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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818841/distinct-intestinal-adaptation-for-vitamin-b12-and-bile-acid-absorption-revealed-in-a-new-mouse-model-of-massive-ileocecal-resection
#1
Yuka Matsumoto, Wakana Mochizuki, Shintaro Akiyama, Taichi Matsumoto, Kengo Nozaki, Mamoru Watanabe, Tetsuya Nakamura
Ileocecal resection (ICR), one of several types of intestinal resection that results in short bowel syndrome (SBS), causes severe clinical disease in humans. We here describe a mouse model of massive ICR in which 75% of the distal small intestine is removed. We demonstrate that mice underwent 75% ICR show severe clinical signs and high mortality, which may recapitulate severe forms of human SBS, despite an adaptive response throughout the remnant intestine. By using this model, we also investigated whether the epithelium of the remnant intestine shows enhanced expression of factors involved in region-specific functions of the ileum...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818535/use-of-the-ileum-for-ureteral-stricture-and-obstruction-in-bilateral-unilateral-and-single-kidney-cases
#2
Aram Kim, Wook Nam, Sang Hoon Song, In Gab Jeong, Bumsik Hong
Objectives To investigate the functional outcomes of ileal ureter replacement for complex ureteral loss, including bilateral and single ureter stricture, as a result of various etiologies. Methods In 2013-2016, 31 patients underwent ileal ureter replacement surgery. The data for their assessments included etiology, combined surgical procedures, ureteral replacement type, postoperative complications, and changes in renal function. Results The 31 study patients had a median age of 56.0 (range 18 to 65) years old and were followed for a median 23...
August 14, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818110/microbial-community-composition-along-the-digestive-tract-in-forage-and-grain-fed-bison
#3
Gaddy T Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Diversity and composition of microbial communities was compared across the 13 major sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum) in two captive populations of American bison (Bison bison), one of which was finished on forage, the other on grain. RESULTS: Microbial diversity fell to its lowest levels in the small intestine, with Bacteroidetes reaching their lowest relative abundance in that region, while Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota attained their highest relative abundances there...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817673/the-plasmid-encoded-ipf-and-klf-fimbriae-display-different-expression-and-varying-roles-in-the-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-infantis-in-mouse-vs-avian-hosts
#4
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812142/tcdd-administered-on-activated-carbon-eliminates-bioavailability-and-subsequent-shifts-to-a-key-murine-gut-commensal
#5
Robert D Stedtfeld, J Brett Sallach, Robert B Crawford, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Maggie R Williams, Hassan Waseem, Cliff T Johnston, Hui Li, Brian J Teppen, Norbert E Kaminski, Stephen A Boyd, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
Activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly attractive remediation alternative for the sequestration of dioxins at contaminated sites globally. However, the potential for AC to reduce the bioavailability of dioxins in mammals and the residing gut microbiota has received less attention. This question was partially answered in a recent study examining 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced hallmark toxic responses in mice administered with TCDD sequestered by AC or freely available in corn oil by oral gavage...
August 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808158/the-influence-of-the-gut-microbiota-composition-on-campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-chickens
#6
Zifeng Han, Thomas Willer, Li Li, Colin Pielsticker, Ivan Rychlik, Philippe Velge, Bernd Kaspers, Silke Rautenschlein
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni)-host-interaction may be affected by the host's gut microbiota through competitive exclusion, metabolites or modification of the immune response. To understand this interaction C. jejuni colonization and local immune responses were compared in chickens with different gut microbiota composition. Birds were treated with an antibiotic cocktail (AT) (Experiment 1 and 2) or raised under germ-free (GF) conditions (Experiment 3). At 18 days post hatch (dph), they were either orally inoculated with 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) of C...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806620/a-novel-intestinal-rotation-method-for-digestive-reconstruction-after-combined-pancreaticoduodenectomy-and-extended-right-hemicolectomy-a-case-report-and-surgical-technique
#7
Kosei Takagi, Takahito Yagi, Yuzo Umeda, Ryuichi Yoshida, Daisuke Nobuoka, Takashi Kuise, Kenjiro Kumano, Takeshi Kojima, Takuro Fushimi, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
INTRODUCTION: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) combined with extended right hemicolectomy (RH) is a challenging procedure for locally advanced malignancies. However, information concerning the reconstruction method of the digestive system is limited. Here, we present a case and surgical technique of a novel intestinal rotation method for digestive reconstruction after PD combined with RH. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 62-year-old man with locally advanced pancreatic cancer received conversion surgery combined with PD and RH after preoperative chemotherapy...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806140/adherent-invasive-e-coli-enhances-colonic-hypersensitivity-and-p2x-receptors-expression-during-post-infectious-period
#8
Amandine Lashermes, Ludivine Boudieu, Julie Barbier, Benoit Sion, Agathe Gelot, Nicolas Barnich, Denis Ardid, Frédéric Antonio Carvalho
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are related gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain associated with colonic hypersensitivity (CHS). Studies in humans have reported an abnormal colonization of Adherent-Invasive E. coli (AIEC) in the ileum of Crohn's disease (CD) patients associated with overexpression of the bacterial colonizing receptor CEACAM6. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AIEC reference strain LF82 could induce intestinal impairment during infectious and/or post-infectious periods and subsequently the development of CHS...
