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Particle physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924730/effects-of-the-preparation-process-on-the-properties-of-amorphous-solid-dispersions
#1
Siyuan Huang, Robert O Williams
The use of amorphous solid dispersions to improve the bioavailability of active ingredients from the BCS II and IV classifications continues to gain interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the last decade, methods for generating amorphous solid dispersions have been well established in commercially available products and in the literature. However, the amorphous solid dispersions manufactured by different technologies differ in many aspects, primarily chemical stability, physical stability, and performance, both in vitro and in vivo...
September 18, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923702/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-synthesis-antiseptic-activity-and-toxicity-mechanism
#2
REVIEW
A Król, P Pomastowski, K Rafińska, V Railean-Plugaru, B Buszewski
Zinc oxide (ZnO), as a material with attractive properties, has attracted great interest worldwide, particularly owing to the implementation of the synthesis of nano-sized particles. High luminescent efficiency, a wide band gap (3.36eV), and a large exciton binding energy (60meV) has triggered intense research on the production of nanoparticles using different synthesis methods and on their future applications. ZnO nanomaterials can be used in industry as nano-optical and nano-electrical devices, in food packaging and in medicine as antimicrobial and antitumor agents...
August 26, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921847/n-n-methylenebis-acrylamide-crosslinked-poly-acrylic-acid-particles-as-doxorubicin-carriers-a-comparison-between-release-behavior-of-physically-loaded-drug-and-conjugated-drug-via-acid-labile-hydrazone-linkage
#3
Seyedeh Mahnaz Modarresi-Saryazdi, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi
N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBA)-crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles with low degree of crosslinking were synthesized using distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP). Size and size distribution of particles were obtained using DLS and FE-SEM and results showed that microspheres had a narrow size dispersity. (1) H NMR results indicated that amount of crosslinker in structure of particles is a little more than the molar percentage of feeded MBA due to greater activity ratio of MBA than AA...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919716/palatability-and-physical-properties-of-potassium-binding-resin-rdx7675-comparison-with-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate
#4
Vanessa Zann, John McDermott, Jeffrey W Jacobs, James P Davidson, Fangling Lin, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, David P Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, especially those taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, are at high risk of developing. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a current treatment, binds potassium within the gastrointestinal tract to reduce potassium absorption. However, poor palatability limits its long-term use. RDX7675, a novel potassium binder in development for the treatment of hyperkalemia, is a calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin designed to have enhanced palatability...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919286/a-novel-optimized-hybrid-fuzzy-logic-intelligent-pid-controller-for-an-interconnected-multi-area-power-system-with-physical-constraints-and-boiler-dynamics
#5
A H Gomaa Haroun, Yin-Ya Li
In the fast developing world nowadays, load frequency control (LFC) is considered to be a most significant role for providing the power supply with good quality in the power system. To deliver a reliable power, LFC system requires highly competent and intelligent control technique. Hence, in this article, a novel hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (FLiPID) controller has been proposed for LFC of interconnected multi-area power systems. A four-area interconnected thermal power system incorporated with physical constraints and boiler dynamics is considered and the adjustable parameters of the FLiPID controller are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) scheme employing an integral square error (ISE) criterion...
September 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918079/clogging-of-an-alpine-streambed-by-silt-sized-particles-insights-from-laboratory-and-field-experiments
#6
Jasmin Fetzer, Markus Holzner, Michael Plötze, Gerhard Furrer
Clogging of streambeds by suspended particles (SP) can cause environmental problems, as it can negatively influence, e.g., habitats for macrozoobenthos, fish reproduction and groundwater recharge. This especially applies in the case of silt-sized SP. Until now, most research has dealt with coarse SP and was carried out in laboratory systems. The aims of this study are to examine (1) whether physical clogging by silt-sized SP exhibits the same dynamics and patterns as by sand-sized SP, and (2) the comparability of results between laboratory and field experiments...
