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Particle physics

Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
Measures to improve gut health and nutrient digestibility have been sought due to in-feed antibiotics being phased out in poultry. The appropriate physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber may be beneficial in enhancing gut health in poultry. In this study, the effect of a lignocellulose-rich fiber source and corn particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, nutrient digestibility, cecal microflora, and litter quality was evaluated. A total of 684 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated to 6 treatments with 6 replicate pens, each housing 19 birds...
June 15, 2017: Poultry Science
Andrey Turlapov, Maxim Yu Kagan
Physics of many-body systems where particles are restricted to move in two spatial dimensions is challenging and even controversial: On one hand, neither long-range order nor Bose condensation may appear in infinite uniform 2D systems at finite temperature, on the other hand this does not prohibit superfluidity or superconductivity. Moreover, 2D superconductors, such as cuprates, are among the systems with highest critical temperatures. Ultracold atoms are a platform for studying 2D physics. Uniquely to other physical systems, quantum statistics may be completely changed in an ultracold gas: an atomic Fermi gas may be smoothly crossed over into a gas of Bose molecules (or dimers) by tuning interatomic interactions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Alberto Cebrian-Serrano, Benjamin Davies
Robust and cost-effective genome editing in a diverse array of cells and model organisms is now possible thanks to the discovery of the RNA-guided endonucleases of the CRISPR-Cas system. The commonly used Cas9 of Streptococcus pyogenes shows high levels of activity but, depending on the application, has been associated with some shortcomings. Firstly, the enzyme has been shown to cause mutagenesis at genomic sequences resembling the target sequence. Secondly, the stringent requirement for a specific motif adjacent to the selected target site can limit the target range of this enzyme...
June 20, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Maria Schwarzl, Aljaž Godec, Ralf Metzler
Anomalous diffusion is being discovered in a fast growing number of systems. The exact nature of this anomalous diffusion provides important information on the physical laws governing the studied system. One of the central properties analysed for finite particle motion time series is the intrinsic variability of the apparent diffusivity, typically quantified by the ergodicity breaking parameter EB. Here we demonstrate that frequently EB is insufficient to provide a meaningful measure for the observed variability of the data...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Su Guan, Feng Deng, Si-Qi Huang, Shu-Yang Liu, Le-Xian Ai, Pu-Ying She
This study investigated for the first time the feasibility of using a magnetic field for sludge disintegration. Approximately 41.01% disintegration degree (DD) was reached after 30min at 180mT magnetic field intensity upon separate magnetic field treatment. Protein and polysaccharide contents significantly increased. This test was optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to fit the multiple equation of the DD. The maximum DD was 43.75% and the protein and polysaccharide contents increased to 56...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Renat R Letfullin, Scott A Szatkowski
AIM: By exploiting the physical changes experienced by cancerous organelles, we investigate the feasibility of destroying cancerous cells by single and multipulse modes of laser heating. MATERIALS & METHODS: Our procedure consists of two primary steps: determining the normal and cancerous organelles optical properties and simulating the heating of all of the major organelles in the cell to find the treatment modes for the laser ablation of cancerous organelles without harming healthy cells...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
Karim Essafi, Ludovic D C Jaubert, Masafumi Udagawa
In breathing pyrochlores and kagomes, couplings between neighbouring tetrahedra and triangles are free to differ. Breathing lattices thus offer the possibility to explore a different facet of the rich physics of these systems. Here we consider nearest-neighbour classical Heisenberg interactions, both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic, and study how the anisotropy of breathing lattices modifies the mode spectrum of pyrochlore and kagome systems. The nature and degeneracy of the flat bands are shown to be preserved for any value of the anisotropy...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
D R Cox, Bradley Efron
Statistical science provides a wide range of concepts and methods for studying situations subject to unexplained variability. Such considerations enter fields ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to genetics, sociology and economics, and beyond; to associated areas of application such as engineering, agriculture, and medicine, in particular in clinical trials. Successful application hinges on absorption of statistical thinking into the subject matter and, hence, depends strongly on the field in question and on the individual investigators...
June 2017: Science Advances
Esther A Hagen-Plantinga, Denmark F Orlanes, Guido Bosch, Wouter H Hendriks, Antonius F B van der Poel
The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at three specified temperature-time profiles (113°C/232 min, 120°C/103 min and 127°C/60 min) to equal a similar lethality (F0 value = 30). Physicochemical properties (viscosity, texture, particle size, pH) were determined, and a 10 d three-bowl palatability test was performed with ten European shorthair cats...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Genada Sinani, Melike Sessevmez, M Koray Gök, Saadet Özgümüş, Alper Okyar, H Oya Alpar, Erdal Cevher
Mucosal vaccination stimulates both mucosal and systemic immunity. However, mucosal applications of vaccine antigens in their free form generally result in poor systemic immune responses and need adjuvantation. In this study, bovine serum albumin loaded, new hybridised poly(β-amino ester)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method, characterised and evaluated in vivo as nasal vaccine carriers. Cationic spherical particles with a mean size of 240nm, good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Simon Endes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Daiana Stolz, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jan F Finke, Brian P V Hunt, Christian Winter, Eddy C Carmack, Curtis A Suttle
Virus particles are highly abundant in seawater and, on average, outnumber microbial cells approximately 10-fold at the surface and 16-fold in deeper waters; yet, this relationship varies across environments. Here, we examine the influence of a suite of environmental variables, including nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature, on the relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, including along a track from the Northwest Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific via the Arctic Ocean, and in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada...
