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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874765/identification-of-neuromedin-u-precursor-related-peptide-and-its-possible-role-in-the-regulation-of-prolactin-release
#1
Kenji Mori, Takanori Ida, Mami Fudetani, Miwa Mori, Hiroyuki Kaiya, Jun Hino, Keiko Nakahara, Noboru Murakami, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
The discovery of neuropeptides provides insights into the regulation of physiological processes. The precursor for the neuropeptide neuromedin U contains multiple consensus sequences for proteolytic processing, suggesting that this precursor might generate additional peptides. We performed immunoaffinity chromatography of rat brain extracts and consequently identified such a product, which we designated neuromedin U precursor-related peptide (NURP). In rat brain, NURP was present as two mature peptides of 33 and 36 residues...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863139/gut-microbiome-in-adhd-and-its-relation-to-neural-reward-anticipation
#2
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845835/continuous-dopaminergic-stimulation-in-a-patient-treated-with-daytime-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-and-overnight-rotigotine-a-case-report
#3
Paola Imbriani, Tommaso Schirinzi, Alessio D'Elia, Antonio Pisani
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving long-term L-Dopa therapy eventually develop motor complications with unpredictable "on-off" response fluctuations and involuntary movements, leading to progressive disability. Hence, the search for alternative therapeutic choices based on continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) becomes crucial for the treatment of advanced PD. Here, we describe the case of a 70-year-old man with a 9-year history of PD, treated with daytime levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and overnight Rotigotine transdermal patch...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783874/edible-electrochemistry-food-materials-based-electrochemical-sensors
#4
Jayoung Kim, Itthipon Jeerapan, Bianca Ciui, Martin C Hartel, Aida Martin, Joseph Wang
This study demonstrates the first example of completely food-based edible electrochemical sensors. The new edible composite electrodes consist of food materials and supplements serving as the edible conductor, corn, and olive oils as edible binders, vegetables as biocatalysts, and food-based packing sleeves. These edible composite electrodes are systematically characterized for their attractive electrochemical properties, such as potential window, capacitance, redox activity using various electrochemical techniques...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758939/stonin-2-overexpression-is-correlated-with-unfavorable-prognosis-and-tumor-invasion-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#5
Xiaoying Sun, Weijing Zhang, Han Li, Chunhao Niu, Yulan Ou, Libing Song, Yanna Zhang
Stonin 2 (STON2), which functions in adjusting endocytotic complexes, is probably involved in the monitoring of the internalization of dopamine D2 receptors which have an inhibitory action of dopamine on tumor progression. However, its clinical significance in tumor progression and prognosis remains unclear. We explored the association between STON2 and the clinicopathological characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The STON2 levels in ovarian cancer and normal cell lines and tissues were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712000/predictors-of-weight-loss-in-early-treated-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-net-pd-ls-1-cohort
#6
Anne-Marie Wills, Ruosha Li, Adriana Pérez, Xuehan Ren, James Boyd
Weight loss is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease and is associated with impaired quality of life. Predictors of weight loss have not been studied in large clinical cohorts. We previously observed an association between change in body mass index and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores. In this study, we performed a secondary analysis of longitudinal data (1-6 years) from 1619 participants in the NINDS Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS1) to explore predictors of weight loss in a large prospective clinical trial cohort of early treated Parkinson's disease...
August 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710899/effects-of-dobutamine-dopamine-phenylephrine-and-noradrenaline-on-systemic-haemodynamics-and-intestinal-perfusion-in-isoflurane-anaesthetised-horses
#7
C Dancker, K Hopster, K Rohn, S B Kästner
BACKGROUND: In the horse, effects of cardiovascular-active drugs on local perfusion of the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of drugs commonly used to support blood pressure, on local intestinal blood flow and tissue oxygenation under isoflurane anaesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo randomised crossover experiment METHODS: Ten horses were anaesthetised with isoflurane. After 90 minutes of equilibration three doses (μg/kg bwt/min) of dobutamine (DOB 0...
