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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627196/comparison-of-gene-expression-profile-between-blood-cells-and-white-adipose-tissue-of-patients-with-obesity
#1
Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Natália Yumi Noronha, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Driele Cristina Gomes Quinhoneiro, Bruno Affonso Parenti Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Wilson Salgado-Junior, Wilson Araújo da Silva-Junior, Júlio Sergio Marchini, Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza, Carla Barbosa Nonino
INTRODUCTION: Gene expression analyses from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and white adipose tissue are conflicting. It seems that results from single tissue are not enough to explain how changes affect humans as a complex biological system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare, from obesity subjects, PBMC and white adipose tissue gene expression that regulates adipogenesis (perilipin 1 [PLIN1], adrenoreceptor beta 3 [ADRB3] and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPARG2]) and the energy metabolism (uncoupling protein UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3) process...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617309/lipid-storage-and-autophagy-in-melanoma-cancer-cells
#2
Claudia Giampietri, Simonetta Petrungaro, Martina Cordella, Claudio Tabolacci, Luana Tomaipitinca, Antonio Facchiano, Adriana Eramo, Antonio Filippini, Francesco Facchiano, Elio Ziparo
Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a key cellular subpopulation controlling biological features such as cancer progression in all cancer types. By using melanospheres established from human melanoma patients, we compared less differentiated melanosphere-derived CSC to differentiating melanosphere-derived cells. Increased lipid uptake was found in melanosphere-derived CSC vs. differentiating melanosphere-derived cells, paralleled by strong expression of lipogenic factors Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-1 (SREBP-1) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ)...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605462/increased-triacylglycerol-lipase-activity-in-adipose-tissue-of-lean-and-obese-men-during-endurance-exercise
#3
Anatoli Petridou, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Jamurtas, Gedeon Loules, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Ioannis Fatouros, Vassilis Mougios
Context: Although there is increasing information on the mechanism of lipolysis in adipose tissue, the effect of exercise on individual factors of lipolysis is less well understood. Objective: We aimed to compare changes in adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase activity and gene expression of adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), perilipin 1, and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) during exercise between lean and obese men...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579235/haematopoietic-tlr4-deletion-attenuates-perivascular-brown-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-atherosclerotic-mice
#4
Penghao Liu, Gaojian Huang, Zhiyong Cao, Qihai Xie, Tong Wei, Chenglin Huang, Qun Li, Mengwei Sun, Weili Shen, Pingjin Gao
AIMS: To investigate whether haematopoietic TLR4 deletion attenuates perivascular brown adipose tissue inflammation in atherosclerotic mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experiments were performed using irradiated LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice with marrow from either TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) or age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. After 12 weeks of being fed a high-cholesterol diet, TLR4(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) mice developed fewer atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta compared to WT→LDLR(-/-) mice...
June 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560826/training-alters-the-distribution-of-perilipin-proteins-in-muscle-following-acute-free-fatty-acid-exposure
#5
S O Shepherd, J A Strauss, Q Wang, J J Dube, B Goodpaster, D G Mashek, L S Chow
Because the lipid droplet (LD)-associated perilipin (PLIN) proteins promote intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) storage, we investigated the hypothesis that differential protein content of PLINs and their distribution with LDs may be linked to the diverse lipid storage in muscle between trained and sedentary individuals. Trained (n = 11) and sedentary (n = 10) subjects, matched for age, sex and BMI, received either a 6 h lipid or glycerol infusion in the setting of a concurrent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548876/the-constitutive-lipid-droplet-protein-plin2-regulates-autophagy-in-liver
#6
Tsung-Huang Tsai, Elaine Chen, Lan Li, Pradip Saha, Hsiao-Ju Lee, Li-Shin Huang, Gregory S Shelness, Lawrence Chan, Benny Hung-Junn Chang
Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver underlies fatty liver disease, a highly prevalent ailment. TG occurs in the liver sequestered in lipid droplets, the major lipid storage organelle. Lipid droplets are home to the lipid droplet proteins, the most abundant of which are the perilipins (PLINs), encoded by 5 different genes, Plin1 to Plin5. Of the corresponding gene products, PLIN2 is the only constitutive and ubiquitously expressed lipid droplet protein that has been used as a protein marker for lipid droplets...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523759/role-of-sulfotransferases-in-resveratrol-metabolism-in-human-adipocytes
#7
Nele Gheldof, Sofia Moco, Christian Chabert, Tony Teav, Denis Barron, Jorg Hager
SCOPE: Polyphenols such as resveratrol received interest for their wide-ranging biological benefits, including anti-obesity potential, mimicking effects of caloric restriction with reduced body fat and increased energy expenditure. However, resveratrol is rapidly metabolized, and it is not completely understood which form of resveratrol is responsible for the effects observed within target cells such as adipocytes. Also the role of metabolizing enzymes has not been investigated before...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501397/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-acetate-on-milk-fat-synthesis-and-adipose-lipogenesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#8
N Urrutia, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression (MFD), nutrients are spared from milk fat synthesis and are available for other metabolic uses. Acetate is the major carbon source spared and it may increase lipid synthesis in adipose tissue during MFD. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the amount of acetate spared during CLA-induced MFD on adipose tissue lipogenesis. Nine multiparous, lactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (244 ± 107 d in milk; 25 ± 8...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486770/melatonin-promotes-survival-of-non-vascularized-fat-grafts-and-enhances-the-viability-and-migration-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-via-down-regulation-of-acute-inflammatory-cytokines
#9
Shaun S Tan, Weiqing Zhan, Christopher J Phoon, Xiaolian Han, Diego Marre, Sholeh Boodhun, Jason A Palmer, Geraldine M Mitchell, Wayne A Morrison
Non-vascularized fat grafting is a valuable technique for soft tissue reconstruction but poor survival of fat in the host environment remains a problem. A process known as cell-assisted transfer is used to enhance fat graft retention by adding stromal vascular fraction, an adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) rich content to lipoaspirate. We have recently shown that the use of melatonin, a ROS scavenger, protects human ASCs from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress and cell death in vitro but its role as a pharmacologic adjunct in clinical fat grafting has not been studied...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459610/3-3-diindolylmethane-suppresses-adipogenesis-using-ampk%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Jihye Lee, Yiren Yue, Yeonhwa Park, Seong-Ho Lee
3,3'-diindolylmethane is a major in vivo metabolite of indole-3-carbinol, a bioactive compound found in cruciferous vegetables. Although 3,3'-diindolylmethane has been implicated to possess antitumorigenic and anti-inflammatory properties, the effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane on adipogenesis has not been explored previously. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine if 3,3'-diindolylmethane affects adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans. Treatment of 3,3'-diindolylmethane significantly reduced fat accumulation without affecting viability in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456765/the-skeletal-and-heart-muscle-triacylglycerol-lipolysis-revisited
#11
M Knapp, J Gorski
For 40 years, the enzyme hormone sensitive lipase was considered to hydrolyze the first ester bond of the triacylglycerol moiety and thus initiate hydrolysis. However, 12 years ago a new lipolytic enzyme, termed adipose triglyceride lipase was discovered. It was further shown that the process of lipolysis of triacylglycerol to diacylglycerol and fatty acid is initiated by adipose triglyceride lipase and not by hormone sensitive lipase, responsible for hydrolysis of diacylglycerol to monoacyglycerol and fatty acid...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454542/perilipins-a-diversity-of-intracellular-lipid-droplet-proteins
#12
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Itabe, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Satomi Nimura, Naoko Sasabe
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are found in a wide variety of cell types and have been recognized as organelles with unique spherical structures. Although LDs are not stable lipid-depots, they are active sites of neutral lipid metabolism, and comprise neutral lipid or cholesterol cores surrounded by phospholipid monolayers containing specialized proteins. However, sizes and protein compositions vary between cell and tissue types. Proteins of the perilipin family have been associated with surfaces of LDs and all carry a conserved 11-mer repeat motif...