June 17, 2017: Viruses
Aysu Aydınoğlu, Afife Binnaz Hazar Yoruç
The effect of silanization on the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of dental composites was investigated. Silica fillers were obtained from colloidal silica solution, Ludox® HS-40 and they were silanized by using 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) in an acidic media. Mineralogical and chemical structures of unsilanized and silanized fillers were determined by using XRD and FT-IR analyses. The modification of unsilanized/silanized fillers were investigated by performing XPS and TGA analyses...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
B Q Lv, Z-L Feng, Q-N Xu, X Gao, J-Z Ma, L-Y Kong, P Richard, Y-B Huang, V N Strocov, C Fang, H-M Weng, Y-G Shi, T Qian, H Ding
In quantum field theory, Lorentz invariance leads to three types of fermion-Dirac, Weyl and Majorana. Although the existence of Weyl and Majorana fermions as elementary particles in high-energy physics is debated, all three types of fermion have been proposed to exist as low-energy, long-wavelength quasiparticle excitations in condensed-matter systems. The existence of Dirac and Weyl fermions in condensed-matter systems has been confirmed experimentally, and that of Majorana fermions is supported by various experiments...
June 19, 2017: Nature
Yousra Timounay, Olivier Pitois, Florence Rouyer
Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Kyong-Hoon Choi, Ki Chang Nam, Sang-Yoon Lee, Guangsup Cho, Jin-Seung Jung, Ho-Joong Kim, Bong Joo Park
We report a novel zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle with antioxidant properties, prepared by immobilizing the antioxidant 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (caffeic acid, CA) on the surfaces of micro-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-treated ZnO nanoparticles. The microstructure and physical properties of ZnO@CA nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy, and steady state spectroscopic methods...
June 16, 2017: Nanomaterials
Yan Xu, Li Deng, Hao Ren, Xianren Zhang, Fang Huang, Tongtao Yue
Pulmonary nanodrug delivery is an emerging concept, especially for targeted lung cancer therapy. Once inhaled, the nanoparticles (NPs) acting as drug carriers need to efficiently cross the pulmonary surfactant monolayer (PSM) of lung alveoli, which act as the first barrier for external particles entering the lung. Herein, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, we study how inhaled NPs interact with the PSM, particularly focusing on the transport of NPs with different properties across the PSM. While hydrophilic NPs translocate directly across the PSM, transport of hydrophobic NPs is achieved as the PSM wraps them...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Widya Ernayati Kosimaningrum, Thi-Xuan-Huong Le, Yaovi Holade, Mikhael Bechelany, Sophie Tingry, Buchari Buchari, Indra Noviandri, Christophe Innocent, Marc Cretin
The future of fuel cells that convert the chemical energy to electricity relies mostly on the efficiency of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to its sluggish kinetics. By effectively bypassing the use of organic surfactants, post-synthesis steps for the immobilization onto electrodes, the catalytic inks preparation using binders, and the common problem of nanoparticles detachment from supports involved in traditional methodologies, we demonstrate a versatile electrodeposition method for growing anisotropic microstructures directly onto a three-dimensional (3D) carbon felt electrode, using platinum nanoparticles as elementary building blocks...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fardin Tamjidi, Mohammad Shahedi, Jaleh Varshosaz, Ali Nasirpour
BACKGROUND: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) offer many potential benefits for incorporating lipophilic molecules into clear to opaque food systems. This study examined the stability of astaxanthin-loaded NLCs (Ax-NLCs) in model (solutions with 0 or 12% sucrose; pH 3, 7), semi-actual (whey) and actual (non-alcoholic beer) beverages during 30-60 days storage at 6 or 20 °C. RESULTS: Ax-NLCs (Z-average size: 94 nm), containing α-tocopherol and EDTA as antioxidants, were stabilized with Tween 80 and lecithin, and mixed with the aforementioned beverages at the volume ratio of 3:97...
June 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson Owusu-Ansah, Angelina Sampson, Samuel K Amponsah, Robert C Abaidoo, Anders Dalsgaard, Tine Hald
The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10(-5) virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling...
June 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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