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Particle physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535342/diffusion-under-confinement-hydrodynamic-finite-size-effects-in-simulation
#1
Pauline Simonnin, Benoit Noetinger, Carlos Nieto Draghi, Virginie Marry, Benjamin Rotenberg
We investigate finite-size effects on diffusion in confined fluids using molecular dynamics simulations and hydrodynamic calculations. Specifically, we consider a Lennard-Jones fluid in slit pores without slip at the interface and show that the use of periodic boundary conditions in the directions along the surfaces results in dramatic finite-size effects, in addition to that of the physically relevant confining length. As in the simulation of bulk fluids, these effects arise from spurious hydrodynamic interactions between periodic images and from the constraint of total momentum conservation...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535331/computer-and-mobile-technology-interventions-for-self-management-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
REVIEW
Catherine McCabe, Margaret McCann, Anne Marie Brady
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow obstruction due to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases, for example, cigarette smoke. The pattern of care for people with moderate to very severe COPD often involves regular lengthy hospital admissions, which result in high healthcare costs and an undesirable effect on quality of life. Research over the past decade has focused on innovative methods for developing enabling and assistive technologies that facilitate patient self-management...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535094/rheological-and-physical-parameters-correlations-in-formulations-with-pinh%C3%A3-o-derivatives-stability-study-building-up-an-analytical-route
#3
Renata Moschini Daudt, Nilo Sergio Medeiros Cardozo, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak, Irene Clemes Külkamp Guerreiro
This study focuses on the correlations investigation between rheological and physical parameters and how it can contribute to optimize the topical formulations development. A gel and an emulgel containing pinhão derivatives, and their respective controls, were analyzed along six months of storage. A flowchart of analyses was proposed to use in topical formulation development when a benchmark is the goal or when it is necessary to change some raw material. All formulations were stable over the storage time and the formulations containing pinhão starch and coat extract presented similar properties to those of the control formulations...
May 23, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535039/deposition-of-gold-nanotriangles-in-large-scale-close-packed-monolayers-for-x-ray-based-temperature-calibration-and-sers-monitoring-of-plasmon-driven-catalytic-reactions
#4
Ferenc Liebig, Radwan M Sarhan, Mathias Sander, Wouter A Koopman, Roman Schuetz, Matias Bargheer, Joachim Koetz
Anisotropic plasmonic particles such as gold nanotriangles have extraordinary structural, optical and physico-chemical properties. For many applications in different fields it is essential to prepare them in a chemically and physically stable, structurally well-defined manner, e.g., as large and uniform coverage on a substrate. We present a direct method for the large scale close-packed monolayer formation of edge-to-edge ordered, ultrathin crystalline gold nanotriangles on Si-wafers or quartz glass via the transfer of these asymmetric particles to the air-liquid interface after adding ethanol-toluene mixtures without any subsequent surface functionalization...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534897/seed-mediated-co-reduction-in-a-large-lattice-mismatch-system-synthesis-of-pd-cu-nanostructures
#5
Meredith R Kunz, Sophia M McClain, Dennis P Chen, Kallum M Koczkur, Rebecca G Weiner, Sara E Skrabalak
Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are of interest for applications in catalysis, electronics, chemical sensing, and more. Their utility is dictated by their composition and physical parameters such as particle size, particle shape, and overall architecture (e.g., hollow vs. solid). Interestingly, the addition of a second metal to create bimetallic NPs adds multifunctionality, with new emergent properties common. However, synthesizing structurally defined bimetallic NPs remains a great challenge. One synthetic pathway to architecturally controlled bimetallic NPs is seed-mediated co-reduction (SMCR) in which two metal precursors are simultaneously co-reduced to deposit metal onto shape-controlled metal seeds, which direct the overgrowth...
May 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532144/physically-targeted-intravenous-polyurethane-nanoparticles-for-controlled-release-of-atorvastatin-calcium
#6
Behnaz Sadat Eftekhari, Akbar Karkhaneh, Ali Alizadeh
Background: Intravenous drug delivery is an advantageous choice for rapid administration, immediate drug effect, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism in oral drug delivery. In this study, the synthesis, formulation, and characterization of atorvastatin-loaded polyurethane (PU) nanoparticles were investigated for intravenous route of administration. Methods: First, PU was synthesized and characterized. Second, nanoparticles were prepared in four different ratios of drug to polymer through two different techniques including emulsion-diffusion and single-emulsion...
