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Particle physics

Congbin Xu, Wenjie Yang, Weijiang Liu, Hongliang Sun, Chunlei Jiao, Ai-Jun Lin
Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was loaded on expanded graphite (EG) to produce a composite material (EG-ZVI) for efficient removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). EG and EG-ZVI were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. EG-ZVI had a high specific surface area and contained sub-micron sized particles of zero-valent iron. Batch experiments were employed to evaluate the Cr(VI) removal performance...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Xi Yang, Honghong Yi, Xiaolong Tang, Shunzheng Zhao, Zhongyu Yang, Yueqiang Ma, Tiecheng Feng, Xiaoxu Cui
This work was undertaken to investigate the behaviors and kinetics of toluene adsorption and desorption on activated carbons with varying pore structure. Five kinds of activated carbon from different raw materials were selected. Adsorption isotherms and breakthrough curves for toluene were measured. Langmuir and Freundlich equations were fitted to the equilibrium data, and the Freundlich equation was more suitable for simulating toluene adsorption. The process consisted of monolayer, multilayer and partial active site adsorption types...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Jingyuan Chen, Xiangjun Xing, Zhenwei Yao
Understanding the interplay between ordered structures and substrate curvature is an interesting problem with versatile applications, including functionalization of charged supramolecular surfaces and modern microfluidic technologies. In this work, we investigate the two-dimensional packing structures of charged particles confined on a pinched sphere. By continuously pinching the sphere, we observe cleavage of elongated scars into pleats, proliferation of disclinations, and subsequently, emergence of a depletion zone at the negatively curved waist that is completely void of particles...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Hyun-Myung Chun, Xavier Durang, Jae Dong Noh
We investigate the low mass limit of Langevin dynamics for a charged Brownian particle driven by a magnetic Lorentz force. In the low mass limit, velocity variables relaxing quickly are coarse-grained out to yield effective dynamics for position variables. Without the Lorentz force, the low mass limit is equivalent to the high friction limit. Both cases share the same Langevin equation that is obtained by setting the mass to zero. The equivalence breaks down in the presence of the Lorentz force. The low mass limit cannot be achieved by setting the mass to zero...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Alessandro F Gualtieri
A number of mineral fibers represent a health hazard because they are classified as cancer-causing chemical/physical toxicants upon (chronic) dust inhalation. Although in the last decades they have been the subject of intensive multidisciplinary investigations, the mechanisms by which mineral fibers induce toxic and pathogenic adverse effects on human health and environment are not yet fully understood. The major intricacy of the biological approach that prevents the design of a conclusive shared model of behavior of mineral fibers in a biological system stems from their very nature with intrinsic variability in chemical, molecular, structural and morphometric parameters, biodurability and surface reactivity...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
H Terças, J D Rodrigues, J T Mendonça
Axions are hypothetical particles related to the violation of the charge-parity symmetry within the strong sector of the standard model, being one of the most prone candidates for dark matter. Multiple attempts to prove their existence are currently performed in different physical systems. Here, we predict that axions may couple to the electrostatic (Langmuir) modes of a strongly magnetized plasma, and show that a new quasiparticle can be defined, the axion-plasmon polariton. The excitation of axions can be inferred from the pronounced modification of the dispersion relation of the Langmuir waves, a feature that we estimate to be accessible in state-of-the-art plasma-based experiments...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ho Kim, Seong Kuk Han, Eunhye Song, Seyong Park
This study is an assessment of the hydrothermal carbonisation of poultry slaughterhouse wastes sludge for the solid recovered fuel. The effects of hydrothermal carbonisation were evaluated by varying the reaction temperatures in the range of 170 °C-220 °C. After hydrothermal carbonisation was completed, the capillary suction time, time to filter, and particle size decreased by ranges of 170.4 to 25.9 s, 40 to 7.0 s, and 220 to 98 um, respectively, with increasing hydrothermal carbonisation temperature...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Daniele Coslovich, Misaki Ozawa, Walter Kob
The physical behavior of glass-forming liquids presents complex features of both dynamic and thermodynamic nature. Some studies indicate the presence of thermodynamic anomalies and of crossovers in the dynamic properties, but their origin and degree of universality is difficult to assess. Moreover, conventional simulations are barely able to cover the range of temperatures at which these crossovers usually occur. To address these issues, we simulate the Kob-Andersen Lennard-Jones mixture using efficient protocols based on multi-CPU and multi-GPU parallel tempering...
