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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#1
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885812/a-whole-animal-chemical-screen-approach-to-identify-modifiers-of-intestinal-neutrophilic-inflammation
#2
Stefan H Oehlers, Maria Vega Flores, Christopher J Hall, Liuyang Wang, Dennis C Ko, Kathryn E Crosier, Philip S Crosier
By performing two high-content small molecule screens on DSS- and TNBS-induced zebrafish enterocolitis models of inflammatory bowel disease, we have identified novel anti-inflammatory drugs from the John Hopkins Clinical Compound Library that suppress neutrophilic inflammation. Live imaging of neutrophil distribution was used to assess the level of acute inflammation and concurrently screen for off-target drug effects. Supporting the validity of our screening strategy, most of the anti-inflammatory drug hits were known antibiotics or anti-inflammatory agents...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859651/sustained-striatal-dopamine-levels-following-intestinal-levodopa-infusions-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#3
Marios Politis, Anna Sauerbier, Clare Loane, Nicola Pavese, Anne Martin, Benjamin Corcoran, David J Brooks, K Ray-Chaudhuri, Paola Piccini
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo the ability of levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel infusions to produce sustained striatal dopamine levels and to improve clinical outcomes in Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: Six advanced Parkinson's disease patients had serial [(11) C]raclopride PET to assess levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel infusion-induced rises in striatal dopamine as reflected by a fall in dopamine-D2/3 receptor availability...
November 17, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583474/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-secreting-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-dopamine-with-pulmonary-emboli-a-case-report
#4
Naris Nilubol, Esther M Freedman, Martha M Quezado, Dhaval Patel, Electron Kebebew
CONTEXT: The vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (VIPoma) is a very rare pancreatic tumor. We report the first case of a patient with VIPoma that co-secreted dopamine and had pulmonary emboli. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 67-year-old woman presented with 2 months of watery diarrhea, severe generalized weakness,6.8 kg of weight loss, a facial rash, and hypokalemia. Colonoscopy did not reveal the cause of the chronic diarrhea. Initial biochemical testing showed markedly elevated serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pancreatic polypeptide...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542316/enhanced-bioadhesivity-of-dopamine-functionalized-polysaccharidic-membranes-for-general-surgery-applications
#5
F Scognamiglio, A Travan, M Borgogna, I Donati, E Marsich, J W A M Bosmans, L Perge, M P Foulc, N D Bouvy, S Paoletti
UNLABELLED: An emerging strategy to improve adhesiveness of biomaterials in wet conditions takes inspiration from the adhesive features of marine mussel, which reside in the chemical reactivity of catechols. In this work, a catechol-bearing molecule (dopamine) was chemically grafted onto alginate to develop a polysaccharide-based membrane with improved adhesive properties. The dopamine-modified alginates were characterized by NMR, UV spectroscopy and in vitro biocompatibility. Mechanical tests and in vitro adhesion studies pointed out the effects of the grafted dopamine within the membranes...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522721/-modern-prokinetics-and-their-role-in-the-treatment-of-gastroenterological-pathology
#6
REVIEW
A A Sheptulin, I B Belousova
The importance of prokinetics (drugs stimulating motor function of the gastrointestinal tract) arises from the high prevalence of gastroenterological pathology associated with primary or secondary disturbances of this function in esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The main groups of prokinetics are beta-blockers of dopamine receptors, inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase (or their combination with dopamine receptor blockers), 5-HT4-receptor agonists. They find wide application for the treatment of gastroesophgeal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia and constipation, obstipational form of irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions accompanied by motor function disorders of the gastrointestinal tract...
2016: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495198/treating-the-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-disease
#7
John C Morgan, Susan H Fox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After a patient is diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD), there are many therapeutic options available. This article provides examples of prototypical patients encountered in clinical practice and illustrates the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options for the motor symptoms of PD. RECENT FINDINGS: Levodopa became available in the late 1960s and remains the gold standard for the treatment of PD even today. Since that time, amantadine, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors have emerged as monotherapy, add-on therapies, or both, in the armamentarium against PD...
