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CKD and vitamin D

Yong-Muh Ng, Soo-Kun Lim, Pei-San Kang, Khairul Azmi Abdul Kadir, Mei-Ling Sharon Tai
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and cardiovascular diseases. However, this does not infer a causal relationship between the two. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and carotid atherosclerosis. Therefore, in this study we have aimed to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and carotid atherosclerosis in the CKD population. METHODS: 100 CKD stage 3-4 patients were included in the study...
October 18, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Catharine M Sturgeon, Stuart Sprague, Alison Almond, Etienne Cavalier, William D Fraser, Alicia Schimnich-Algeciras, Ravinder Singh, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Hubert W Vesper
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement in serum or plasma is a necessary tool for the exploration of calcium/phosphorus disorders, and is widely used as a surrogate marker to assess skeletal and mineral disorders associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), referred to as CKD-bone mineral disorders (CKD-BMD). CKD currently affects >10% of the adult population in the United States and represents a major health issue worldwide. Disturbances in mineral metabolism and fractures in CKD patients are associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Inés Olaizola, Hena Caorsi, Laura Fajardo, Alejandro Ferreiro, Nieves Campistrus, Deyanira Dolinsky, Alicia Petraglia, Pablo Ambrosoni
Introduction: The mineral bone disorder, particularly secondary hyperparathyroidism, in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a systemic impact affecting not only bone metabolism. Therefore its correction is important to prevent cardiovascular, inflammatory and immune diseases. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paricalcitol administered over a 6 month period for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis, with close follow-up of treatment response...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Jason Misurac
Neonatal chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births, whereas the incidence of neonatal end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is about 7.1 per million age-related population. The most frequent etiologies are renal hypoplasia/dysplasia, posterior urethral valves, and other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Other etiologies include polycystic kidney disease, cortical necrosis, and renal vascular thrombosis. Management of CKD focuses primarily on replacing renal functions such as erythropoietin, 1,25-hydroxylation of vitamin D, electrolyte homeostasis/excretion, and, in ESRD, waste product removal...
October 9, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Harendra Pratap Singh, S K Sonkar, Sant Pandey, G K Sonkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Belinda Spoto, Anna Pisano, Carmine Zoccali
Insulin resistance (IR) is an early metabolic alteration in CKD patients, being apparent when the glomerular filtration rate is still within the normal range and becoming almost universal in those who reach the ESKF. The skeletal muscle represents the primary site of IR in CKD and post-receptor alterations are recognized as the main defect underlying IR in this condition. Estimates of IR based on fasting insulin concentration are easier but may not be adequate in CKD patients because renal insufficiency reduces insulin catabolism...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Cristina Căpuşa, Gabriel Stefan, Simona Stancu, Andrea Ilyes, Nicoleta Dorobanţu, Gabriel Mircescu
INTRODUCTION: Since 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the hemodialysis population, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D level and markers of subclinical CVD in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional, single-center study prospectively enrolled 87 clinically stable CKD patients (median age: 61 (57-66) years, 51% male, median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 32 (27-37) ml/min)...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Maria Inês Barreto Silva, Vanessa Vicente de Souza Cavalieri, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva Lemos, Márcia Regina Simas Torres Klein, Rachel Bregman
OBJECTIVES: The association of vitamin D status with high body adiposity is poorly investigated in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. The aim of the present study was to describe vitamin D status and to identify body adiposity predictors of vitamin D deficiency, in a nondialyzed CKD population inhabiting a tropical city. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included patients with CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min, regularly treated by an interdisciplinary team in an outpatient university clinic, set in a Brazilian city (latitude: 22°54'S; 43°12'W)...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Niloofar Hajizadeh, Mehryar Mehrkash, Daryoosh Fahimi, Mostafa Qorbani, Nina Shafa
INTRODUCTION: Although some descriptive and cross-sectional studies have been reported about bone mass in chronic kidney disease (CKD) children, only a few studies investigated markers of bone turnover and the bone mass measurements. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in hemodialysis (HD) children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The children who had received dialysis for at least the preceding 6-month were included...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Negar Naderpoor, Aya Mousa, Maximilian P J de Courten, Robert Scragg, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Barbora de Courten
Evidence from observational studies indicates a role for vitamin D in kidney function and progression to chronic kidney disease. Findings from animal studies have proposed underlying mechanisms including increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system, increased blood pressure, insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation. However, human studies are limited by confounders arising from heterogeneous samples of participants. We examined the relationship between 25(OH)D and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a predominantly obese otherwise healthy and drug-naive population with no history of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Fareed B Kamar, Bikaramjit Mann, Gregory Kline
BACKGROUND: Tumoral calcinosis is a rare manifestation of extraskeletal calcification, featuring large calcified cystic masses in the periarticular regions of large joints. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), this disorder is thought to evolve through a chronically elevated calcium-phosphorus solubility product leading to calcium precipitation in soft tissue. Treating tumoral calcinosis in these patients involves interventions to lower the calcium-phosphorus product such as reduction in vitamin D therapy and intensive hemodialysis regimens...