May 17, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Anna Marinopoulou, Stylianos N Raphaelides
Electrophoretic mobility and dynamic light scattering measurements were carried out to investigate the physical characteristics of amylose inclusion complexes with a series of long chain fatty acids, in alkaline solution (0.1 N or 0.01 N KOH). Amylose molecules exhibited lower values of electrophoretic mobility compared to those of the amylose-fatty acid complexes. The presence of amylopectin affected the electrophoretic mobility of starch-fatty acid complexes. Particle size distribution measurements of amylose-fatty acid complexes in aqueous suspension (pH 4...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yoshiki Ishizawa, Suguru Dobashi, Noriyuki Kadoya, Kengo Ito, Takahito Chiba, Yoshiki Takayama, Kiyokazu Sato, Ken Takeda
PURPOSE: An accurate source model of a medical linear accelerator is essential for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. This study aims to propose an analytical photon source model based on particle transport in parameterized accelerator structures, focusing on a more realistic determination of linac photon spectra compared to existing approaches. METHODS: We designed the primary and secondary photon sources based on the photons attenuated and scattered by a parameterized flattening filter...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
Swarnava Nandy, Takashi Hisatomi, Song Sun, Masao Katayama, Tsutomu Minegishi, Kazunari Domen
Oxysulfoselenide semiconductor photocatalysts absorb light at longer wavelengths than the corresponding oxysulfides. However, the synthesis of oxysulfoselenides is challenging due to excessive particle growth and the limited availability of metal selenide precursors. In this study, a La5 Ti2 CuS5 O7 (LTCSO) oxysulfide was annealed with Se powder in sealed, evacuated quartz tubes to obtain LTCSO:Se photocatalysts, and the properties of these materials were investigated. Se was found to be incorporated into the LTCSO upon heating at 973 K or higher, and the Se/(S + Se) ratio was increased to a maximum of 0...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhen-Yu Wu, Hai-Wei Liang, Bi-Cheng Hu, Shu-Hong Yu
Carbon aerogels that are typically prepared using sol-gel chemistry have unique three dimensional networks of interconnected nanometer-sized particles and thus exhibit many fascinating physical properties and great application potentials in widespread fields. To boost the practical applications, it is urgent to develop efficient and low-cost methods to produce high-performance carbon aerogels in large-scale, preferably in a sustainable way. In 2012, two new classes of aerogels consisting of carbon nanofiber (CNF) networks were prepared from biomass-derived precursor by chemosynthesis (i...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
V D Burkert, L Elouadrhiri, F X Girod
The proton, one of the components of atomic nuclei, is composed of fundamental particles called quarks and gluons. Gluons are the carriers of the force that binds quarks together, and free quarks are never found in isolation-that is, they are confined within the composite particles in which they reside. The origin of quark confinement is one of the most important questions in modern particle and nuclear physics because confinement is at the core of what makes the proton a stable particle and thus provides stability to the Universe...
