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Michele Poletti, Eva Gebhardt, Marianne N Kvande, Judith Ford, Andrea Raballo
The motor system in its manifold articulations is receiving increasing clinical and research attention. This is because motor impairments constitute a central, expressive component of the mental state examination and a key transdiagnostic feature indexing disease severity. Furthermore, within the schizophrenia spectrum, the integration of neurophysiological, developmental, and phenomenological perspectives suggests that motor impairment is not simply a generic, extrinsic proxy of an altered neurodevelopment, but might be more intimately related to psychotic risk...
July 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Mostefa Moubri, Christophe Burucoa, Nicolas Kalach, R Rezki Larras, Nouria Nouar, Fawsia Mouffok, Zakia Arrada
We aimed to evaluate in an Algerian pediatric population the diagnostic performances of the IDEIA HpStAR noninvasive stool antigen test (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) to detect Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. A prospective study including 158 symptomatic Algerian children was conducted. Patients were initially diagnosed with invasive (culture, histology, and rapid urease test) and noninvasive tests (urea breath test and IDEIA HpStAR test). Infected patients were treated, and 101 were controlled after treatment with two invasive (culture and histology) and two noninvasive tests (urea breath test and IDEIA HpStAR test)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Fatemeh Suri, Shahin Yazdani, Marjan Chapi, Iman Safari, Paniz Rasooli, Narsis Daftarian, Mohammad Reza Jafarinasab, Saghar Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Elham Alehabib, Hossein Darvish, Brandy Klotzle, Jian-Bing Fan, Casey Turk, Elahe Elahi
Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a common form of glaucoma in the Far East. Its defining feature is iridocorneal angle closure. In addition to PACG, indications of angle closure are included in the diagnostic criteria of related conditions primary angle closure suspect (PACS) and primary angle closure (PAC). To the best of our knowledge, a causative gene for iridocorneal angle closure in humans has not been identified. This study aimed to identify the genetic cause of iridocorneal angle closure in a pedigree with at least ten individuals diagnosed with PACS, PAC or PACG...
July 11, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
A Campabadal, B Segura, H C Baggio, A Abos, C Uribe, A I Garcia-Diaz, M J Marti, F Valldeoriola, Y Compta, N Bargallo, C Junque
Objective: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is the most commonly used test to detect olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the cut-off score for clinical purposes is often difficult to establish because of age and sex effects. The current work aims to study the sensitivity and specificity of the UPSIT Spanish version and its accuracy in discriminating PD patients at different age groups from healthy controls (HC), and to perform an item analysis...
July 11, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Teresa M Seccia, Brasilina Caroccia, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Gian Paolo Rossi
The identification of several germline and somatic ion channel mutations in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and detection of cell clusters that can be responsible for excess aldosterone production, as well as the isolation of autoantibodies activating the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, have rapidly advanced the understanding of the biology of primary aldosteronism (PA), in particular that of APA. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to discuss how discoveries of the last decade could impact on histopathology analysis and clinical practice...
July 10, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Bram Packet, Willy Poppe, Birgit Weynand, Miet Vanherck
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this prospective observational study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of the p16/Ki-67 dual stain technique (DST) for detecting CIN 2+ in a LLETZ referral setting. Test performances were compared with HR-HPV testing and Pap cytology. METHODS: All patients referred for a LLETZ procedure were candidates for participation in this trial. A total of 110 patients were enrolled between October 2016 and March 2017. From each participant, a cervical cytology sample was obtained before the onset of the LLETZ procedure...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Shoshanna May, Ewelina Adamska, J W Tang
BACKGROUND: Viral load measurement is routine for the management of patients infected with HIV, HCV or HBV, using sensitive, quantitative, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). However, platforms are not equivalent in terms of turnaround time, random access capability and operator hands-on time. OBJECTIVES AND STUDY DESIGN: We compared the performance of the Hologic Panther transcription-mediated amplification based Aptima assays for HIV, HBV and HCV viral load measurement with the corresponding Abbott m2000 RealTime assays...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Maurice Chan, Seok Hwee Koo, Boran Jiang, Pei Qi Lim, Thean Yen Tan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections are common reasons for hospital admission, and are associated with enormous economic burden due to significant morbidity and mortality. The wide spectrum of microbial agents underlying the pathology renders the diagnosis of respiratory infections challenging. Molecular diagnostics offer an advantage to the current serological and culture-based methods in terms of sensitivity, coverage, hands-on time, and time to results. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of three commercial kits for respiratory viral detection...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Vittorio Pengo, Gentian Denas
Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is a condition characterized by the occurrence of thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy loss combined with one laboratory criterion among Lupus Anticoagulant- LAC, anticardiolipin -aCL, and anti β2-Glycoprotein I -aβ2GPI antibodies. Several hypotheses were put forward to explain the causal role of antibodies in the clinical events but none is fully convincing. Current laboratory diagnosis is based on three tests (LAC, IgG/IgM aβ2GPI and IgG/IgM aCL antibodies). The triple-positive profile (all the three tests positive, same isotype) is associated with a higher risk for thrombosis...