August 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376201/improved-selectivity-of-mibg-uptake-into-neuroblastoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-inhibition-of-organic-cation-transporter-3-uptake-using-clinically-approved-corticosteroids
#8
Melanie Bayer, Julia Schmitt, Helmut Dittmann, Rupert Handgretinger, Gernot Bruchelt, Alexander W Sauter
INTRODUCTION: Radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is used for imaging and therapy of neuroblastoma as well as pheochromocytoma. However, non-tumorous tissues also incorporate mIBG mainly by organic cation transporters (OCTs). In this study, we tested different clinically approved corticosteroids as potential inhibitors of the OCT3-mediated uptake in vitro and in vivo, to achieve a more selective mIBG tumor uptake. METHODS: The in vitro incorporation of [(3)H]norepinephrine ([(3)H]NE), [(3)H]dopamine ([(3)H]DA) and [(123)I]mIBG in neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH, Kelly, IMR-32) and in HEK-293 cells transfected with human OCT3 was measured with and without supplemental corticosteroids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, corticosterone)...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349436/the-role-of-the-microbial-metabolites-including-tryptophan-catabolites-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-the-pathophysiology-of-immune-inflammatory-and-neuroimmune-disease
#9
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Andre Carvalho, Javier R Caso, Yolanda Sanz, Ken Walder, Michael Maes
There is a growing awareness that gut commensal metabolites play a major role in host physiology and indeed the pathophysiology of several illnesses. The composition of the microbiota largely determines the levels of tryptophan in the systemic circulation and hence, indirectly, the levels of serotonin in the brain. Some microbiota synthesize neurotransmitters directly, e.g., gamma-amino butyric acid, while modulating the synthesis of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)...
June 27, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230228/extrinsic-innervation-of-ileum-and-pelvic-flexure-of-foals-with-ileocolonic-aganglionosis
#10
F Giancola, F Gentilini, N Romagnoli, A Spadari, M E Turba, M Giunta, J Sadeghinezhad, C Sorteni, R Chiocchetti
Equine ileocolonic aganglionosis, which is also called lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS), is a severe congenital condition characterized by the unsuccessful colonization of neural crest progenitors in the caudal part of the small intestine and the entire large intestine. LWFS, which is attributable to a mutation in the endothelin receptor B gene, is the horse equivalent of Hirschsprung's disease in humans. Affected foals suffer from aganglionosis or hypoganglionosis of the enteric ganglia resulting in intestinal akinesia and colic...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209208/knockout-of-endothelin-type-b-receptor-signaling-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-skin-sclerosis-in-mice
#11
Kengo Akashi, Jun Saegusa, Sho Sendo, Keisuke Nishimura, Takuya Okano, Keiko Yagi, Masashi Yanagisawa, Noriaki Emoto, Akio Morinobu
BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is important in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). ET-1 binds two receptors, endothelin type A (ETA) and endothelin type B (ETB). Dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonists and a selective ETA receptor antagonist are used clinically to treat SSc, and the effect of these antagonists on fibroblast activation has been described. However, the role of ETB receptor signaling in fibrogenesis is less clear. This study was conducted to evaluate the profibrotic function of ETB receptor signaling in a murine model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced scleroderma...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156126/the-effects-of-d3r-on-tlr4-signaling-involved-in-the-regulation-of-meth-mediated-mast-cells-activation
#12
Li Xue, Yan Geng, Ming Li, Yao-Feng Jin, Hui-Xun Ren, Xia Li, Feng Wu, Biao Wang, Wei-Ying Cheng, Teng Chen, Yan-Jiong Chen
Accumulating studies have revealed that the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) plays an important role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. However, the action of D3R on METH-mediated immune response and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Mast cells (MCs) are currently identified as effector cells in many processes of immune responses, and MC activation is induced by various stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, CD117 and FcεRI are known as MC markers due to their specific expression in MCs. To investigate the effects of D3R on METH-mediated alteration of LPS-induced MCs activation and the underlying mechanism, in this study, we examined the expression of CD117 and FcεRI in the intestines of wild-type (D3R(+/+)) and D3R-deficient (D3R(-/-)) mice...
May 5, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089499/postnatal-development-of-the-dopaminergic-signaling-involved-in-the-modulation-of-intestinal-motility-in-mice
#13
Maria Grazia Zizzo, Giacomo Cavallaro, Michelangelo Auteri, Gaetano Caldara, Ilaria Amodeo, Mariangela Mastropaolo, Domenico Nuzzo, Marta Di Carlo, Monica Fumagalli, Fabio Mosca, Flavia Mule, Rosa Serio
BACKGROUND: Since antidopaminergic drugs are pharmacological agents employed in the management of gastrointestinal motor disorders at all ages, we investigated whether the enteric dopaminergic system may undergo developmental changes after birth. METHODS: Intestinal mechanical activity was examined in vitro as changes in isometric tension. RESULTS: In 2-d-old (P2) mice, dopamine induced a contractile effect, decreasing in intensity with age, replaced, at the weaning (day 20), by a relaxant response...
