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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165706/cholera-epidemics-of-the-past-offer-new-insights-into-an-old-enemy
#1
Matthew Phelps, Mads Linnet Perner, Virginia E Pitzer, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K M Jensen, Lone Simonsen
Background: Although cholera is considered the quintessential long-cycle waterborne disease, studies have emphasized the existence of short-cycle (food, household) transmission. We investigated singular Danish cholera epidemics (1853) to elucidate epidemiological parameters and modes of spread. Methods: Using time series data from cities with different water systems, we estimated the intrinsic transmissibility (R0). Accessing cause-specific mortality data we studied clinical severity, age-specific impact...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165036/a-formative-qualitative-evaluation-to-inform-implementation-of-a-research-participation-enhancement-and-advocacy-training-program-for-diverse-seniors-the-dreams-program
#2
Molly M Perkins, Ariel Hart, Rebecca L Dillard, Ronald C Wincek, David E Jones, Madeleine E Hackney
This article reports on a formative qualitative evaluation conducted to identify potential barriers and facilitators prior to implementation of a two-part educational intervention designed to increase older adults' participation in clinical research. We conducted focus groups with 35 older adults from diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds (Mean age = 74.5 ± 7.4 years), and six clinical researchers involved in aging research. Two older adult patient stakeholder advisors participated as members of the research team...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165009/the-physical-digital-divide-exploring-the-social-gap-between-digital-natives-and-physical-natives
#3
Christopher Ball, Jessica Francis, Kuo-Ting Huang, Travis Kadylak, Shelia R Cotten, R V Rikard
Older adults are the most digitally divided demographic group. The present study explores how older adults perceive the physical use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly across generations and contexts. Data for the present study come from nine focus groups. Seniors acknowledge that ICTs help them connect with geographically distant social ties, but that they lead to feelings of disconnection with geographically close social ties. We label this phenomenon the "physical-digital divide," which exists when a group feels ostracized or offended when those around them engage with ICTs while they themselves are not or cannot engage with ICTs...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163553/ppargamma-deficiency-counteracts-thymic-senescence
#4
David Ernszt, Krisztina Banfai, Zoltan Kellermayer, Attila Pap, Janet M Lord, Judit E Pongracz, Krisztian Kvell
Thymic senescence contributes to increased incidence of infection, cancer and autoimmunity at senior ages. This process manifests as adipose involution. As with other adipose tissues, thymic adipose involution is also controlled by PPARgamma. This is supported by observations reporting that systemic PPARgamma activation accelerates thymic adipose involution. Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased PPARgamma activity could prevent thymic adipose involution, although it may trigger metabolic adverse effects...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163185/orthostatic-intolerance-in-older-persons-etiology-and-countermeasures
#5
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Jean-Pierre Montani
Orthostatic challenge produced by upright posture may lead to syncope if the cardiovascular system is unable to maintain adequate brain perfusion. This review outlines orthostatic intolerance related to the aging process, long-term bedrest confinement, drugs, and disease. Aging-associated illness or injury due to falls often leads to hospitalization. Older patients spend up to 83% of hospital admission lying in bed and thus the consequences of bedrest confinement such as physiological deconditioning, functional decline, and orthostatic intolerance represent a central challenge in the care of the vulnerable older population...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162753/assessment-of-pain-in-the-elderly-a-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Yoon-Sook Kim, Jae-Min Park, Yeon-Sil Moon, Seol-Heui Han
BACKGROUND: Pain perception is highly subjective, and effective pain management can be challenging in the elderly. We aimed to identify a set of practical measures that could be used to assess pain in elderly patients with or without cognitive impairment, as the first step towards effectively managing their pain. METHODS: We used the PRISMA guidelines for this literature review. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts and full-text articles, and a third reviewer resolved any disagreements...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161895/editorial-comment-on-end-2017-0436-or-r1
#7
Michael Grasso
A central component of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is an endoscopic lithotrite that safely and efficiently clears stone of all compositions from the intrarenal collecting system. The current multicenter trial studied 3 lithotrite combinations employing both mechanical ballistic and ultrasonic energy to fragment and evacuate with suction stone debris. What is clear from this work is that, with regard to the timely clearance of the stone burden and peri-operative complications, there is minimal difference between the devices studied, nothing special and nothing new...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160744/modulation-of-neural-oscillatory-activity-during-dynamic-face-processing
