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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756515/effects-of-polaprezinc-on-gastric-mucosal-damage-and-neurotransmitters-in-a-rat-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-vomiting
#1
Zhao Yang Liu, Wen Bo Xie, Ming Ru Li, Nan Teng, Xiao Liang, Zi Qiang Zhang
Objective To investigate the effects of polaprezinc (PZ) on cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or cisplatin (DDP)-induced gastric mucosal injury and on a rat model of neurotransmitter-mediated vomiting. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided at random into Control, CTX, DDP, PZ+CTX, and PZ+DDP groups. After 20 days, brain tissues and sera were analyzed for the levels of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of stomach, intestine, and brain tissues were examined using light microscopy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730451/the-effects-of-fasting-and-appetite-regulators-on-catecholamine-and-serotonin-synthesis-pathways-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#2
Stephanie Mandic, Hélène Volkoff
Monoamine neurotransmitters such as catecholamines [dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)] and serotonin have been shown to influence feeding in vertebrates. In order to better understand the role of monoamine neurotransmitters in the regulation of feeding in fish, we examined the effects of fasting on the brain and intestine gene expression of enzymes involved in their synthesis pathways (SPR: sepiapterin reductase; DHPR: dihydropteridine reductase; TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; TPH: tryptophan hydroxylase; AADC: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase; DBH: dopamine β-hydroxylase) in goldfish...
May 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707715/effects-of-bovine-lactoferrin-on-l-dopa-absorption-and-metabolism-in-mice
#3
Masayuki Ikeda, Hiroshi Iijima, Ichizo Shinoda, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yasuhiro Takeda
Bioactive natural products, habitually ingested with milk or its derivative nutrients, have been studied for their bioavailability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the co-administration of bovine milk-derived lactoferrin (bLF) and bioactive products, with a focus on catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme in the catechol metabolism. bLF showed inhibitory activity on COMT in vitro, and acidic pretreatment of bLF enhanced its inhibitory activity. Moreover, partially digested products of bLF by pepsin retained inhibitory activity...
April 30, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702500/future-pharmacological-therapy-in-hypertension
#4
Merrill H Stewart, Carl J Lavie, Hector O Ventura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (HTN) is a widespread and growing disease, with medication intolerance and side-effect present among many. To address these obstacles novel pharmacotherapy is an active area of drug development. This review seeks to explore future drug therapy for HTN in the preclinical and clinical arenas. RECENT FINDINGS: The future of pharmacological therapy in HTN consists of revisiting old pathways to find new targets and exploring wholly new approaches to provide additional avenues of treatment...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649517/effect-of-nisin-on-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-neurochemicals-by-escherichia-coli-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#5
Zhifeng Jia, Aorigele Chen, Fuxiang Bao, Meiling He, Siming Gao, Jin Xu, Xin Zhang, Puchun Niu, Chunjie Wang
The effects of nisin on the neurochemicals, Aquaporin-3 (AQP-3) and intestinal microorganisms in the brain-gut axis of mice were analyzed by using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and high throughput sequencing in this investigation, to further revealed the relationship between intestinal flora abundance in mice and neurochemicals in the brain-gut axis. Using HE staining found damage of structure of small intestine villi in the model group (Escherichia coli O1 , E. coli O1 ). Compared with normal control and ciprofloxacin groups, using ELISA showed that nisin increased the highest norepinephrine (NE) expression in the brain, expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the duodenum, and increased the expression of AQP-3 in jejunum...
