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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913996/altered-gut-microbiota-composition-and-immune-response-in-experimental-steatohepatitis-mouse-models
#1
Mitsuaki Ishioka, Kouichi Miura, Shinichiro Minami, Yoichiro Shimura, Hirohide Ohnishi
BACKGROUND: Although several types of diet have been used in experimental steatohepatitis models, comparison of gut microbiota and immunological alterations in the gut among diets has not yet been performed. AIM: We attempted to clarify the difference in the gut environment between mice administrated several experimental diets. METHODS: Male wild-type mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet, a choline-deficient amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, and a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913188/fructose-suppresses-uric-acid-excretion-to-the-intestinal-lumen-as-a-result-of-the-induction-of-oxidative-stress-by-nadph-oxidase-activation
#2
Chihiro Kaneko, Jiro Ogura, Shunichi Sasaki, Keisuke Okamoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Kaori Kuwayama, Katsuya Narumi, Ken Iseki
BACKGROUND: A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. METHODS: We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912975/patient-reported-swedish-nationwide-outcomes-of-children-and-adolescents-with-total-colonic-aganglionosis
#3
Pernilla Stenström, Matilda Brautigam, Helena Borg, Christina Graneli, Helene Engstrand Lilja, Tomas Wester
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nationwide outcome of children with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) during the last 20years. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study where all patients with TCA, including aganglionosis of 0-50cm of ileum, born in Sweden 1995-2014 were included. Data were collected from the medical records. Patients >4years old without stoma answered a questionnaire regarding bowel function (bowel function score, BFS, score 1-20), medical treatment and nutrition...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909744/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-probiotic-attributes-of-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-xl10-isolated-from-tibetan-kefir-grain
#4
Zhuqing Xing, Wei Tang, Weitao Geng, Yongna Zheng, Yanping Wang
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens XL10, with a high yield of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), is isolated from Tibetan kefir grain and benefits the health of human beings and has been considered to exhibit probiotic potential in vitro and in vivo. The probiotic function of the strain was studied extensively, viz., acid and bile salt tolerances, cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation, the modulation of gut microbiota, and the distribution and colonization of XL10 in the mouse intestinal tract after oral administration...
December 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#5
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906625/uric-acid-metabolism-of-kidney-and-intestine-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Michito Nagura, Yoshifuru Tamura, Takanori Kumagai, Makoto Hosoyamada, Shunya Uchida
Uric acid (UA) is a potential risk factor of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, we reported that intestinal UA excretion might be enhanced via upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (Abcg2) in a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) rat model. In the present study, we examined the mRNA and protein expressions of UA transporters, URAT1, GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2 and NPT4 in the kidney and ileum in the same rat model. Additionally, we investigated the Abcg2 mRNA expression of ileum in hyperuricemic rat model by orally administering oxonic acid...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903960/survival-outcomes-and-surgical-intervention-of-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-population-based-retrospective-study
#7
Lunpo Wu, Jianfei Fu, Li Wan, Jie Pan, Sanchuan Lai, Jing Zhong, Daniel C Chung, Liangjing Wang
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SiNETs) without distant metastasis typically behave in an indolent manner, but there can be heterogeneity. We aimed to define the survival outcomes and impacts of surgical intervention. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Clinicopathologic features were analyzed in 4407 patients between 2000 and 2012. The cancer specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903643/effects-of-antihypertensive-agents-on-intestinal-contractility-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-angiotensin-receptor-system-down-regulation-by-losartan
#8
Glen S Patten, Mahinda Y Abeywardena