#8
Elaine Foley, Gina Rippon, Carl Senior
Various neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods have been used to examine neural activation patterns in response to faces. However, much of previous research has relied on static images of faces, which do not allow a complete description of the temporal structure of face-specific neural activities to be made. More recently, insights are emerging from fMRI studies about the neural substrates that underpin our perception of naturalistic dynamic face stimuli, but the temporal and spectral oscillatory activity associated with processing dynamic faces has yet to be fully characterized...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160167/an-innovative-long-final-year-assistantship-in-general-practice-description-and-evaluation
#9
Robert K McKinley, M Bartlett, S P Gay, S Gibson, A Panesar, M Webb
We describe and evaluate an innovative immersive 15 week final year assistantship in general practice. Evaluation data was taken from five years of routinely collected School data and available national comparative data. The assistantship aims to enable students to consolidate knowledge and hone their skills through central participation in the care of large numbers of patients with acute and long term conditions. We estimate that most students consulted with over 450 patients during the assistantship. Students report that they became useful to their practice teams, had multiple episodes of feedback on their performance which they found useful and, in the school exit survey, reported that they were highly prepared for practice...
November 21, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159605/outcomes-of-emergency-laparotomy-el-care-protocol-at-tertiary-care-center-from-low-middle-income-country-lmic
#10
Nitin Vashistha, Dinesh Singhal, Sandeep Budhiraja, Bharat Aggarwal, Raj Tobin, Kamal Fotedar
BACKGROUND: Emergency laparotomy mortality ranges between 10 and 20% in best of Western healthcare systems and is currently a major focus for quality improvement programs. In contrast, emergency surgery scenario in LMIC is largely undefined, often neglected and complex (large burden of diseases but only limited capacity for adequate treatment). We evaluated the efficacy of 'EL care protocol' aimed at cost-effective optimal utilization of best available local expertise and infrastructure...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158668/reversal-of-cognitive-impairment-in-a-hypotensive-elderly-population-using-a-passive-exercise-intervention
#11
Kenneth J McLeod, Astrid Stromhaug
Background: Cognitive decline in the elderly is strongly associated with cerebral hypoperfusion, a condition that can be reversed with exercise. Adhering to a traditional exercise regimen, however, is challenging for this population. Objective: In a pilot clinical study, we evaluated the ability of a "passive" exercise regimen (noninvasive calf muscle pump stimulation) to normalize blood pressure in a chronically hypotensive elderly population and enhance cognitive function...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157254/the-implementation-of-medical-revalidation-an-assessment-using-normalisation-process-theory
#12
Abigail Tazzyman, Jane Ferguson, Charlotte Hillier, Alan Boyd, John Tredinnick-Rowe, Julian Archer, Sam Regan de Bere, Kieran Walshe
BACKGROUND: Medical revalidation is the process by which all licensed doctors are legally required to demonstrate that they are up to date and fit to practise in order to maintain their licence. Revalidation was introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2012, constituting significant change in the regulation of doctors. The governing body, the General Medical Council (GMC), envisages that revalidation will improve patient care and safety. This potential however is, in part, dependent upon how successfully revalidation is embedded into routine practice...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152564/authorship-and-contribution-disclosures
#13
Henry Sauermann, Carolin Haeussler
Most scientific research is performed by teams, and for a long time, observers have inferred individual team members' contributions by interpreting author order on published articles. In response to increasing concerns about this approach, journals are adopting policies that require the disclosure of individual authors' contributions. However, it is not clear whether and how these disclosures improve upon the conventional approach. Moreover, there is little evidence on how contribution statements are written and how they are used by readers...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151397/-i-can-t-do-this-alone-a-study-on-foreign-domestic-workers-providing-long-term-care-for-frail-seniors-at-home
#14
Wai Jia Tam, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh, Helena Legido-Quigley, Ngoc Huong Lien Ha, Philip Lin Kiat Yap
BACKGROUND: Foreign domestic workers (FDWs) play an important role in long-term caregiving of seniors at home. However, how FDWs cope with the caregiving demands, the dynamic interaction between familial and FDW caregivers and its impact on care recipients remain largely un-explored. Existing caregiver interventions mainly target familial caregivers; little assistance is available for FDW caregivers. This study explores FDWs' challenges, coping strategies, and the support they need in caring for seniors...