April 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615907/suppression-of-cisplatin-induced-vomiting-by-cannabis-sativa-in-pigeons-neurochemical-evidences
#6
Ihsan Ullah, Fazal Subhan, Javaid Alam, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Ayaz
Cannabis sativa ( CS , family Cannabinaceae ) has been reported for its anti-emetic activity against cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. The current study was designed to investigate CS for potential effectiveness to attenuate cisplatin-induced vomiting in healthy pigeons and to study the impact on neurotransmitters involved centrally and peripherally in the act of vomiting. High-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector was used for the quantification of neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), dopamine (DA) and their metabolites; Di-hydroxy Phenyl Acetic acid (Dopac), Homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5HIAA) centrally in specific brain areas (area postrema and brain stem) while, peripherally in small intestine...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574296/novel-prodrug-prx-p4-003-selectively-activated-by-gut-enzymes-may-reduce-the-risk-of-iatrogenic-addiction-and-abuse
#7
Sandeep T Patil, Ron H Bihovsky, Steven A Smith, William Z Potter, Valentino J Stella
OBJECTIVES: Prescription stimulants are vulnerable to oral and parenteral abuse. Intravenous forms of abuse may be most detrimental due to an enhanced risk of dependence, overdose, and infectious diseases. Our objective was to discover an orally active prodrug of a stimulant that would not be easily converted to its parent when injected, thus hindering intravenous abuse. METHODS: Following an initial analysis of stimulant structures, the fencamfamine isomer [(-)-FCF; (N-ethyl-3-phenylbicyclo[2...
March 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570866/international-parkinson-and-movement-disorder-society-evidence-based-medicine-review-update-on-treatments-for-the-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Susan H Fox, Regina Katzenschlager, Shen-Yang Lim, Brandon Barton, Rob M A de Bie, Klaus Seppi, Miguel Coelho, Cristina Sampaio
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to update evidence-based medicine recommendations for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND: The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Committee recommendations for treatments of PD were first published in 2002 and updated in 2011, and we continued the review to December 31, 2016. METHODS: Level I studies of interventions for motor symptoms were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion and quality scoring were as previously reported...
March 23, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570862/medical-and-surgical-management-of-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Angelo Antonini, Elena Moro, Clecio Godeiro, Heinz Reichmann
Advanced Parkinson's disease is characterized by the presence of motor fluctuations, various degree of dyskinesia, and disability with functional impact on activities of daily living and independence. Therapeutic management aims to extend levodopa benefit while minimizing motor complications and includes, in selected cases, the implementation of drug infusion and surgical techniques. In milder forms of motor complications, these can often be controlled with manipulation of levodopa dose and the introduction of supplemental therapies such as catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, monoamine oxidase B inhibitors, and dopamine agonists including apomorphine...
March 23, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556880/critical-care-management-of-peritonitis-in-a-low-resource-setting
#10
Jennifer Rickard, Christian Ngarambe, Leonard Ndayizeye, Blair Smart, Robert Riviello, Jean Paul Majyambere
BACKGROUND: Management of critically ill patients is challenging in a low-resource setting. In Rwanda, peritonitis is a common surgical condition where patients often present late, with advanced disease. We aim to describe critical care management of patients with peritonitis in Rwanda. METHODS: Data were collected at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda on patients undergoing operation for peritonitis over a 6-month period. Data included epidemiology, hospital course and outcomes...
March 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554147/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-the-da2-receptor-gene-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#11
Xiaozhen Yang, Genyong Huang, Min-Jie Xu, Cong Zhang, Yongxu Cheng, Zhigang Yang
Dopamine (DA) plays a modulatory role in numerous physiological processes such as light adaptation and food intake, and exerts these functions through DA receptors (DARs). This study presents, for the first time, isolation and characterization of the dopamine receptor 2(DA2 receptor) cDNA from the intestinal tissue of Eriocheir sinensis, an economically important freshwater aquaculture species in China. The DA2 receptor cDNA sequence, which was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends, is 2369bp long, encode peptide of 589 amino acid, and is highly homologous to related sequences in crustaceans...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524228/antibiotics-induced-modulation-of-large-intestinal-microbiota-altered-aromatic-amino-acid-profile-and-expression-of-neurotransmitters-in-the-hypothalamus-of-piglets
#12
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432726/co-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-protein-gene-product-9-5-surrounding-the-lumen-of-human-schlemm-s-canal
#13
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
May 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428098/pathophysiological-consequences-of-obstructive-jaundice-and-perioperative-management
#14
REVIEW
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common problem in daily clinical practice. Understanding completely the pathophysiological changes in obstructive jaundice remains a challenge for planning current and future management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed was searched for relevant articles published up to August 2016. The effect of obstructive jaundice on proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation status, hemodynamics and organ functions were evaluated. RESULTS: The effects of obstructive jaundice included biliary tree, the hepatic cell and liver function as well as systemic complications...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382572/dopamine-d2-like-receptors-drd2-and-drd4-in-chickens-tissue-distribution-functional-analysis-and-their-involvement-in-dopamine-inhibition-of-pituitary-prolactin-expression
#15
Can Lv, Chunheng Mo, Haikun Liu, Chao Wu, Zhengyang Li, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Dopamine (DA) D2-like (and D1-like) receptors are suggested to mediate the dopamine actions in the anterior pituitary and/or CNS of birds. However, the information regarding the structure, functionality, and expression of avian D2-like receptors have not been fully characterized. In this study, we cloned two D2-like receptors (cDRD2, cDRD4) from chicken brain using RACE PCR. The cloned cDRD4 is a 378-amino acid receptor, which shows 57% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse DRD4. As in mammals, two cDRD2 isoforms, cDRD2L (long isoform, 437 a...