July 7, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Haoyi Jin, Peng Liu, Yunhao Wu, Xiangli Meng, Mengwei Wu, Jiahong Han, Xiaodong Tan
Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers with rapid disease progression, requiring further elucidation of its underlying molecular mechanisms and novel biomarkers for early detection. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that are released by multiple cell types acting as message carriers during intercellular communication and are promising biomarker candidates. However, the role of pancreatic cancer cell-derived exosomes in cancer progression and the application of these vesicles as novel diagnostic biomarkers are still not fully studied...
July 14, 2018: Cancer Science
Prerna Guleria, Saumya Ranjan Mallick, Prashant Ramteke, Deepali Jain
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase positive Large B-cell Lymphoma (ALK+LBCL), is a rare entity, of which case reports exist in literature. It is a B-cell neoplasm with plasma-cell differentiation and displays plasmablasts/immunoblast like cells along with a peculiar immuno-histochemical profile. The cytomorphological characteristics of this entity have been described earlier, however, with the help of this case which had misleading clinical presentation, we wish to highlight certain cytological features which will act as diagnostic clues in identification of cases of ALK+LBCL in aspiration cytology...
July 14, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Andrew Evered
Cytologists search for rare signals (neoplastic cells) in visually noisy samples. The difficult nature of the task means that cytologists can never be completely certain about the diagnostic decisions they make. For most visual encounters a cytologist will adopt a probabilistic internal response (e.g. "I am 75% certain that this is an abnormal cell") but to be effective they must adopt a threshold, or decision criterion, that generates an explicit binary response. In other words, they must learn to decide whether each encountered cell is normal or abnormal...
July 14, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Ashwin Gupta, Molly Harrod, Martha Quinn, Milisa Manojlovich, Karen E Fowler, Hardeep Singh, Sanjay Saint, Vineet Chopra
Background Traditionally, research has examined systems- and cognitive-based sources of diagnostic error as individual entities. However, half of all errors have origins in both domains. Methods We conducted a focused ethnography of inpatient physicians at two academic institutions to understand how systems-based problems contribute to cognitive errors in diagnosis. Medicine teams were observed on rounds and during post-round work after which interviews were conducted. Field notes related to the diagnostic process and the work system were recorded, and findings were organized into themes...
July 14, 2018: Diagnosis
Alexander E Druy, Egor V Shorikov, Grigory A Tsaur, Alexander M Popov, Artem N Zaychikov, Sergey N Tuponogov, Leonid I Saveliev, Godelieve A M Tytgat, Larisa G Fechina
BACKGROUND: Detection of bone marrow (BM) involvement in patients with neuroblastoma is crucial for staging and defining prognosis. Furthermore, the persistence of residual tumor cells in the BM is associated with an unfavorable outcome. METHODS: Expression of PHOX2B, TH, ELAVL4, and B4GALNT1 (GD2-synthase) was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in neuroblastoma cell lines, control BM samples, and in BM samples from patients. The threshold level of expression for each gene was established through receiver operator characteristic analysis and used to determine the diagnostic test performance...