May 2018: Nature
R J Seager, Andrew J Acevedo, Fabian Spill, Muhammad H Zaman
The processes of dissolution and fragmentation have high relevance in pharmaceutical research, medicine, digestive physiology, and engineering design. Experimentally, dissolution and fragmentation are observed to occur simultaneously, yet little is known about the relative importance of each of these processes and their impact on the dissolution process as a whole. Thus, in order to better explain these phenomena and the manner in which they interact, we have developed a novel mathematical model of dissolution, based on partial differential equations, taking into consideration the two constituent processes of surface area-dependent diffusive mass removal and physical fragmentation of the solid particles, and the basic physical laws governing these processes...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kamil Zalewski, Malgorzata Benke, Bartlomiej Mirocha, Jakub Radziszewski, Magdalena Chechlinska, Magdalena Kowalewska
Technetium (99mTc)-radiolabeled colloids are popular tracers used to map lymphatic vessels and regional lymph nodes (LNs). The regional LN status is a significant determinant of cancer stage and patient prognosis, and strongly influences treatment. Regional LN dissection has become part of surgical treatment. However, not all patients with LN involvement benefit from extensive lymphadenectomy in terms of prolonged survival. Moreover, overtreatment of patients with localized disease carries unnecessary risk of complications...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Di Wu, Qianqian Su, Yang Li, Chen Zhang, Xian Qin, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Wen-Song Xi, Yanfeng Gao, Aoneng Cao, Xiaogang Liu, Haifang Wang
Growing interest in monoclinic VO2 nanoparticles (NPs) among consumers and the industries of window coatings, solar sensors etc. has brought particular attention to their safety concerns. The toxicity of this new class of nanomaterials in bacterial ecosystems has not yet been evaluated. The degree of crystallinity is a significant parameter that determines the performance of materials. However, the previously reported methods for toxicity assessment have neglected its influence. In this work, we systematically evaluated the toxicity of VO2 NPs with different degrees of crystallinity to four typical bacterial strains and studied the influence of physicochemical properties and aging treatment on their antibacterial effect...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Chao Liu, Yangyang Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jun Wang, Wenfei Li, Wei Wang
Understanding the microscopic mechanism of water molecular translational diffusion is a challenging topic in both physics and chemistry. Here, we report an investigation on the interplay between the translational diffusion and the large-amplitude angular jumps of water molecules in bulk water using molecular dynamics simulations. We found that large-amplitude angular jumps are tightly coupled to the translational diffusions. Particularly, we revealed that concurrent rotational jumps of spatially neighboring water molecules induce inter-basin translational jumps, which contributes to the fast component of the water translational diffusion...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhengjie Lin, Jun Wu, Wei Qiao, Ying Zhao, Karen H M Wong, Paul K Chu, Liming Bian, Shuilin Wu, Yufeng Zheng, Kenneth M C Cheung, Frankie Leung, Kelvin W K Yeung
A range of magnesium ions (Mg2+ ) used has demonstrated osteogenic tendency in vitro. Hence, we propose to actualize this concept by designing a new system to precisely control the Mg2+ delivery at a particular concentration in vivo in order to effectively stimulate in-situ bone regeneration. To achieve this objective, a monodisperse core-shell microsphere delivery system comprising of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biopolymer, alginate hydrogel, and magnesium oxide nano-particles has been designed by using customized microfluidic capillary device...
May 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Susanne Wintzheimer, Tim Granath, Maximilian Oppmann, Thomas Kister, Thibaut Thai, Tobias Kraus, Nicolas Vogel, Karl Mandel
Under the right process conditions, nanoparticles can cluster together to form defined particular structures, which can be termed supraparticles. Controlling the size, shape, and morphology of such entities is a central step in various fields of science and technology, ranging from colloid chemistry and soft matter physics to powder technology and pharmaceutical and food sciences. These diverse scientific communities have been investigating formation processes and structure/property relations of such supraparticles under completely different boundary conditions...
May 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Ayhan Kars, Fatma Atalay, Korhan Kilic, Fatih Bingöl, Yusuf Can
Pilonidal sinuses are recurrent chronic inflammatory lesions which may occur due to penetration of hair particles into skin. Herein, the authors report a pilonidal sinus case that is unusually seen on nasal dorsum and totally excised with the open technique rhinoplasty method. A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to the authors' outpatient clinic with complaints of dysmorphism and discharge from nasal dorsum. Physical examination revealed a swelling in nasal dorsum and hair-containing fistula. Excision was performed with an open rhinoplasty approach...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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