August 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805898/ability-of-garlic-derived-diallyl-disulfide-and-diallyl-trisulfide-supplemented-by-oral-gavage-to-mitigate-effects-of-an-acute-postweaning-feed-and-water-deprivation-event-in-nursery-pigs
#9
N Horn, G Miller, K M Ajuwon, O Adeola
Compounds in garlic have been shown to contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune modulatory properties that may be able to mitigate the effects of nursery pig stressors. The objective of the current experiment was to determine if oral gavage of garlic-derived diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) could mitigate the effects of a 24-h postweaning feed + water deprivation event in nursery pigs. Pigs (6.0 ± 0.05 kg and 21 d old) were allotted to 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design at weaning with 8 replicate pens per treatment that consisted of with or without a 24-h postweaning feed + water deprivation event and with or without an oral gavage containing 3...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805888/development-of-small-intestinal-enzyme-activities-and-their-relationship-with-some-gut-regulatory-peptides-in-grazing-sheep
#10
C L Wang, X Lang, P J Wu, D P Casper, F D Li
Growth depends on an animal's capacity to digest and assimilate ingested nutrients, and insufficient supply and impairment will constrain lamb growth. Eight groups of Alpine Finewool lambs were harvested on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 d to measure pH and enzymatic activities in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum mucosa or digesta. From the duodenum to the ileum the pH of intestinal mucosa and digesta increased, whereas pH changed very little with age. The trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, lactase, and α-amylase activities observed at birth decreased by d 3, followed by a nonuniform enzymatic response in the small intestine...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803359/expression-of-cationic-amino-acid-transporters-in-pig-skeletal-muscles-during-postnatal-development
#11
Aiko Ishida, Akane Ashihara, Kazuki Nakashima, Masaya Katsumata
The cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) protein family transports lysine and arginine in cellular amino acid pools. We hypothesized that CAT expression changes in pig skeletal muscles during rapid pig postnatal development. We aimed to investigate the tissue distribution and changes in the ontogenic expression of CATs in pig skeletal muscles during postnatal development. Six piglets at 1, 12, 26, 45, and 75 days old were selected from six litters, and their longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF), and rhomboideus (RH) muscles, and their stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver, kidney, heart, and cerebrum were collected...
August 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802163/obstructive-mobile-small-intestinal-tumor-without-radiographic-stigmata-of-bezoar
#12
Elif Onursal, Merilyn Baby, Ali Chaudhri, Gerard A Baltazar
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are often clinically silent until they bleed or grow large enough to cause local mass effect. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the unique case of an otherwise healthy 69-year-old male who developed a small bowel obstruction secondary to a mobile small intestinal leiomyoma. During initial evaluation, computed tomography did not demonstrate the cause of obstruction. Because of worsening clinical status with conservative management, the patient required emergency laparotomy...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801754/expression-profiling-of-tas2r-genes-reveals-a-complex-pattern-along-the-mouse-gi-tract-and-the-presence-of-tas2r131-in-a-subset-of-intestinal-paneth-cells
#13
Simone Prandi, Anja Voigt, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens
The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799035/effect-of-heat-stress-on-protein-utilization-and-nutrient-transporters-in-meat-type-chickens
#14
Walid S Habashy, Marie C Milfort, Alberta L Fuller, Youssef A Attia, Romdhane Rekaya, Samuel E Aggrey
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on digestibility of protein and fat and the expression of nutrient transporters in broilers. Forty-eight male Cobb500 chicks were used in this study. At day 14, birds were randomly divided into two groups and kept under either constant normal temperature (25 °C) or high temperature (35 °C) in individual cages. Five birds per treatment at 1 and 12 days post-treatment were euthanized, and Pectoralis major (P. major) and ileum were sampled for gene expression analysis...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798730/characterization-of-the-culturable-subpopulations-of-lactobacillus-in-the-chicken-intestinal-tract-as-a-resource-for-probiotic-development
#15
Bishnu Adhikari, Young M Kwon