July 14, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Simon Chi-Chin Shiu, Andrew Brian Kinghorn, Yusuke Sakai, Yee-Wai Cheung, Jonathan Gardiner Heddle, Julian Alexander Tanner
DNA aptamers are ideal tools to enable modular control of DNA nanostructure dynamics. For molecular recognition they have a particular advantage compared to antibodies, namely they can be integrated into DNA nanostructures in a bespoke manner by base-pairing or nucleotide extension without any complex bioconjugation strategy. Such simplicity will be critical when considering advanced therapeutic and diagnostic applications of DNA nanostructures. However, optimizing DNA aptamers for functional control of DNA nanostructure dynamics can be challenging...
July 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Christian P Nixon, Ari W Satyagraha, Grayson L Baird, Alida R Harahap, Lydia V Panggalo, Lenny L Ekawati, Inge Sutanto, Din Syafruddin, J Kevin Baird
INTRODUCTION: South-East Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is a common inherited red blood cell polymorphism in South-East Asian and Melanesian populations, coinciding with areas of malaria endemicity. Validation of light microscopy as a diagnostic alternative to molecular genotyping may allow for its cost-effective use either prospectively or retrospectively by analysis of archived blood smears. METHODS: We assessed light microscopic diagnosis of SAO compared to standard PCR genotyping...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Xi Lu, Chunmeng Li, Wangping Li, Xiaoheng Long, Yanfeng Fang, Ruilin Sun, Faguang Jin, Enqing Fu, Yonghong Xie
BACKGROUND: Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is one of the major causes of infertility. However, nonspecific manifestations and the lack of easy access to gold-standard diagnostic test render a diagnostic difficult for FGTB. The objective of this study was to determine T-SPOT.TB (an interferon-γ release assay, IGRA) performance in patients with FGTB. METHODS: A total of 213 female patients with validated T-SPOT.TB results were recruited in this retrospective study...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Partha Basu, Farida Selmouni, Latifa Belakhel, Catherine Sauvaget, Loubna Abousselham, Eric Lucas, Richard Muwonge, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Youssef Chami Khazraji
Breast Cancer Screening Program was introduced and rolled out in Morocco in 2010. Women between 40 and 69 years are screened at the primary health centers (PHC) with clinical breast examination (CBE). A comprehensive evaluation of the program was conducted in 2016-2017 for quality assurance and mid-term course correction. The evaluation process involved: in-depth interviews of program managers; focus group discussions with service-providers of screening, diagnosis and treatment; supportive supervisory visits to randomly selected PHCs and diagnostic centers; desk review of the national guidelines and other published documents; and analysis of the performance data compiled by the program-in-charge...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Kiki C Andree, Anouk Mentink, Leonie L Zeune, Leon W M M Terstappen, Nikolas H Stoecklein, Rui P Neves, Christiane Driemel, Rita Lampignano, Liwen Yang, Hans Neubauer, Tanja Fehm, Johannes C Fischer, Elisabetta Rossi, Mariangela Manicone, Umberto Basso, Piero Marson, Rita Zamarchi, Yohann Loriot, Valerie Lapierre, Vincent Faugeroux, Marianne Oulhen, Françoise Farace, Gemma Fowler, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Berni Ebbs, Maryou Lambros, Mateus Crespo, Penny Flohr, Johann S de Bono
Frequently, the number of circulating tumor cells (CTC) isolated in 7.5 mL of blood is too small to reliably determine tumor heterogeneity and to be representative as a 'liquid biopsy'. In the EU FP7 program CTCTrap, we aimed to validate and optimize the recently introduced Diagnostic LeukApheresis (DLA) to screen liters of blood. Here we present the results obtained from 34 metastatic cancer patients subjected to DLA in the participating institutions. 7.5 mL blood processed with CellSearch was used as 'gold standard' reference...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Myong Kim, Chang Wook Jeong, Seung-June Oh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO) on the outcomes of transurethral surgery in patients with male bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1989 and June 2017. All results of eligible studies were synthesized. RESULTS: Nine articles met the eligibility criteria. These studies included a total of 932 patients with a median number of 92 patients per study (range 40-190)...
July 13, 2018: World Journal of Urology
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