July 15, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698303/evaluation-of-expression-and-glycosylation-status-of-ugt1a10-in-supersomes-and-intestinal-epithelial-cells-with-a-novel-specific-ugt1a10-monoclonal-antibody
#8
Shingo Oda, Yukiko Kato, Masahiko Hatakeyama, Atsushi Iwamura, Tatsuki Fukami, Toshiyuki Kume, Tsuyoshi Yokoi, Miki Nakajima
UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. Each member of the UGT family exhibits a unique but occasionally overlapping substrate specificity and tissue-specific expression pattern. Earlier studies have reported that human UGT1A10 is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract at the mRNA level, but the evaluation at the protein level, especially tissue or cellular localization, has lagged behind because of the lack of a specific antibody. In this study, we prepared a monoclonal antibody against UGT1A10 to elucidate the tissue/cellular distribution and interindividual variability of UGT1A10 protein expression...
July 11, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686209/detailed-characterization-of-sympathetic-chain-ganglia-schg-neurons-supplying-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#9
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the skin of the pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically very representative for humans. Thus, the present study was designed to establish the origin of the sympathetic fibers supplying the porcine skin of the hind leg, and the pattern(s) of putative co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leu5-enkephalin and galanin (GAL) using combined retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunohistochemistry...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554418/device-aided-treatment-strategies-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Jonathan Timpka, Bianca Nitu, Veronika Datieva, Per Odin, Angelo Antonini
With peroral levodopa treatment, a majority of patients develop motor fluctuations and dyskinesia already within a few years of therapy. Device-aided Parkinson (PD) therapies refer to deep brain stimulation (DBS), levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG), and subcutaneous infusion of the dopamine agonist apomorphine and represent effective strategies counteracting motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. These three therapy options seem to be similarly effective in reducing "time with PD symptoms (off time)" by at least 60%-65%...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#11
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509372/differential-expression-of-microrna-related-to-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-a-rabbit-model
#12
Qin Qin Yang, Xiao Ping Xu, Hong Shu Zhao, Yue Qin Cai, Yong Ming Pan, Jian Qin Xu, Quan Xin Ma, Min Li Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the differential expressions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in white hair black eye (WHBE) rabbits of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: WHBE and Japanese white (JW) rabbits were divided into the control and IBS groups. The IBS groups were exposed to moist heat, stress and low-dose laxatives. Their intestinal movement rate was measured. Blood samples were taken to detect serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine levels and colonic tissues were obtained to detect c-Fos expression by immunohistochemistry...
June 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449715/functional-implications-of-microbial-and-viral-gut-metagenome-changes-in-early-stage-l-dopa-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#13
J R Bedarf, F Hildebrand, L P Coelho, S Sunagawa, M Bahram, F Goeser, P Bork, U Wüllner
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) presently is conceptualized as a protein aggregation disease in which pathology involves both the enteric and the central nervous system, possibly spreading from one to another via the vagus nerves. As gastrointestinal dysfunction often precedes or parallels motor symptoms, the enteric system with its vast diversity of microorganisms may be involved in PD pathogenesis. Alterations in the enteric microbial taxonomic level of L-DOPA-naïve PD patients might also serve as a biomarker...
April 28, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400091/metabolomic-changes-demonstrate-reduced-bioavailability-of-tyrosine-and-altered-metabolism-of-tryptophan-via-the-kynurenine-pathway-with-ingestion-of-medical-foods-in-phenylketonuria
#14
Denise M Ney, Sangita G Murali, Bridget M Stroup, Nivedita Nair, Emily A Sawin, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine synthesized from Tyr and serotonin synthesized from Trp, are of concern in PKU. Our objective was to utilize metabolomics analysis to assess monoamine metabolites in subjects with PKU consuming amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) and glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). METHODS: Subjects with PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MF or GMP-MF for 3weeks each in a randomized, controlled, crossover study...
June 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246304/acute-adaption-to-oral-or-intravenous-phosphate-requires-parathyroid-hormone
#15
Linto Thomas, Carla Bettoni, Thomas Knöpfel, Nati Hernando, Jürg Biber, Carsten A Wagner
Phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is regulated by renal, intestinal, and endocrine mechanisms through which Pi intake stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 secretion, increasing phosphaturia. Mechanisms underlying the early adaptive phase and the role of the intestine, however, remain ill defined. We investigated mineral, endocrine, and renal responses during the first 4 hours after intravenous and intragastric Pi loading in rats. Intravenous Pi loading (0.5 mmol) caused a transient rise in plasma Pi levels and creatinine clearance and an increase in phosphaturia within 10 minutes...