To gain better understanding of the distributions of the culturable Lactobacillus species in the chicken intestinal tract, we collected ceca, and distal ileum from 10 3-weeks-old broiler chickens. Lactobacillus strains from cecal lumen contents (M-CL), and those associated with mucosa of ceca (M-CM) and ileum (M-IM) were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar plates, and used for microbiota analysis. The total cecal content (T-CL) was also used directly for microbiota analysis. We purposefully focused on MRS-recovered populations to gain understanding of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus, since the culturability is an important phenotype in order to exploit the chicken gut microbiota as a resource for development of probiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797990/marked-improvement-in-gastric-involvement-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-with-adalimumab-treatment
#16
Akira Sonoda, Ryo Ogawa, Kazuhiro Mizukami, Kensuke Fukuda, Mitsutaka Shuto, Kazuhisa Okamoto, Osamu Matsunari, Tadayoshi Okimoto, Kazunari Murakami
Gastric involvement is the least frequent manifestation of Behçet's disease, and effective treatment for it unknown. Here the case of a patient with gastric involvement in Behçet's disease that was markedly improved with adalimumab therapy is presented. A 68-year-old man developed an oral ulcer, erythema, folliculitis, and arthralgia. Behçet's disease was suspected; then, prednisolone and colchicine were administered. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a punched-out ulcer in the posterior wall of the gastric antrum...
August 9, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797160/ileocolonoscopic-findings-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#17
Soo Min Ahn, Yong-Gil Kim, Seung-Hyeon Bae, Doo-Ho Lim, Seokchan Hong, Sang Hyoung Park, Chang-Keun Lee, Bin Yoo
Background/Aims: In some Western countries, up to 50% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have subclinical gut inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and severity of gut inflammation and to determine clinical factors associated with colonic inflammation in Korean AS patients who performed ileocolonoscopy without evidence of established inf lammatory bowel diseases before. Methods: One hundred and eight AS patients who underwent ileocolonoscopy were included in this study...
August 11, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796069/assessment-of-therapeutic-response-in-crohn-s-disease-using-quantitative-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-dce-mri-parameters-a-preliminary-study
#18
Jianguo Zhu, Faming Zhang, Jinfa Zhou, Haige Li
The aim of the study was to investigate dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) as a potential marker to assess the therapeutic responses of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to determine the parameter or combination of parameters most strongly associated with changes in clinical indicators after treatment.In 22 CD patients, DCE-MRI was performed with a 3.0T scanner. Parameters of DCE-MRI (vascular transfer constant [K] and blood volume [BV]) in the terminal ileum were compared between before and day 90 after FMT treatment...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782537/expression-of-sweet-taste-receptor-and-gut-hormone-secretion-in-modelled-type-2-diabetes
#19
Rilu Feng, Cheng Qian, Qianjing Liu, Yunqiu Jin, Lianyong Liu, Shengxian Li, Yu Liao, Huan Zhou, Wei Liu, Chris K Rayner, Jing Ma
It was detected that sweet taste receptors (STRs) were expressed in L cells which secreted glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut. The STR blocker lactisole reduced GLP-1 secretion and increased blood glucose level. Therefore, we investigated the expression of sweet taste molecules in the proximal and distal small intestine, and gut hormones secretion in healthy control and type 2 diabetic rats. Two groups of rats (Sprague Dawley (SD), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) were involved in the study. Each group (n=10) was performed by an intragastric glucose infusion (50% glucose solution, 2g/kg body weight)...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782271/comparison-of-nitrergic-signaling-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-of-murine-ileum
#20
B Voussen, K Beck, N Mauro, J Keppler, A Friebe
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility originates from coordinated movements of circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) smooth muscle. How the two muscle layers react individually to nitrergic input and how they integrate nitrergic signaling is not thoroughly understood. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to unveil expression of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) in the ileum. For functional analyses, we measured tone of ileal CM and spontaneous contractions in both ileal muscle layers from mice lacking NO-GC globally (GCKO) and specifically in smooth muscle cells (SMC-GCKO)...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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