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intestine dopamine

Jennifer Rickard, Christian Ngarambe, Leonard Ndayizeye, Blair Smart, Robert Riviello, Jean Paul Majyambere
BACKGROUND: Management of critically ill patients is challenging in a low-resource setting. In Rwanda, peritonitis is a common surgical condition where patients often present late, with advanced disease. We aim to describe critical care management of patients with peritonitis in Rwanda. METHODS: Data were collected at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda on patients undergoing operation for peritonitis over a 6-month period. Data included epidemiology, hospital course and outcomes...
March 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Xiaozhen Yang, Genyong Huang, Min-Jie Xu, Cong Zhang, Yongxu Cheng, Zhigang Yang
Dopamine (DA) plays a modulatory role in numerous physiological processes such as light adaptation and food intake, and exerts these functions through DA receptors (DARs). This study presents, for the first time, isolation and characterization of the dopamine receptor 2(DA2 receptor) cDNA from the intestinal tissue of Eriocheir sinensis, an economically important freshwater aquaculture species in China. The DA2 receptor cDNA sequence, which was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends, is 2369bp long, encode peptide of 589 amino acid, and is highly homologous to related sequences in crustaceans...
2018: PloS One
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common problem in daily clinical practice. Understanding completely the pathophysiological changes in obstructive jaundice remains a challenge for planning current and future management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed was searched for relevant articles published up to August 2016. The effect of obstructive jaundice on proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation status, hemodynamics and organ functions were evaluated. RESULTS: The effects of obstructive jaundice included biliary tree, the hepatic cell and liver function as well as systemic complications...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Can Lv, Chunheng Mo, Haikun Liu, Chao Wu, Zhengyang Li, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Dopamine (DA) D2-like (and D1-like) receptors are suggested to mediate the dopamine actions in the anterior pituitary and/or CNS of birds. However, the information regarding the structure, functionality, and expression of avian D2-like receptors have not been fully characterized. In this study, we cloned two D2-like receptors (cDRD2, cDRD4) from chicken brain using RACE PCR. The cloned cDRD4 is a 378-amino acid receptor, which shows 57% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse DRD4. As in mammals, two cDRD2 isoforms, cDRD2L (long isoform, 437 a...
January 27, 2018: Gene
Arif Luqman, Mulugeta Nega, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Patrick Ebner, Friedrich Götz
A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs), are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA). SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
Jamal Nourinezhad, Piotr Podlasz, Krzysztof Wasowicz
INTRODUCTION: Greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) is by far the largest of the splanchnic nerves and connects the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia to transmit the majority of nociceptive information from the viscera. Despite its importance, the immunohistochemical features of the porcine GSN neurons have not yet been examined. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the neurochemistry of the porcine GSN neurons and to compare their neurochemical coding with those of the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia...
January 3, 2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Rajendra Raghow
Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery elicit striking loss of body weight. Anatomical re-structuring of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, leading to reduced caloric intake and changes in food preference, are thought to be the primary drivers of weight loss in bariatric surgery patients. However, the mechanisms by which RYGB surgery causes a reduced preference for fatty foods remain elusive. In a recent report, Hankir et al described how RYGB surgery modulated lipid nutrient signals in the intestine of rats to blunt their craving for fatty food...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
Ila Mishra, Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
This study investigated whether, in photoperiodic songbirds, the circadian pacemaker system (CPS) connects to the seasonal photoperiodic responses, by changes at transcriptional level in the level and 24-h rhythm of its constituent neurotransmitters. We used blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala), which exhibits distinct seasonal states in captivity under appropriate photoperiods and hence served as a useful model system. Under short days, buntings remain in the photosensitive state (winter phenotype: non-migratory, non-breeding)...
December 19, 2017: Neuroscience
Maddalena Botti, Luisa Ragionieri, Antonio Cacchioli, Rino Panu, Ferdinando Gazza
The location, number and size of the central and peripheral neurons innervating the ischiocavernous muscle (ICM) were studied in male pigs by means of Fast Blue (FB) retrograde neuronal tracing. Moreover the immunohistochemical properties of the sympathetic ganglia were investigated combining the double immunolabeling method. After injection of FB into the left ICM, a mean number of 245.3 ± 134.9 labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral ventral horn of the S1-S3 segments of the spinal cord (SC), 129...
