by interleukin-33 (IL-33) and natural helper (NH) cells, a member of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the major target of IL-33. Here we report that the corticosteroid resistance observed as a result of airway inflammation triggered by sensitization and exposure to allergen is induced via the IL-33/NH-cell axis. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) synthesized during airway inflammation plays a pivotal role in the induction of NH-cell corticosteroid resistance in vitro and in vivo, by controlling phosphorylation of STAT5 and expression of Bcl-xL in NH cells...
2013: Nature Communications
Subo Gong, Jinxiu Li, Libing Ma, Keng Li, Li Zhang, Guyi Wang, Yi Liu, Xiaoying Ji, Xiaokun Liu, Ping Chen, Ruoyun Ouyang, Shu Zhang, Zhiguang Zhou, Cong-Yi Wang, Xudong Xiang, Yu Yang
Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that dopamine D1-like receptor (D1-like-R) signalling is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and type I diabetes. Given that allergic asthma shares certain disease aetiology similarities with autoimmune diseases, we conducted studies in OVA-induced mice aiming to address the impact of D1-like-R signalling on the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. It was noted that blockade of D1-like-R signalling provided protection for mice against OVA-induced acute asthma...
December 2013: FEBS Journal
Bhagawati Saxena, Sairam Krishnamurthy, Sanjay Singh
Risperidone has been used in some stress disorders and may be potentially protective against stress-induced gastric lesions. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate, whether risperidone, a D(2) receptor and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, would be able to result in gastroprotective effect in stress-induced lesions and also explore the possible mechanism of action behind its gastroprotective activity. Gastroprotective activity of risperidone was evaluated both by single treatment and 21 days repeated (0...
April 25, 2011: Chemico-biological Interactions
Marta Ibanez, Francisco J Valderrama-Canales, Eva Maranillo, Teresa Vazquez, Arán Pascual-Font, Stephen McHanwell, Jose Sanudo
The presence of ganglia associated with the laryngeal nerves is well documented. In man, these ganglia have been less well studied than in other species and, in particular, the cell types within these ganglia are less well characterized. Using a panel of antibodies to a variety of markers found in the paraganglion cells of other species, we were able to show the existence of at least two populations of cells within human laryngeal paraganglia. One population contained chromogranin and tyrosine hydroxylase representing a neurosecretory population possibly secreting dopamine...
September 2010: Clinical Anatomy
Lihua Liang, Kelvin MacDonald, Erik M Schwiebert, Pamela L Zeitlin, William B Guggino
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene producing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR functions as a Cl(-) channel. Its dysfunction limits Cl(-) secretion and enhances Na+ absorption, leading to viscous mucus in the airway. Ca2+-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are coexpressed with CFTR in the airway surface epithelia. Increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) activate the epithelial CaCCs, which provides an alternative Cl(-) secretory pathway in CF. We developed a screening assay and screened a library for compounds that could enhance cytoplasmic Ca2+, activate the CaCC, and increase Cl(-) secretion...
January 2009: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ken-ichi Harano, Ken Sasaki, Takashi Nagao, Masami Sasaki
Dopamine (DA) is a major functional biogenic amine in insects and has been suggested to regulate reproduction in female honeybees. However, its function has not been investigated in male drones. To clarify developmental changes of DA in drones, brain DA levels were investigated at various ages and showed a similar pattern to the previously reported juvenile hormone (JH) hemolymph titer. The DA level was lowest at emergence and peaked at day 7 or 8, followed by decline. Application of JH analog increased brain DA levels in young drones (2-4-days-old), suggesting regulation of DA by JH in drones...
May 2008: Journal of Insect Physiology
E V Belova
Sulpirid was used in the treatment of 71 patients with erosive gastric and duodenal lesions. Sulpirid, as a part of eradication therapy, was shown to have a positive effect on the clinical picture, to improve the psychological status and vegetative tone, as well as to normalize the acid-producing, motile, and mucus-producing gastric functions. The data allow recommending the use of sulpirid as a part of complex treatment of patients with erosive gastritis or duodenitis.
2007: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
Zsolt Pirger, Károly Elekes, Tibor Kiss
The aim of the present study was to assess the cellular mechanism of secretion in the salivary gland of the snail, Helix pomatia, using electrophysiological, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical techniques. A homogeneously distributed membrane potential (-56.6 +/- 9.8 mV) was determined mainly by a K+ -electrochemical gradient and partly by the contribution of the electrogenic Na+ -pump and Cl- conductance. Low resistance electrical coupling sites were identified physiologically. Transmission electron microscopy and innexin 2 antibody revealed the presence of gap-junction-like membrane structures between gland cells...
September 2006: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
A Hasani, N Toms, J E Agnew, J Lloyd, J P Dilworth
In addition to breathlessness and cough, excessive mucus production is one of the main symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Excess mucus coupled with deteriorating mucociliary clearance is associated with a decline in lung function and an increased risk of death from pulmonary infection. The effect of Viozan (Sibenadet HCl, AR-C68397AA), a novel dual D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, on mucociliary clearance was investigated together with that of a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, salbutamol...