March 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228068/stress-in-gastrointestinal-tract-and-stable-gastric-pentadecapeptide-bpc-157-finally-do-we-have-a-solution
#16
Predrag Sikiric, Sven Seiwerth, Rudolf Rucman, Domagoj Drmic, Mirjana Stupnisek, Antonio Kokot, Marko Sever, Ivan Zoricic, Zoran Zoricic, Lovorka Batelja, Tihomil Ziger, Josipa Vlainic, Zarko Rasic, Martina Lovric Bencic
Selye's syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents and "response to damage as such" means Selye's stress triad in stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Logically, from the gastrointestinal tract viewpoint, such organoprotective/healing response implies the angiogenic growth factors that commonly signify the healing. Thereby, the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-organoprotection (huge range of beneficial effects) signifies the Selye's stress concept/stress coping response implemented in and from gastrointestinal tract, and BPC 157 as an integrative mediator that integrates the adaptive bodily response to stress...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176326/identification-of-novel-inhibitors-of-the-amino-acid-transporter-b-0-at1-slc6a19-a-potential-target-to-induce-protein-restriction-and-to-treat-type-2-diabetes
#17
Qi Cheng, Nishank Shah, Angelika Bröer, Stephen Fairweather, Yang Jiang, Dieter Schmoll, Ben Corry, Stefan Bröer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neutral amino acid transporter B(0) AT1 (SLC6A19) has recently been identified as a possible target to treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders. B(0) AT1 mediates the Na(+) -dependent uptake of all neutral amino acids. For surface expression and catalytic activity, B(0) AT1 requires coexpression of collectrin (TMEM27). In this study, we established tools to identify and evaluate novel inhibitors of B(0) AT1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A CHO-based cell line was generated, stably expressing collectrin and B(0) AT1...
March 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135411/use-of-cryopoor-plasma-for-albumin-replacement-and-continuous-antimicrobial-infusion-for-treatment-of-septic-peritonitis-in-a-dog
#18
Meaghan K Ropski, Julien Guillaumin, Andrea A Monnig, Katy Townsend, Mary A McLoughlin
OBJECTIVE: To report the successful management of a dog with septic peritonitis and septic shock secondary to enterectomy dehiscence using novel techniques for identification of intestinal dehiscence and for septic shock treatment. CASE SUMMARY: A 5-year-old castrated male Bernese Mountain Dog presented for lethargy 6 days following enterotomy for foreign body obstruction. Septic peritonitis was identified due to dehiscence of the enterotomy site, and resection and anastomosis were performed using a gastrointestinal anastomosis and thoracoabdominal stapling device...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065827/gastric-bypass-surgery-recruits-a-gut-ppar-%C3%AE-striatal-d1r-pathway-to-reduce-fat-appetite-in-obese-rats
#19
Mohammed K Hankir, Florian Seyfried, Constantin A Hintschich, Thi-Ai Diep, Karen Kleberg, Mathias Kranz, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Luis A Tellez, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Jens Teichert, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust, Harald S Hansen, Ivan E de Araujo, Ute Krügel, Wiebke K Fenske
Bariatric surgery remains the single most effective long-term treatment modality for morbid obesity, achieved mainly by lowering caloric intake through as yet ill-defined mechanisms. Here we show in rats that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-like rerouting of ingested fat mobilizes lower small intestine production of the fat-satiety molecule oleoylethanolamide (OEA). This was associated with vagus nerve-driven increases in dorsal striatal dopamine release. We also demonstrate that RYGB upregulates striatal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression specifically under high-fat diet feeding conditions...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063683/diphasic-dyskinesias-during-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-lcig-infusion-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Mario Meloni, Paolo Solla, Marcello Mario Mascia, Francesco Marrosu, Antonino Cannas
OBJECTIVES: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG) is indicated in patients with advanced levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD) for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Here we describe 4 PD patients who developed disabling diphasic dyskinesias after LCIG initiation. METHODS: The clinical data of 33 PD patients consecutively treated with LCIG therapy were obtained through direct clinical observation and detailed review of medical records...
December 31, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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