November 29, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Kenji Mori, Takanori Ida, Mami Fudetani, Miwa Mori, Hiroyuki Kaiya, Jun Hino, Keiko Nakahara, Noboru Murakami, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
The discovery of neuropeptides provides insights into the regulation of physiological processes. The precursor for the neuropeptide neuromedin U contains multiple consensus sequences for proteolytic processing, suggesting that this precursor might generate additional peptides. We performed immunoaffinity chromatography of rat brain extracts and consequently identified such a product, which we designated neuromedin U precursor-related peptide (NURP). In rat brain, NURP was present as two mature peptides of 33 and 36 residues...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
Paola Imbriani, Tommaso Schirinzi, Alessio D'Elia, Antonio Pisani
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving long-term L-Dopa therapy eventually develop motor complications with unpredictable "on-off" response fluctuations and involuntary movements, leading to progressive disability. Hence, the search for alternative therapeutic choices based on continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) becomes crucial for the treatment of advanced PD. Here, we describe the case of a 70-year-old man with a 9-year history of PD, treated with daytime levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and overnight Rotigotine transdermal patch...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Jayoung Kim, Itthipon Jeerapan, Bianca Ciui, Martin C Hartel, Aida Martin, Joseph Wang
This study demonstrates the first example of completely food-based edible electrochemical sensors. The new edible composite electrodes consist of food materials and supplements serving as the edible conductor, corn, and olive oils as edible binders, vegetables as biocatalysts, and food-based packing sleeves. These edible composite electrodes are systematically characterized for their attractive electrochemical properties, such as potential window, capacitance, redox activity using various electrochemical techniques...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Xiaoying Sun, Weijing Zhang, Han Li, Chunhao Niu, Yulan Ou, Libing Song, Yanna Zhang
Stonin 2 (STON2), which functions in adjusting endocytotic complexes, is probably involved in the monitoring of the internalization of dopamine D2 receptors which have an inhibitory action of dopamine on tumor progression. However, its clinical significance in tumor progression and prognosis remains unclear. We explored the association between STON2 and the clinicopathological characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The STON2 levels in ovarian cancer and normal cell lines and tissues were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anne-Marie Wills, Ruosha Li, Adriana Pérez, Xuehan Ren, James Boyd
Weight loss is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease and is associated with impaired quality of life. Predictors of weight loss have not been studied in large clinical cohorts. We previously observed an association between change in body mass index and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores. In this study, we performed a secondary analysis of longitudinal data (1-6 years) from 1619 participants in the NINDS Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS1) to explore predictors of weight loss in a large prospective clinical trial cohort of early treated Parkinson's disease...
August 2017: Journal of Neurology
C Dancker, K Hopster, K Rohn, S B Kästner
BACKGROUND: In the horse, effects of cardiovascular-active drugs on local perfusion of the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of drugs commonly used to support blood pressure, on local intestinal blood flow and tissue oxygenation under isoflurane anaesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo randomised crossover experiment. METHODS: Ten horses were anaesthetised with isoflurane. After 90 min of equilibration three doses (μg/kg bwt/min) of dobutamine (DOB 0...
January 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Shingo Oda, Yukiko Kato, Masahiko Hatakeyama, Atsushi Iwamura, Tatsuki Fukami, Toshiyuki Kume, Tsuyoshi Yokoi, Miki Nakajima
UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. Each member of the UGT family exhibits a unique but occasionally overlapping substrate specificity and tissue-specific expression pattern. Earlier studies have reported that human UGT1A10 is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract at the mRNA level, but the evaluation at the protein level, especially tissue or cellular localization, has lagged behind because of the lack of a specific antibody. In this study, we prepared a monoclonal antibody against UGT1A10 to elucidate the tissue/cellular distribution and interindividual variability of UGT1A10 protein expression...
July 11, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the skin of the pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically very representative for humans. Thus, the present study was designed to establish the origin of the sympathetic fibers supplying the porcine skin of the hind leg, and the pattern(s) of putative co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leu5-enkephalin and galanin (GAL) using combined retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunohistochemistry...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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