September 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917985/the-effect-of-particle-shape-on-cellular-interaction-and-drug-delivery-applications-of-micro-and-nanoparticles
#7
REVIEW
Anil B Jindal
Encapsulation of therapeutic agents in nanoparticles offers several benefits including improved bioavailability, site specific delivery, reduced toxicity and in vivo stability of proteins and nucleotides over conventional delivery options. These benefits are consequence of distinct in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profile of nanoparticles, which is dictated by the complex interplay of size, surface charge and surface hydrophobicity. Recently, particle shape has been identified as a new physical parameter which has exerted tremendous impact on cellular uptake and biodistribution, thereby in vivo performance of nanoparticles...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917929/development-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-chitosan-hybrid-micro-and-macroparticles-for-encapsulation-of-probiotic-bacteria
#8
P Singh, B Medronho, L Alves, G J da Silva, M G Miguel, B Lindman
Novel carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid micro- and macroparticles were successfully prepared in aqueous media either by drop-wise addition or via nozzle-spray methods. The systems were either physically or chemically crosslinked using genipin as the reticulation agent. The macroparticles (ca. 2mm) formed are found to be essentially of the core-shell type, while the microparticles (ca. 5μm) are apparently homogeneous. The crosslinked particles are robust, thermally resistant and less sensitive to pH changes...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917891/pickering-emulsifiers-based-on-hydrophobically-modified-small-granular-starches-part-i-manufacturing-and-physico-chemical-characterization
#9
A Marefati, B Wiege, N U Haase, M Matos, M Rayner
Small granular starches from rice, quinoa and amaranth were hydrophobized by esterification with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) in an aqueous alkaline slurry to obtain series of modified starches at defined intervals (i.e. 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0%). The physical and the physico-chemical properties of the starch particles were characterized by proximate analysis including protein level, amylose level and dry matter. The shape and size of the starch granules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light scattering...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916396/ultrafine-particle-transport-and-deposition-in-a-large-scale-17-generation-lung-model
#10
Mohammad S Islam, Suvash C Saha, Emilie Sauret, Tevfik Gemci, Ian A Yang, Y T Gu
To understand how to assess optimally the risks of inhaled particles on respiratory health, it is necessary to comprehend the uptake of ultrafine particulate matter by inhalation during the complex transport process through a non-dichotomously bifurcating network of conduit airways. It is evident that the highly toxic ultrafine particles damage the respiratory epithelium in the terminal bronchioles. The wide range of in silico available and the limited realistic model for the extrathoracic region of the lung have improved understanding of the ultrafine particle transport and deposition (TD) in the upper airways...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915042/mode-of-peg-coverage-on-carbon-nanotubes-affects-binding-of-innate-immune-protein-c1q
#11
Agathe Belime, Edmond Gravel, Sophie Brenet, Sarah Ancelet, Charlotte Caneiro, Yanxia Hou, Nicole Thielens, Eric Doris, Wai Li Ling
Surface modification of nanoparticles with poly(ethylene glycol) PEG is used in biomedicines to increase the circulation time of the particles after intravenous injection. Here, we study the interaction of PEG-covered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the serum complement protein C1q. Besides being the target-recognizing unit of the initiating complex for the classical pathway of complement in our innate immune system, C1q is involved in a range of important physiological processes. We modified the surface of multi-walled CNTs with covalently grafted PEG and physically adsorbed PEG...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912579/interference-exact-radiative-transfer-equation
#12
Mikko Partanen, Teppo Häyrynen, Jani Oksanen
The Purcell effect, i.e., the modification of the spontaneous emission rate by optical interference, profoundly affects the light-matter coupling in optical resonators. Fully describing the optical absorption, emission, and interference of light hence conventionally requires combining the full Maxwell's equations with stochastic or quantum optical source terms accounting for the quantum nature of light. We show that both the nonlocal wave and local particle features associated with interference and emission of propagating fields in stratified geometries can be fully captured by local damping and scattering coefficients derived from the recently introduced quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) framework...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906467/underlying-physics-of-conductive-polymer-composites-and-force-sensing-resistors-fsrs-under-static-loading-conditions
#13
Leonel Paredes-Madrid, Carlos A Palacio, Arnaldo Matute, Carlos A Parra Vargas
Conductive polymer composites are manufactured by randomly dispersing conductive particles along an insulating polymer matrix. Several authors have attempted to model the piezoresistive response of conductive polymer composites. However, all the proposed models rely upon experimental measurements of the electrical resistance at rest state. Similarly, the models available in literature assume a voltage-independent resistance and a stress-independent area for tunneling conduction. With the aim of developing and validating a more comprehensive model, a test bench capable of exerting controlled forces has been developed...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906144/fabrication-of-multicomponent-amorphous-bufadienolides-nanosuspension-with-wet-milling-improves-dissolution-and-stability
#14
Wenbao Zuo, Wenjing Qu, Na Li, Rui Yu, Yanhui Hou, Yanhua Liu, Guojing Gou, Jianhong Yang
Multicomponent formulations have attracted increasing attention because of their favourable patient compliance and greater therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was to develop a multicomponent nanosuspension formulation of bufadienolides, the antitumor components of a traditional Chinese medicine, toad venom, using a wet-milling technique to improve its dissolution behaviour. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were chosen as the combined stabilizers of the nanosuspension. A Taguchi orthogonal array design was used for this study to optimize the formulation and process parameters...
