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Hongqin Song, Dandan Liu, Jinjun Xu, Lili Wu, Yabin Dai, Mei Liu, Jianping Tao
Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10(4), 1 × 10(4), or 100 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Stephen J Walker, Daniel P Beavers, John Fortunato, Arthur Krigsman
Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A significant proportion of children with ASD and gastrointestinal symptoms have histologic evidence of ileocolitis (inflammation of the terminal ileum and/or colon). We previously reported the molecular characterization of gastrointestinal biopsy tissue from ASD children with ileocolitis (ASD(IC+)) compared to anatomically similar inflamed tissue from typically developing children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; i.e...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Szczepan Mogilski, Monika Kubacka, Dorota Łażewska, Małgorzata Więcek, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Barbara Filipek, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Histamine H4 receptor (H4R) offers a great potential for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammation-based diseases. The aim of this study is to present the pharmacological profile of two recently synthesized ligands of H4R with particular reference to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: We used mice and rats in the in vivo tests. We also used murine RAW 264.7 cells and isolated guinea-pig ileum in in vitro test...
October 20, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Charbel Karam, Sally Lord, Rohan Gett, Alan P Meagher
BACKGROUND: Leak rates of over 5% following anastomoses between the ileum and colon continue to be reported in large series and are associated with substantial morbidity and with mortality rates of 10-20%. In 1994, we began performing circumferentially oversewn inverted stapled anastomoses in patients undergoing ileo-colic anastomoses or ileostomy closure. It has become increasingly apparent that this method is associated with a low risk of leakage, which we should report. METHODS: The anastomotic technique described was used in all patients undergoing ileo-colic anastomosis or closure of ileostomy by surgeon 1 (1994-2015) and in all ileo-colic anastomoses by surgeon 2 (2007-2015)...
October 20, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Fabiana Policeni, Brittany Pakalniskis, Limin Yang
Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Wen-Guo Chen, Guo-Dong Shan, Hong Zhang, Ming Yang, Lin L, Min Yue, Guang-Wu Chen, Qing Gu, Hua-Tuo Zhu, Guo-Qiang Xu, Li-Hua Chen
The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic value of double-balloon entoroscopy (DBE) in small bowel diseases (SBDs) in China.A retrospective review of 674 consecutive patients who underwent DBE between January 2007 and November 2015 was conducted. Patients were divided into 3 groups by age, young group (<45 years), middle-aged group (45-65 years), and elderly group (>65 years). Data were collected with regard to demographics, clinical, endoscopic findings, complications, diagnostic yield, and management...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ulysses S Torres, Daniel Nicoletti Cesar, Giuseppe DʼIppolito
Intramural hematomas can occur along any part of the gastrointestinal tract, being more common in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Intramural colonic hematomas are very rare, and their main causes include abdominal trauma, anticoagulation, and coagulopathies. We report on a 27-year-old man with right lower quadrant pain for 1 day after a mild blunt trauma sustained during a soccer match. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation revealed an intramural hematoma of the right colon, subsequently confirmed and drained through laparoscopic surgery...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Ashish Gupta, Karikal Chakaravarthi, Bramhadatta Pattnaik, Lileswar Kaman
Duplication cysts occur because of congenital aberration during gut development. They are commonly diagnosed during infancy and rarely during adulthood. We present an adult male who presented to surgical emergency with acute intestinal obstruction. Intraoperatively, this patient was found to have a non-communicating duplication cyst of ileum causing proximal obstruction. The involved segment of the small bowel was resected and a divided loop ileostomy was created.
October 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Ming Li, Inge A M de Graaf, Marina H de Jager, Geny M M Groothuis
Although intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been extensively studied in vitro and in animals, its activity and the consequences of P-gp inhibition for drug disposition and toxicity in humans are still difficult to accurately extrapolate from these studies. Moreover, existing in vitro models do not take into consideration that the intestine is heterogeneous with respect to P-gp expression. Recently, we reported rat precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) as a physiological ex vivo model to study the regional gradient of P-gp activity and inhibition...