Hypertension is an inflammatory condition controlled by the renin angiotensin system and is linked to kidney disease, diabetes mellitus and recently to dysfunction of the gut. The aim of this study was to determine what effect anti-hypertensive drug treatments may have on intestinal function of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the first experiment SHR were treated with enalapril or hydralazine. In the second experiment SHR were treated with losartan with no-treatment as control for both experiments...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900227/urachal-cyst-causing-small-bowel-obstruction-in-an-adult-with-a-virgin-abdomen
#9
Michael P O'Leary, Zane W Ashman, David S Plurad, Dennis Y Kim
Introduction. A patent urachus is a rare congenital or acquired pathology, which can lead to complications later in life. We describe a case of urachal cystitis as the etiology of small bowel obstruction in an adult without prior intra-abdominal surgery. Case Report. A 64-year-old male presented to the acute care surgery team with a 5-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain, distention, nausea, and vomiting. He had a two-month history of urinary retention and his past medical history was significant for benign prostate hyperplasia...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900201/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-rapunzel-syndrome
#10
Zhe Wang, Feng Cao, Diangang Liu, Yu Fang, Fei Li
Trichobezoars are hairballs or hair-like fibers formed by chewing and swallowing hair or any other indigestible materials. Trichobezoars usually form in the gastric body and are thus prepyloric. However, trichobezoars may rarely pass through the pylorus into the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and even the colon, in a condition referred to as Rapunzel syndrome. Here, we present a case of a 13-year-old girl with this rare syndrome and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
November 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900093/primary-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-of-the-ileum-pre-operatively-diagnosed-as-an-abdominal-abscess
#11
Patrizia Rubini, Francesco Tartamella
The present case report described the acute presentation, diagnosis and management of a primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the ileum. A male patient (age, 51 years) was admitted to Maggiore Hospital (Parma, Italy) due to presenting with fever, dysuria and lower abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a 7,5×5,5-cm pelvic mass containing air and purulent fluid indicative of an intraperitoneal abscess. The patient was subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy, which revealed a huge, soft cystic mass arising from the small bowel...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900043/second-look-surgery-following-hartmann-s-procedure-for-obstructive-left-sided-colorectal-cancer
#12
Naohito Beppu, Fumihiko Kimura, Nagahide Matsubara, Masashi Noda, Naohiro Tomita, Hidenori Yanagi, Naoki Yamanaka
The aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing second-look surgery following Hartmann's procedure for obstructive left-sided colorectal cancer (LSCC). All patients included in the present study had undergone radical surgery with Hartmann's procedure for obstructive LSCC. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended for all patients, and patients with no signs of recurrence following six months of surveillance were planned to undergo second-look surgery. The aim of second-look surgery was early detection of local recurrence and determination of the efficacy of laparoscopic Hartmann procedure reversal...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898990/european-paediatric-surgeons-association-survey-on-the-management-of-hirschsprung-disease
#13
Augusto Zani, Simon Eaton, Francesco Morini, Prem Puri, Risto Rintala, Ernest van Heurn, Marija Lukac, Pietro Bagolan, Joachim F Kuebler, Florian Friedmacher, Rene Wijnen, Juan A Tovar, Michael E Hoellwarth, Agostino Pierro
: Aim This study aims to define patterns of Hirschsprung disease (HD) management. Methods An online questionnaire was sent to all European Paediatric Surgeons' Association (EUPSA) members. Results A total of 294 members (61 countries) answered (response rate: 61%). DIAGNOSIS: All respondents perform rectal biopsies (61% rectal suction [RSBs], 39% open full-thickness), 96% contrast enema, and 31% anorectal manometry. At RSB, 17% take the most distal biopsy 1 cm above the dentate line, 34% take 2 cm, 30% take 3 cm, and 19% take > 3 cm...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898943/effects-of-feeding-fermented-wheat-with-on-gut-morphology-intestinal-fermentation-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-in-weaned-pigs
#14
M H A Le, S Galle, Y Yang, J L Landero, E Beltranena, M G Gänzle, R T Zijlstra