September 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075968/clinical-management-of-patients-with-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-treated-with-continuous-intestinal-infusion-of-levodopa-carbidopa
#14
Diego Santos García, Juan Carlos Martínez Castrillo, Víctor Puente Périz, Agustín Seoane Urgorri, Servando Fernández Díez, Vicente Benita León, Beatriz Udaeta Baldivieso, Antonia Campolongo Perillo, Natividad Mariscal Pérez
Patients with Parkinson's disease often have a good initial response to dopaminergic therapy but later usually develop motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. In these patients, continuous infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) allows for maintaining adequate dopamine levels and for improving motor and nonmotor symptoms, as well as quality of life and autonomy. Adequate candidate selection and follow-up are crucial for treatment success. Management should be multidisciplinary, and patient and caregiver education is a priority...
June 2016: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930260/daily-expression-of-genes-coding-for-neurotransmitters-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues-of-redheaded-bunting-implication-for-circadian-regulation-of-physiology-in-songbirds
#15
Ila Mishra, Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
In birds, circadian control of tissue level communication is not well understood. The present study investigated this, by monitoring daily oscillation of genes coding for peptides (neuropeptide Y, NPY; vasoactive intestinal peptide, VIP; somatostatis, SST) and intermediary enzymes of amine and amino acid neurotransmitters (dopamine [tyrosine hydroxylase, TH]; glutamate [glutaminase, GLS; glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2, GOT2]; gamma amino butyric actid, GABA [glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65]) biosynthetic pathway, along with c-FOS as an activation marker, in different tissues of migratory redheaded buntings, Emberiza bruniceps...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914154/in-situ-generated-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-loaded-microspheres-in-mussel-inspired-polycaprolactone-nanosheets-creating-spatiotemporal-releasing-microenvironment-to-promote-wound-healing-and-angiogenesis
#16
Yuzhen Wang, Zhiqiang Chen, Gaoxing Luo, Weifeng He, Kaige Xu, Rui Xu, Qiang Lei, Jianglin Tan, Jun Wu, Malcolm Xing
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was reported to promote angiogenesis. Electrospun nanofibers lead to idea wound dressing substrates. Here we report a convenient and novel method to produce VIP loaded microspheres in polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membrane without complicated processes. We first coated mussel-inspired dopamine (DA) to nanofibers, then used strong adhesive DA to absorb the functional peptide. PCL membrane was then immersed into acetone to generate microspheres with VIP loading. We employed high pressure liquid chromatography to record encapsulation efficiency of (31...
March 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866603/circulating-hepcidin-25-is-reduced-by-endogenous-estrogen-in-humans
#17
Mikael Lehtihet, Ylva Bonde, Lena Beckman, Katarina Berinder, Charlotte Hoybye, Mats Rudling, John H Sloan, Robert J Konrad, Bo Angelin
OBJECTIVE: Hepcidin reduces iron absorption by binding to the intestinal iron transporter ferroportin, thereby causing its degradation. Although short-term administration of testosterone or growth hormone (GH) has been reported to decrease circulating hepcidin levels, little is known about how hepcidin is influenced in human endocrine conditions associated with anemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a sensitive and specific dual-monoclonal antibody sandwich immunoassay to measure hepcidin-25 in patients (a) during initiation of in vitro fertilization when endogenous estrogens were elevated vs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26777870/protein-kinase-a-signalling-in-schistosoma-mansoni-cercariae-and-schistosomules
#18
Natasha L Hirst, Scott P Lawton, Anthony J Walker
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae...
June 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26639565/phenotypic-changes-of-aadc-only-immunoreactive-cells-in-the-alimentary-canal-of-the-laboratory-shrew-suncus-murinus-induced-by-systemic-administration-of-monoamine-precursors
#19
Kazuyoshi Sakai, Ryuji Nomura, Yoshimi Hasegawa, Masanori Sinzato, Kazuhiro Nishii, Yoshimitsu Katoh, Kouji Yamada
In order to elucidate the function of anti-aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC)-only-positive cells in the alimentary canal, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) was intraperitoneally injected into the laboratory shrew, Suncus murinus, and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on continuous sections of the alimentary canal using specific antisera against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), AADC, dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT). AADC-only-positive cells localized to the epithelial layer of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the large intestine...
2015: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606050/the-influence-of-prolonged-acetylsalicylic-acid-supplementation-induced-gastritis-on-the-neurochemistry-of-the-sympathetic-neurons-supplying-prepyloric-region-of-the-porcine-stomach
#20
Katarzyna Palus, Jarosław Całka
This experiment was designed to establish the localization and neurochemical phenotyping of sympathetic neurons supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach in a physiological state and during acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) induced gastritis. In order to localize the sympathetic perikarya the stomachs of both control and acetylsalicylic acid treated (ASA group) animals were injected with neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB). Seven days post FB injection, animals were divided into a control and ASA supplementation group...
2015: PloS One
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