November 20, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149520/compassion-in-practice-evaluating-the-awareness-involvement-and-perceived-impact-of-a-national-nursing-and-midwifery-strategy-amongst-health-care-professionals-in-nhs-trusts-in-england
#15
Helen Allan, Mike O'Driscoll, Liang Liu, Kevin Corbett, Laura Serrant
AIM: To report the findings from an evaluation of the impact of the Compassion in Practice Vision & Strategy (CiPVS) (National Health Service England (NHSE), 2012) on nursing, midwifery and care staff. BACKGROUND: The CiPVS was a programme of work to highlight the importance of compassionate care following the Francis Report in 2013 into the deficits in care in an NHS hospital trust. It was launched by NHS England in 2012 at a time when fiscal cuts were introduced by the Department of Health in England...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148172/quality-of-handwritten-surgical-operative-notes-from-surgical-trainees-a-noteworthy-issue
#16
Tatenda C Nzenza, Todd Manning, Simeon Ngweso, Marlon Perera, Shomik Sengupta, Damien Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk
BACKGROUND: Surgical operation notes are crucial for medical record keeping and information flow in continued patient care. In addition to inherent medical implications, the quality of operative notes also has important economic and medico-legal ramifications. Further, well-documented records can also be useful for audit purposes and propagation of research, facilitating the improvement of delivery of care to patients. We aimed to assess the quality of surgical operation notes written by junior doctors and trainees against a set standard, to ascertain whether these standards were met...
November 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147919/alterations-to-swallowing-physiology-as-the-result-of-effortful-swallowing-in-healthy-seniors
#17
Sonja M Molfenter, Chuan-Ya Hsu, Ying Lu, Cathy L Lazarus
A significant proportion of healthy seniors report difficulty swallowing, thought to result from age-related decline in muscle bulk/function. Effortful Swallowing (ES) is used both as a compensatory maneuver to improve pharyngeal propulsion/clearance and has been proposed as an exercise to improve pharyngeal strength. This study sought to quantify the immediate kinematic, temporal, and functional changes during an ES maneuver to quantify its exercise potential to combat age-related changes in swallowing. Videofluoroscopy data were collected from 44 healthy seniors (21 male) over 65 years old (mean = 76...
November 17, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146143/reported-mistreatment-during-the-surgery-clerkship-varies-by-student-career-choice
#18
Michael T Kemp, Margaret Smith, Scott Kizy, Michael Englesbe, Rishindra M Reddy
BACKGROUND: Student mistreatment is often a major concern during the surgery clerkship. We hypothesized that mistreatment is decreasing and that career choice may reflect perceived mistreatment. METHODS: We surveyed 2319 physicians about their surgery clerkships. Mistreatment reporting was correlated to physician specialty and medical school graduation year. RESULTS: The response rate was 18.9% (440/2319). Recent graduates reported less mistreatment than more senior graduates (24...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145745/recruitment-of-underrepresented-minority-researchers-into-hiv-prevention-research-the-hiv-prevention-trials-network-hptn-scholars-program
#19
Sten H Vermund, Erica L Hamilton, Sam Griffith, Larissa Jennings, Typhanye V Dyer, Kenneth H Mayer, Darrell P Wheeler
Most US investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the US epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12-18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144023/resident-versus-faculty-member-simulation-debriefing
#20
Traci Adams, Chad Newton, Hetal Patel, Melanie Sulistio, Andrew Tomlinson, Won Lee
BACKGROUND: Near-peer teaching is effective in graduate medical education, but it has not been compared with faculty member teaching in resident simulation. In this study, we sought to compare debriefing sessions of internal medicine (IM) intern simulation sessions led by academic faculty doctors with those led by senior IM residents in order to measure the effectiveness of near-peer teaching in this setting. Near-peer teaching is effective in graduate medical education, but has not been compared with faculty member teaching in resident simulation METHOD: Internal medicine interns participated in four simulation cases, two of which were debriefed by faculty members and two of which were debriefed by residents...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Teacher
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