Feeding fermented feed to weaned pigs may improve nutrient digestibility and gut health and thereby reduce diarrhea incidence. Effects of feeding wheat grain fermented for 24 h with were evaluated with 36 weaned pigs (7.3 kg BW). Fermented wheat grain contained (DM basis) 14.2% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 7.8% NDF, whereas unfermented wheat grain contained 16.4% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 9.9% NDF. Pigs were fed 6 mash wheat-based diets balanced for water content during 2 phases: Phase 1 diets for 1 wk (d 0-7) with 20% unfermented or fermented wheat and, subsequently, Phase 2 diets for 2 wk (d 8-21) with 50% unfermented or fermented wheat...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898917/chemical-composition-and-standardized-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-of-eight-genotypes-of-rye-fed-to-growing-pigs
#15
E J P Strang, M Eklund, P Rosenfelder, N Sauer, J K Htoo, R Mosenthin
A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 rye genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 24 ± 2 kg were fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 6 d each and 8 pigs receiving 8 different diets. The N-free method was used to determine the basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898860/effects-of-collection-time-on-flow-of-chromium-and-dry-matter-and-on-basal-ileal-endogenous-losses-of-amino-acids-in-growing-pigs
#16
B G Kim, Y Liu, H H Stein
The objectives of this experiment were to examine the diurnal patterns of chromium and DM flow at the distal ileum of pigs and to determine the effect of collection time on basal ileal endogenous losses (BEL) of CP and AA. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 34.6kg (SD = 2.1) were individually fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 4× 4 Latin square design with 4 diets and 4 periods in each square. Three diets contained either corn, soybean meal, or distillers dried grains with solubles as the sole source of CP and AA...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898849/effects-of-feed-intake-and-dietary-nutrient-density-on-apparent-ileal-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-nutrients-and-gross-energy-for-growing-pigs
#17
J B Liu, Z Q Liu, L Chen, H F Zhang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feed intake (FI) and dietary nutrient concentration on the determination of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and GE for growing pigs. A total of 48 growing pigs (40.7 ± 1.3 kg initial BW) were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to 6 treatment groups in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 diets (a low-nutrient-density [LND] diet or a normal-nutrient-density [NND] diet) and 3 FI levels (3, 4 or 5% of BW per day)...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898738/receptor-type-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-and-colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-in-the-intestine-cellular-expression-and-cytokine-and-chemokine-responses-by-interleukin-34-and-colony-stimulating-factor-1
#18
Stephanie Zwicker, Daniela Bureik, Madeleen Bosma, Gisele Lago Martinez, Sven Almer, Elisabeth A Boström
Differential intestinal expression of the macrophage growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin (IL)-34, and their shared CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown. Diverse expression between CSF-1 and IL-34, suggest that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ1, RPTP-ζ), an additional IL-34 receptor, was recently identified. Here, we aimed to assess PTPRZ1 expression in IBD and non-IBD intestinal biopsies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898351/a-case-report-of-small-bowel-obstruction-secondary-to-congenital-peritoneal-band-in-adult
#19
Yahmadi Abdelwahed, Rebii Saber, Ben Ismail Imen, Zenaidi Hakim, Zoghlami Ayoub
INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is common in adult surgical procedures, mainly due to postoperative adhesions. Acute SBO in adults without history of abdominal surgery, trauma or clinical hernia is less common and has various etiologies. Congenital band is an extremely rare cause. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a two-day history of abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. He had no history of abdominal surgery or any other medical problems...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896163/varied-presentation-of-congenital-segmental-dilatation-of-the-intestine-in-neonates-report-of-three-cases
#20
Binod Kumar Rai, Bilal Mirza, Imran Hashim, Muhammad Saleem
Congenital segmental dilatation (CSD) of the intestine is a rare developmental anomaly characterized by sharply demarcated dilatation of a gastrointestinal segment and may present with intestinal obstruction. We report three cases of CSD of the intestine in neonates with varied presentation. First patient was mistaken as pneumoperitoneum on abdominal radiograph, which led to initial abdominal drain placement. The 2nd patient was a case of anorectal malformation associated with congenital pouch colon (CPC) and CSD of ileum; and the third case presented as neonatal intestinal obstruction and found to have CSD of ileum...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
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