May 23, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532104/in-situ-synthesis-and-characterization-of-hydroxyapatite-natural-rubber-composites-for-biomedical-applications
#7
T A Dick, L A Dos Santos
In this work, a biomimetic synthesis reaction for the production of hydroxyapatite (HA)/natural rubber (NR) composites is presented. HA was synthesized in the presence of solubilized NR in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which permits that negatively charged domains in proteins and lipids in NR work as nucleation sites for hydroxyapatite. The mechanical and physicochemical properties of composites containing 10, 20 and 30wt% HA were studied. NR influenced HA crystallite morphology, shape and size and was able to disperse the HA particles in THF...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531649/a-bio-based-facile-approach-for-the-preparation-of-covalently-functionalized-carbon-nanotubes-aqueous-suspensions-and-their-potential-as-heat-transfer-fluids
#8
Rad Sadri, Maryam Hosseini, S N Kazi, Samira Bagheri, Nashrul Zubir, K H Solangi, Tuan Zaharinie, A Badarudin
In this study, we propose an innovative, bio-based, environmentally friendly approach for the covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using clove buds. This approach is innovative because we do not use toxic and hazardous acids which are typically used in common carbon nanomaterial functionalization procedures. The MWCNTs are functionalized in one pot using a free radical grafting reaction. The clove-functionalized MWCNTs (CMWCNTs) are then dispersed in distilled water (DI water), producing a highly stable CMWCNT aqueous suspension...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530232/tomographic-active-optical-trapping-of-arbitrarily-shaped-objects-by-exploiting-3d-refractive-index-maps
#9
Kyoohyun Kim, YongKeun Park
Optical trapping can manipulate the three-dimensional (3D) motion of spherical particles based on the simple prediction of optical forces and the responding motion of samples. However, controlling the 3D behaviour of non-spherical particles with arbitrary orientations is extremely challenging, due to experimental difficulties and extensive computations. Here, we achieve the real-time optical control of arbitrarily shaped particles by combining the wavefront shaping of a trapping beam and measurements of the 3D refractive index distribution of samples...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530194/solvent-effect-in-the-synthesis-of-hydrophobic-drug-loaded-polymer-nanoparticles
#10
Sandip Pal, Chabita Saha
Quercetin is an abundant flavonoid in fruits, vegetables such as onion, tea leaves, cranberry, radish leaves etc. with numerous biological activities and widely used as an effective antioxidant. Its low solubility in water and chemical decomposition in intestinal environment are predicaments in delivery through dietary or oral intake. Noble polymeric nanoparticles are of particular interest today because of their applications in many areas. Polymer nanoparticles have attracted the interest of many research groups and have been utilised in an increasing number of fields such as site targeted drug delivery in cancer research during the last decades...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529972/simple-and-versatile-detection-of-viruses-using-anodized-alumina-membranes
#11
Pavan Chaturvedi, Stacy D Rodriguez, Ivan Vlassiouk, Immo A Hansen, Sergei N Smirnov
A simple sensor for viral particles based on ionic conductivity through anodized alumina membranes was demonstrated using MS2 bacteriophage as an example. A facile two-point measuring scheme is geared toward realization using a computer's sound card input/output capabilities suitable for a fast and inexpensive point of care testing. The lowest detection concentration down to ~7 pfu/mL and a large dynamic range up to ~2000 pfu/mL were obtained due to physical optimization that included proper length and diameter for the pores, removing the oxide layer at the electrode, as well as the chemical optimization of covalent binding of antibodies to the pore's walls...
May 27, 2016: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528111/protection-of-%C3%AE-carotene-from-chemical-degradation-in-emulsion-based-delivery-systems-using-antioxidant-interfacial-complexes-catechin-egg-white-protein-conjugates
#12
Luping Gu, Yujie Su, Mengqi Zhang, Cuihua Chang, Junhua Li, David Julian McClements, Yanjun Yang
The aim of the present study was to fabricate catechin-egg white protein (CT-EWP) conjugates as novel food-grade antioxidant emulsifiers designed to improve the physicochemical stability of β-carotene (BC) emulsions. CT-EWP conjugates were synthesized using free radical grafting, and the formation of conjugates was confirmed by electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The physicochemical stability of BC emulsions was characterized by measuring alterations in particle size, ζ-potential and BC retention...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528089/production-of-highly-concentrated-oil-in-water-emulsions-using-dual-channel-microfluidization-use-of-individual-and-mixed-natural-emulsifiers-saponin-and-lecithin
#13
Xiang Luo, Yanyan Zhou, Long Bai, Fuguo Liu, Ruojie Zhang, Zipei Zhang, Bingjing Zheng, Yihui Deng, David Julian McClements
The fabrication of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is useful for reducing storage and transportation costs, as well as for providing desirable textural, optical, stability, and release characteristics in commercial products. In this study, 50wt% oil-in-water emulsions were produced from natural emulsifiers using high-pressure dual-channel microfluidization (89.6MPa, 1 pass). The particle size and charge characteristics of emulsions stabilized using a hydrophilic biosurfactant (quillaja saponin) or mixtures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactants (quillaja saponin+soy lecithin) were measured...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527981/an-identification-of-the-soft-polyelectrolyte-gel-like-layer-on-silica-colloids-using-atomic-force-and-electron-microscopy
#14
Jiří Škvarla, Juraj Škvarla
A procedure is introduced for measuring the radius of spherical colloid particles from the curvature of upper parts of their central cross-sectional profiles obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To minimize the possible compression and displacement of the spheres, AFM is operated in a mode rendering a constant ultralow pN force on the tip. The procedure allows us to evaluate the mean radius of nearly monodisperse submicrometer spheres of silica in their natively hydrated state in aqueous electrolyte solutions, irrespective of whether they are coagulated or not...