October 19, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Habibullah Janyaro, Juan Wan, Adnan H Tahir, Manoj K Shah, Xiao-Jing Li, Ming-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is a common symptom of several gastrointestinal disorders. Despite tremendous progress in understanding its basic mechanisms, it remains a significant health challenge for clinicians. The present study quantified the intensity of visceral pain using ileocecal ligament traction on an inflamed ileum in goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 male goats weighing 20.05±2.1 kg were randomly allocated equally into a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) group (n=18) and a saline group (n=18)...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Chao Liang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Xu, Zhi Yu
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoint ST 37 (Shangjuxu) has been used to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms and improve gastrointestinal motility. However, the mechanisms by which EA affects the enteric nervous system (ENS) have scarcely been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether EA could improve ENS function. METHODS: A constipation model was established by gastric instillation of ice-cold saline daily for 14 days. The constipated mice were divided into two groups: the model group, which was not treated, and the EA group, which received EA at ST 37 at a frequency of 2-15 HZ and an amplitude of 1 mA for 15 min a day for 3 days...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ying Guo, YouCai Zhang, WeiHua Huang, Felcy Pavithra Selwyn, Curtis D Klaassen
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional antimicrobial herbal medicine. Recently, BBR has gained popularity as a supplement to lower blood lipids, cholesterol and glucose. Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. However, whether BBR alters BAs metabolism or dose-response effect of BBR on gut flora is unknown. METHODS: In this study, the effects of various doses of BBR on the concentrations of BAs in liver and serum of male C57BL/6 mice were determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the expression of BA-related genes, as well as the amount of 32 of the most abundant gut bacterial species in the terminal ileum and large intestine of male C57BL/6 mice were quantified by RT-PCR and Quantigene 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
Yan Zhang, Stephanie E Simon, Jeff A Johnson, Michael S Allen
Gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important component of individual health, and therefore, our ability to quantify its diversity accurately is central for exploring different ways to improve health. Non-invasive sampling methods, such as cloaca swabs, are often used to measure gastrointestinal microbiota diversity within an individual. However, few studies have addressed to what degree differences exist in microbial community composition along the gastrointestinal tract, and measures obtained from the cloaca may not actually represent the diversity present elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Y Wang, Y S Meng, Y Fan, C Chen, W Yu, H Hao, W K Han, J R Hao, J Jin, L Q Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chewing gum during the postoperative period facilitates the recovery of bowel function in patients after radical cystectomy with ileum urinary diversion. METHODS: In the study, 60 patients who underwent radical cystectomy followed by ileum urinary diversions during Nov. 2014 and Nov. 2015 in Department of Urology of Peking University First Hospital were randomized into three groups: gum chewing group, placebo group treated with the abdomen physical therapy machine and control group treated with ordinary method...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
J L Chen, P Zheng, C Zhang, B Yu, J He, J Yu, J Q Luo, X B Mao, Z Q Huang, D W Chen
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of benzoic acid (BA) on growth performance, intestinal development and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. Ninety weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: a basal diet (CON), the basal diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1) and 5000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). At the end of days 14 and 42, six pigs per treatment were randomly selected to collect plasma and intestinal samples. Results showed that BA supplementation not only improved final body weight, daily growth and feed conversion ratio from days 15 to 42 and days 1 to 42, but also decreased the activity of plasma diamine oxidase (day 42) and the pH values of jejunal contents (day 14) (p < 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Rui He, Yongsong Xu, Jingjing Peng, Tingting Ma, Jing Li, Muxin Gong
Paeoniflorin (PF), the main active component of Shaoyao-Gancao-tang, possesses significantly antinociceptive effects and many other pharmacological activities. However, its poor intestinal absorption results in low bioavailability. Therefore, enhancing PF absorption plays a vital role in exerting its therapeutic effect. Shaoyao combined with Gancao exhibited a synergistic effect. The enhancement of PF absorption through the interaction of its constituents in intestinal absorption would be greatly implicated...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Tohru Takahashi, Yumiko Maruyama, Mayuko Saitoh, Hideto Itoh, Mitsuru Yoshimoto, Masayuki Tsujisaki, Masato Nakayama
A 64 year-old woman with steroid-dependent immune thrombocytopenia developed anemia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed the presence of a tumor, which was diagnosed to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in the second portion of the duodenum. (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography showed an increased uptake mass in the pelvic cavity as well as in the duodenum. Though the duodenal tumor disappeared after 4 cycles of chemotherapy, the pelvic mass did not shrink in size. As a result, laparoscopic resection of the pelvic tumor was performed and the tumor was histologically diagnosed to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor...
2016: Internal Medicine
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
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