April 28, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438719/chick-subcutaneous-and-abdominal-adipose-tissue-depots-respond-differently-in-lipolytic-and-adipogenic-activity-to-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh
#13
Steven L Shipp, Guoqing Wang, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436105/exercise-decreases-marrow-adipose-tissue-through-%C3%A3-oxidation-in-obese-running-mice
#14
Maya Styner, Gabriel M Pagnotti, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Buer Sen, Gunes Uzer, Zhihui Xie, Xiaopeng Zong, Martin A Styner, Clinton T Rubin, Janet Rubin
The relationship between marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone health is poorly understood. We used running exercise to ask whether obesity-associated MAT can be attenuated via exercise and whether this correlates with gains in bone quantity and quality. C57BL/6 mice were divided into diet-induced obesity (DIO, n = 14) versus low-fat diet (LFD, n = 14). After 3 months, 16-week-old mice were allocated to an exercise intervention (LFD-E, DIO-E) or a control group (LFD, DIO) for 6 weeks (4 groups, n = 7/group)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432465/ppar%C3%AE-activation-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-lactate-production-in-rat-sertoli-cells
#15
A Gorga, G M Rindone, M Regueira, E H Pellizzari, M C Camberos, S B Cigorraga, M F Riera, M N Galardo, S B Meroni
Sertoli cells provide the structural and nutritional support for germ cell development; they actively metabolize glucose and convert it to lactate, which is an important source of energy for germ cells. Furthermore, Sertoli cells can oxidize fatty acids, a metabolic process that is assumed to fulfill their own energy requirements. Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerides within lipid droplets. The regulation of fatty acid storage in conjunction with the regulation of lactate production may thus be relevant to seminiferous tubule physiology...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429532/neu1-sialidase-interacts-with-perilipin-1-on-lipid-droplets-and-inhibits-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#16
Yujin Natori, Miwako Nasui, Fumiko Kihara-Negishi
Fatty acids are stored within adipocytes in lipid droplets (LDs) as triacylglycerol (TG), which is converted to free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol via lipolysis. Increased plasma FFA levels in obesity are associated with several clinical conditions. We previously found that Neu1 activity is aberrant in the epididymal fat and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Here, we examined involvement of Neu1 in lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Small interfering RNA against Neu1 was introduced into adipocytes, and glycerol concentrations were measured in the culture medium...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427098/opa1-in-lipid-metabolism-function-of-opa1-in-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-of-adipocytes
#17
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Kjetil Taskén
OPA1 (Optic Atrophy 1) is a mitochondrial GTPase known to regulate fission of mitochondria. It was recently also shown to locate on lipid droplets in adipocytes where it functions as an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that mediates adrenergic control of lipolysis by facilitating PKA phosphorylation of perilipin (Plin1). In brown adipocytes indirect evidence support the notion that OPA1 regulation of fission serves to increase thermogenesis, which thereby contributes to dissipation of energy. In white adipocytes, OPA1 located on lipid droplets serves as a gatekeeper to control lipolysis induced by adrenergic agonists...
April 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398656/a-biomimetic-hydrogel-functionalized-with-adipose-ecm-components-as-a-microenvironment-for-the-3d-culture-of-human-and-murine-adipocytes
#18
Fiona Louis, Pauline Pannetier, Zied Souguir, Didier Le Cerf, Philippe Valet, Jean-Pierre Vannier, Guillaume Vidal, Elise Demange
The lack of relevant in vitro models for adipose tissue makes necessary the development of a more physiological environment providing spatial and chemical cues for the effective maturation of adipocytes. We developed a biofunctionalized hydrogel with components of adipose extracellular matrix: collagen I, collagen VI, and the cell binding domain of fibronectin and we compared it to usual 2D cultures on plastic plates. This scaffold allowed 3D culture of mature adipocytes from the preadipocytes cell lines 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A, as well as primary Human White Preadipocytes (HWP), acquiring in vivo-like organization, with spheroid shaped adipocytes forming multicellular aggregates...
April 11, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348166/mfn2-is-critical-for-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenic-function
#19
Marie Boutant, Sameer S Kulkarni, Magali Joffraud, Joanna Ratajczak, Miriam Valera-Alberni, Roy Combe, Antonio Zorzano, Carles Cantó
Mitochondrial fusion and fission events, collectively known as mitochondrial dynamics, act as quality control mechanisms to ensure mitochondrial function and fine-tune cellular bioenergetics. Defective mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression and enhanced mitochondrial fission in skeletal muscle are hallmarks of insulin-resistant states. Interestingly, Mfn2 is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT), yet its role remains unexplored. Using adipose-specific Mfn2 knockout (Mfn2-adKO) mice, we demonstrate that Mfn2, but not Mfn1, deficiency in BAT leads to a profound BAT dysfunction, associated with impaired respiratory capacity and a blunted response to adrenergic stimuli...
June 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337143/anti-adipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-pre-adipocytes-and-obese-mice
#20
Longyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Hongwei Si
Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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