May 16, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527449/correlated-matrix-fluctuation-mediated-activated-transport-of-dilute-penetrants-in-glass-forming-liquids-and-suspensions
#15
Rui Zhang, Kenneth S Schweizer
We formulate a microscopic, force-level statistical mechanical theory for the activated diffusion of dilute penetrants in dense liquids, colloidal suspensions, and glasses. The approach explicitly and self-consistently accounts for coupling between penetrant hopping and matrix dynamic displacements that actively facilitate the hopping event. The key new ideas involve two mechanistically (at a stochastic trajectory level) coupled dynamic free energy functions for the matrix and spherical penetrant particles...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520397/laser-induced-graphene-layers-and-electrodes-prevents-microbial-fouling-and-exerts-antimicrobial-action
#16
Swatantra P Singh, Yilun Li, Avraham Be'er, Yoram Oren, James M Tour, Christopher J Arnusch
Prevention of fouling on surfaces is a major challenge that broadly impacts society. Water treatment technologies, hospital infrastructure, and seawater pipes exemplify surfaces that are susceptible to biofouling. Here we show that laser-induced graphene (LIG) printed on a polyimide film by irradiation with a CO2 infrared laser under ambient conditions is extremely biofilm resistant while as an electrode is strongly antibacterial. We investigated the antibacterial activity of the LIG surface using LIG powder in suspension or deposited on surfaces, and its activity depended on the particle size and oxygen content...
May 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517937/cellular-shuttles-monocytes-macrophages-exhibit-transendothelial-transport-of-nanoparticles-under-physiological-flow
#17
Thomas Moore, Daniel Hauser, Thomas Gruber, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Marco Lattuada, Alke Petri-Fink, Ruth Lyck
A major hurdle in the development of biomedical nanoparticles (NP) is understanding how they interact with complex biological systems and navigate biological barriers to arrive at pathological targets. It is becoming increasingly evident that merely controlling particle physico-chemical properties may not be sufficient to mediate particle biodistribution in dynamic environments. Thus, researchers are increasingly turning towards more complex but likewise more physiological in vitro systems to study particle-cell/particle-system interactions...
May 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516933/experimental-characterization-of-a-quantum-many-body-system-via-higher-order-correlations
#18
Thomas Schweigler, Valentin Kasper, Sebastian Erne, Igor Mazets, Bernhard Rauer, Federica Cataldini, Tim Langen, Thomas Gasenzer, Jürgen Berges, Jörg Schmiedmayer
Quantum systems can be characterized by their correlations. Higher-order (larger than second order) correlations, and the ways in which they can be decomposed into correlations of lower order, provide important information about the system, its structure, its interactions and its complexity. The measurement of such correlation functions is therefore an essential tool for reading, verifying and characterizing quantum simulations. Although higher-order correlation functions are frequently used in theoretical calculations, so far mainly correlations up to second order have been studied experimentally...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516262/-nanomaterials-in-foodstuffs-toxicological-properties-and-risk-assessment
#19
REVIEW
Linda Böhmert, Peter Laux, Andreas Luch, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
Nanomaterials measure below 100 nm in size in at least one dimension. In general, organic and inorganic nanoparticles can be distinguished. In addition, nanosized structures may differ substantially with regard to their shape, chemical composition and physical properties. They may originate either from natural processes or can be manufactured intentionally. The possible specific toxicological properties of nanoparticles that might be based on their enhanced reactivity due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio, as compared to larger particles, or which might result from preferential uptake in cells and tissues, are the subject of current toxicological research...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516149/dataset-for-acrylate-silica-nanoparticles-formulations-and-photocured-composites-viscosity-filler-dispersion-and-bulk-poisson-s-ratio
#20
Hubert Gojzewski, Mariola Sadej, Ewa Andrzejewska, Martyna Kokowska
UV-curable polymer composites are of importance in industry, biomedical applications, scientific fields, and daily life. Outstanding physical properties of polymer composites were achieved with nanoparticles as filler, primarily in enhancing mechanical strength or barrier properties. Structure-property relationships of the resulting nanocomposites are dictated by the polymer-filler molecular architecture, i.e. interactions between polymer matrix and filler, and high surface area to volume ratio of the filler particles...
June 2017: Data in Brief
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