April 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320746/sada-expressing-staphylococci-in-the-human-gut-show-increased-cell-adherence-and-internalization
#16
Arif Luqman, Mulugeta Nega, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Patrick Ebner, Friedrich Götz
A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs), are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA). SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297566/immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-neurons-in-the-ganglia-of-the-greater-splanchnic-nerve-of-the-pig
#17
Jamal Nourinezhad, Piotr Podlasz, Krzysztof Wasowicz
INTRODUCTION: Greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) is by far the largest of the splanchnic nerves and connects the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia to transmit the majority of nociceptive information from the viscera. Despite its importance, the immunohistochemical features of the porcine GSN neurons have not yet been examined. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the neurochemistry of the porcine GSN neurons and to compare their neurochemical coding with those of the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290921/gut-brain-crosstalk-regulates-craving-for-fatty-food
#18
REVIEW
Rajendra Raghow
Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery elicit striking loss of body weight. Anatomical re-structuring of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, leading to reduced caloric intake and changes in food preference, are thought to be the primary drivers of weight loss in bariatric surgery patients. However, the mechanisms by which RYGB surgery causes a reduced preference for fatty foods remain elusive. In a recent report, Hankir et al described how RYGB surgery modulated lipid nutrient signals in the intestine of rats to blunt their craving for fatty food...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273324/temporal-expression-of-c-fos-and-genes-coding-for-neuropeptides-and-enzymes-of-amino-acid-and-amine-neurotransmitter-biosynthesis-in-retina-pineal-and-hypothalamus-of-a-migratory-songbird-evidence-for-circadian-rhythm-dependent-seasonal-responses
#19
Ila Mishra, Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
This study investigated whether, in photoperiodic songbirds, the circadian pacemaker system (CPS) connects to the seasonal photoperiodic responses, by changes at transcriptional level in the level and 24-h rhythm of its constituent neurotransmitters. We used black-headed buntings (Emberiza melanocephala), which exhibit distinct seasonal states in captivity under appropriate photoperiods and hence served as a useful model system. Under short days, buntings remain in the photosensitive state (Pse) (winter phenotype: non-migratory, non-breeding)...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193823/striated-perineal-muscles-location-of-somatic-and-autonomic-neurons-projecting-to-the-male-pig-ischiocavernous-muscle-neurochemical-features-of-the-sympathetic-subset
#20
Maddalena Botti, Luisa Ragionieri, Antonio Cacchioli, Rino Panu, Ferdinando Gazza
The location, number and size of the central and peripheral neurons innervating the ischiocavernous muscle (ICM) were studied in male pigs by means of Fast Blue (FB) retrograde neuronal tracing. Moreover the immunohistochemical properties of the sympathetic ganglia were investigated combining the double immunolabeling method. After injection of FB into the left ICM, a mean number of 245.3 ± 134.9 labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral ventral horn of the S1-S3 segments of the spinal cord (SC), 129...
November 29, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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