February 2005: Respiratory Medicine
Colleen C Hegg, Mary T Lucero
Although D2 dopamine receptors have been localized to olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and dopamine has been shown to modulate voltage-gated ion channels in ORNs, dopaminergic modulation of either odor responses or excitability in mammalian ORNs has not previously been demonstrated. We found that <50 microM dopamine reversibly suppresses odor-induced Ca2+ transients in ORNs. Confocal laser imaging of 300-microm-thick slices of neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium loaded with the Ca(2+)-indicator dye fluo-4 AM revealed that dopaminergic suppression of odor responses could be blocked by the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride (<500 microM)...
April 2004: Journal of Neurophysiology
Hilmi Islami, R Shabani, Adem Rama, M Disba, B Dida, E Azizi
It is expressed in vitro answer of the soft musculature of the tracheobronchial system of the newborns from 12 to 18 weeks of the gestation, with the hypersecretion and normosecretin of the tracheal gland. On 30 tracheal preparations taken by autopsy' of the dead children, was followed-up the answer of the tracheal soft musculature (SMT) on acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine and serotonine in the concentrations from 110(-4), 10(-3), 10(-2), 10(-1) M/L. The results illustrate that acetylcholyne, and histamine in the mentioned concentrations provoked the statistically significant answers of GMT with the hypersecretion and normosecretion of the tracheal glands (p < 0...
2003: Medicinski Arhiv
Tohru Miyazawa, Masao Matsumoto, Shinichi Kato, Koji Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Although it is known that dopamine prevents various gastrointestinal lesions, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of dopamine on indomethacin-induced small intestinal lesions, in relation to intestinal hypermotility. MATERIAL/METHODS: Male SD rats received indomethacin (10 mg/kg) subcutaneously (s.c.), and the small intestine was examined for lesions 24 hr later. Dopamine (1-10 mg/kg) or atropine (3 mg/kg) was administered s...
February 2003: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
P W Ind, L Laitinen, L Laursen, S Wenzel, E Wouters, L Deamer, P Nystrom
Viozan, (Sibenadet HCl, AR-C68397AA) is a dual D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist that combines bronchodilator activity with the sensory afferent modulating effects associated with D2-receptor agonism. Investigation in animal models of key chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms has demonstrated that sibenadet effectively inhibits sensory nerve activity, thereby reducing reflex cough, mucus production and tachypnoea. The results of the early clinical evaluation of this novel agent are reported...
January 2003: Respiratory Medicine
I G Dougall, A Young, F Ince, D M Jackson
This paper describes the rationale for the development of dual dopamine D2-receptor and beta2-adrenoceptor agonists as potential treatments for the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The putative involvement of pulmonary sensory afferent nerves in mediating the key COPD symptoms of breathlessness, cough and excess sputum production is outlined and the hypothesis that activation of D2-receptors on such nerves would modulate their activity is developed. This premise was tested, in a range of animal models, using the first of a novel class of dual dopamine D2-receptor and beta2-adrenoceptor agonists, sibenadet HCl (Viozan, AR-C68397AA)...
January 2003: Respiratory Medicine
Mark A Birrell, Natascia Crispino, David J Hele, Hema J Patel, Magdi H Yacoub, Peter J Barnes, Maria G Belvisi
Sensory nerves regulate central and local reflexes such as airway plasma leakage, and cough and their function may be enhanced during inflammation. Evidence suggests that dopamine receptor agonists may inhibit sensory nerve-mediated responses. In this study dopamine inhibited vagal sensory nerve induced microvascular leakage in the rat. In order to characterize the receptor involved rat vagus preparations were utilized. Quinagolide (D(2/3) agonist), ropinirole (D(2/3/4) agonist), SKF 38393 (D(1/5) agonist), AR-C68397AA (Viozan) (dual D(2)/B(2) agonist) and dopamine inhibited hypertonic saline induced depolarization by approximately 50%...
June 2002: British Journal of Pharmacology
S F Saad, A M Agha, A el-N Amrin
The possible antiulcer potential of bromazepam was investigated in relation to its effect on the levels of central neurotransmitters in rats. Peptic ulcer was induced by cold-restraint stress, by immobilizing the animals in open wire restraint cages placed for 2 h at 4 degrees C. Bromazepam (1 and 2 mg x kg(-1), i.p.) was given as prophylactic regimens, either as a single (2 h before ulcer induction) or repeated (twice daily for 15 days) administration. Results revealed that single (1 mg x kg(-1)) and repeated (1 and 2 mg x kg(-1)) dose regimens of bromazepam succeeded in preventing gastric ulceration, without significant effects on the protein-bound hexose content of gastric mucus...
December 2001: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
A Sedlakova, A Kohút, M Sarisský
Gastric lipase (GL) plays an important role in emulsification and digestion of food fat. Lipids are components of the hydrophobic mucus and mucosa barrier. Damage of the gastric mucosa may therefore be related to changes in the lipid content and GL activity. In the present paper, we studied the effect of administration of a single dose of 96 % ethanol (E) and indomethacin 20 mg x kg(-1) (IND) on the activity of GL and on the concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerols (TG) in the gastric mucosa of rats...
2001: Physiological Research
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