September 14, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903066/development-of-fine-solid-crystal-suspension-with-enhanced-solubility-stability-and-aerosolization-performance-for-dry-powder-inhalation
#15
Ling Lin, Guilan Quan, Tingting Peng, Zhengwei Huang, Vikramjeet Singh, Ming Lu, Chuanbin Wu
Dry powder for inhalation (DPI) is an attractive approach for the treatment of local lung diseases. However, the application of drugs with poor water solubility is often limited due to the dissolution obstacles in the fluid layer of the lung lining. In this study, fine solid-crystal suspension (FSCS) was proposed as a solvent-free method to improve the solubility of a drug with poor solubility (itraconazole) and achieve high deposition efficiency simultaneously. The FSCS, in which the crystalline drug particle was highly dispersed in the crystalline excipient, was initially prepared as drug-excipient extrudate by hot melt extrusion, followed by jet milling into fine particles...
September 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902158/controlled-shrinkage-of-expanded-glass-particles-in-metal-syntactic-foams
#16
Kadhim Al-Sahlani, Mehdi Taherishargh, Erich Kisi, Thomas Fiedler
Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG) with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles' strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF). The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20-0.26 g/cm³), the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1...
September 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898951/biocompatible-hollow-polymeric-particles-produced-by-a-mild-solvent-and-template-free-strategy
#17
Eustolia Rodríguez-Velázquez, Pablo Taboada, Manuel Alatorre-Meda
Macroscopic hollow polymeric particles are attractive materials for various applications such as surgery, food industry, agriculture, etc. However, protocols reporting their synthesis have hitherto made use of organic solvents and/or sacrificial templates, compromising the encapsulation of different bioactive compounds and the process yield. Here, millimeter-size, hollow polymeric particles were synthesized, for the first time, in a solvent- and template free manner onto superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The particles were produced upon assembly and double superficial crosslinking of liquid droplets of DNA and methacrylamide chitosan aqueous solutions (CH:MA), leading to liquid-core particles with a hardened hydrogel shell...
August 31, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898734/a-facile-bio-based-novel-approach-for-synthesis-of-covalently-functionalized-graphene-nanoplatelet-nano-coolants-toward-improved-thermo-physical-and-heat-transfer-properties
#18
Rad Sadri, Maryam Hosseini, S N Kazi, Samira Bagheri, Ali H Abdelrazek, Goodarz Ahmadi, Nashrul Zubir, Roslina Ahmad, N I Z Abidin
In this study, we synthesized covalently functionalized graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) aqueous suspensions that are highly stable and environmentally friendly for use as coolants in heat transfer systems. We evaluated the heat transfer and hydrodynamic properties of these nano-coolants flowing through a horizontal stainless steel tube subjected to a uniform heat flux at its outer surface. The GNPs functionalized with clove buds using the one-pot technique. We characterized the clove-treated GNPs (CGNPs) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892153/effects-of-ultra-high-pressure-homogenization-and-hydrocolloids-on-physicochemical-and-storage-properties-of-soymilk
#19
Dipaloke Mukherjee, Sam K C Chang, Yin Zhang, Soma Mukherjee
This study investigated the efficacy of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) in the presence or absence of added hydrocolloids for enhancing a range of physic-chemical properties of soymilk-which are important for extending shelf-life. Soymilk preparations containing different concentrations (0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.05%, w/v) of 2 different hydrocolloids (κ-carrageenan, κ-C, and gum Arabic, GA) were subjected to 3 different levels of UHPH (70, 140, and 210 MPa) and stored in sterilized containers at 4 °C...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891761/acute-and-physical-effects-of-water-based-drilling-mud-in-the-marine-copepod-calanus-finmarchicus
#20
Julia Farkas, Camilla Yvonne Bådsvik, Dag Altin, Trond Nordtug, Anders Johny Olsen, Bjørn Henrik Hansen
The aim of this study was to investigate impacts of fine particulate fraction of a commonly used barite-containing drilling mud on the pelagic filter feeding copepod Calanus finmarchicus. The results show that the tested drilling mud had a low acute toxicity on C. finmarchicus (LC50 > 320 mg/L) and that the observed toxicity was likely caused by dissolved constituents in the mud and not the particle phase containing the weighting agent barite. Further, animals were exposed to drilling mud at a concentration of 10 mg/L for 168 hr followed by a 100 hr recovery phase...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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