September 29, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Stuart M Sprague, Paul W Crawford, Joel Z Melnick, Stephen A Strugnell, Shaukat Ali, Roberto Mangoo-Karim, Sungchun Lee, P Martin Petkovich, Charles W Bishop
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vitamin D insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are poorly addressed by current treatments. The present clinical studies evaluated extended-release (ER) calcifediol, a novel vitamin D prohormone repletion therapy designed to gradually correct low serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, improve SHPT control and minimize the induction of CYP24A1 and FGF23. METHODS: Two identical multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies enrolled subjects from 89 US sites...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Xiao-Qin Wang, Xin-Rong Zou, Yuan Clare Zhang
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of "Kidneys Govern Bones." Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Franco De Michieli, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Roberto Gambino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ESRD or CVD develop in a substantial proportion of patients with CKD receiving standard-of-care therapy, and mortality in CKD remains unchanged. These data suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CKD progression go unaffected by current treatments. Growing evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Pablo Molina, José L Górriz, Mariola D Molina, Sandra Beltrán, Belén Vizcaíno, Verónica Escudero, Julia Kanter, Ana I Ávila, Jordi Bover, Elvira Fernández, Javier Nieto, Secundino Cigarrán, Enrique Gruss, Gema Fernández-Juárez, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan F Navarro-González, Ramón Romero, Luis M Pallardó
AIM: To evaluate thresholds for serum 25(OH)D concentrations in relation to death, kidney progression and hospitalization in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy non-dialysis 3-5 stage CKD patients participating in OSERCE-2 study, a prospective, multicenter, cohort study, were prospectively evaluated and categorized into 3 groups according to 25(OH)D levels at enrollment (less than 20 ng/mL, between 20 and 29 ng/mL, and at or above 30 ng/mL), considering 25(OH)D between 20 and 29 ng/mL as reference group...
September 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Masumi Kondo, Masao Toyoda, Han Miyatake, Eitaro Tanaka, Masahiro Koizumi, Hirotaka Komaba, Moritsugu Kimura, Tomoya Umezono, Masafumi Fukagawa
Objective The purpose of this study was to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in Japanese patients with diabetic nephropathy and determine the relationship between 25(OH)D concentrations and various factors. Methods The study subjects included 442 patients with type 2 diabetes. Their serum levels of creatinine, HbA1c, intact-parathyroid hormone, urinary albumin, 25(OH)D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] were measured and their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined...
2016: Internal Medicine
Yossef Namir, Matan J Cohen, Yosef S Haviv, Itzchak Slotki, Linda Shavit
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications, both skeletal and nonskeletal. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 25(OH)D levels and supplementation with oral cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3 (Vit D3)) are associated with morbidity and mortality among patients with significant CKD. METHODS: CKD patients attending the nephrology clinic at Shaare Zedek Medical Center between July 1, 2008 and January 31, 2012, tested at least twice for 25(OH)D levels, were enrolled...
October 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Adamasco Cupisti, Claudia D'Alessandro, Biagio Di Iorio, Anna Bottai, Claudia Zullo, Domenico Giannese, Massimiliano Barsotti, Maria Francesca Egidi
BACKGROUND: Dietary treatment is helpful in CKD patients, but nutritional interventions are scarcely implemented. The main concern of the renal diets is its feasibility with regards to daily clinical practice especially in the elderly and co-morbid patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a pragmatic, step-wise, personalized nutritional support in the management of CKD patients on tertiary care. METHODS: This is a case-control study. It included 823 prevalent out-patients affected by CKD stage 3b to 5 not-in-dialysis, followed by tertiary care in nephrology clinics; 305 patients (190 males, aged 70 ± 12 years) received nutritional support (nutritional treatment Group, NTG); 518 patients (281 males, aged 73 ± 13 years) who did not receive any dietary therapy, formed the control group (CG)...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Jonay Poveda, Ana B Sanz, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Susana Carrasco, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Pablo Cannata-Ortiz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria D Sanchez-Niño
Current therapy for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unsatisfactory because of an insufficient understanding of its pathogenesis. Matrix remodelling-associated protein 5 (MXRA5, adlican) is a human protein of unknown function with high kidney tissue expression, not present in rodents. Given the increased expression of MXRA5 in injured tissues, including the kidneys, we have suggested that MXRA5 may modulate kidney injury. MXRA5 immunoreactivity was observed in tubular cells in human renal biopsies and in urine from CKD patients...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Jordi Bover, Pablo Ureña-Torres, José Luis Górriz, María Jesús Lloret, Iara da Silva, César Ruiz-García, Pamela Chang, Mariano Rodríguez, José Ballarín
Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is a highly prevalent condition at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is directly associated with increased CV and global morbidity and mortality. In the first part of this review, we have shown that CV calcifications represent an important part of the CKD-MBD complex and are a superior predictor of clinical outcomes in our patients. However, it is also necessary to demonstrate that CV calcification is a modifiable risk factor including the possibility of decreasing (or at least not aggravating) its progression with iatrogenic manoeuvres...
August 29, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
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