keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Particle physics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102416/phase-separation-in-driven-granular-gases-exploring-the-elusive-character-of-nonequilibrium-steady-states
#1
S Herminghaus, M G Mazza
The emergence of patterns and phase separation in many-body systems far from thermal equilibrium is discussed using the example of driven granular gases. It is shown that phase separation follows a similar mechanism as in the systems of active Brownian particles. Depending on the quantities chosen for observation, it may or may not be easy to find functionals analogous to the free energy in equilibrium statistical physics. We argue that although such functionals can always be derived from the dynamics, it is of only limited value for predicting relevant aspects of the nonequilibrium steady state of the system...
January 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101956/aggregates-finding-structures-in-simulation-results-of-solutions
#2
Carlos E S Bernardes
Molecular Dynamic and Monte-Carlo simulations are widely used to investigate the structure and physical properties of solids and liquids at a molecular level. Tools to extract the most relevant information from the obtained results are, however, in considerable demand. One such tool, the program AGGREGATES, is described in this work. Based on distance criteria, the program searches trajectory files for the presence of molecular clusters and computes several statistical and shape properties for these structures...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100492/dynamic-assembly-of-ultrasoft-colloidal-networks-enables-cell-invasion-within-restrictive-fibrillar-polymers
#3
Alison M Douglas, Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Michelle K Gaines, L Andrew Lyon, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Thomas H Barker
In regenerative medicine, natural protein-based polymers offer enhanced endogenous bioactivity and potential for seamless integration with tissue, yet form weak hydrogels that lack the physical robustness required for surgical manipulation, making them difficult to apply in practice. The use of higher concentrations of protein, exogenous cross-linkers, and blending synthetic polymers has all been applied to form more mechanically robust networks. Each relies on generating a smaller network mesh size, which increases the elastic modulus and robustness, but critically inhibits cell spreading and migration, hampering tissue regeneration...
January 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099848/biophysical-attributes-of-cpg-presentation-control-tlr9-signaling-to-differentially-polarize-systemic-immune-responses
#4
Jardin A Leleux, Pallab Pradhan, Krishnendu Roy
It is currently unknown whether and how mammalian pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) respond to biophysical patterns of pathogen-associated molecular danger signals. Using synthetic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) that mimic physical properties of bacteria or large viruses, we have discovered that the quality and quantity of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling by CpG in mouse dendritic cells (mDCs) are uniquely dependent on biophysical attributes; specifically, the surface density of CpG and size of the presenting PLP...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098156/sixfold-improved-single-particle-measurement-of-the-magnetic-moment-of-the-antiproton
#5
H Nagahama, C Smorra, S Sellner, J Harrington, T Higuchi, M J Borchert, T Tanaka, M Besirli, A Mooser, G Schneider, K Blaum, Y Matsuda, C Ospelkaus, W Quint, J Walz, Y Yamazaki, S Ulmer
Our current understanding of the Universe comes, among others, from particle physics and cosmology. In particle physics an almost perfect symmetry between matter and antimatter exists. On cosmological scales, however, a striking matter/antimatter imbalance is observed. This contradiction inspires comparisons of the fundamental properties of particles and antiparticles with high precision. Here we report on a measurement of the g-factor of the antiproton with a fractional precision of 0.8 parts per million at 95% confidence level...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098049/influence-of-barley-grain-particle-size-and-treatment-with-citric-acid-on-digestibility-ruminal-fermentation-and-microbial-protein-synthesis-in-holstein-calves
#6
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, A Z M Salem, S López
Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid...
January 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097509/revealing-pmdi-spray-initial-conditions-flashing-atomisation-and-the-effect-of-ethanol
#7
Nicholas Mason-Smith, Daniel J Duke, Alan L Kastengren, Daniela Traini, Paul M Young, Yang Chen, David A Lewis, Daniel Edgington-Mitchell, Damon Honnery
PURPOSE: Sprays from pressurised metered-dose inhalers are produced by a transient discharge of a multiphase mixture. Small length and short time scales have made the investigation of the governing processes difficult. Consequently, a deep understanding of the physical processes that govern atomisation and drug particle formation has been elusive. METHODS: X-ray phase contrast imaging and quantitative radiography were used to reveal the internal flow structure and measure the time-variant nozzle exit mass density of 50 µL metered sprays of HFA134a, with and without ethanol cosolvent...
January 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097218/energy-penetration-into-arrays-of-aligned-nanowires-irradiated-with-relativistic-intensities-scaling-to-terabar-pressures
#8
Clayton Bargsten, Reed Hollinger, Maria Gabriela Capeluto, Vural Kaymak, Alexander Pukhov, Shoujun Wang, Alex Rockwood, Yong Wang, David Keiss, Riccardo Tommasini, Richard London, Jaebum Park, Michel Busquet, Marcel Klapisch, Vyacheslav N Shlyaptsev, Jorge J Rocca
Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 10(8) J cm(-3) and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095671/use-of-calculated-physicochemical-properties-to-enhance-quantitative-response-when-using-charged-aerosol-detection
#9
Max W Robinson, Alan P Hill, Simon A Readshaw, John C Hollerton, Richard J Upton, Sean M Lynn, Steve C Besley, Bob J Boughtflower
Universal quantitative detection without the need for analyte reference standards would offer substantial benefits in many areas of analytical science. The quantitative capability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with charged aerosol detection (CAD) was investigated for 50 compounds with a wide range of physical and chemical properties. It is widely believed that CAD is a mass detector. Quantification of the 50 compounds using a generic calibrant and mass calibration achieved an average error of 11...
January 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094902/characteristics-of-dust-particles-abraded-from-pesticide-treated-seeds-2-density-porosity-and-chemical-content
#10
Dieter Foque, Wouter Devarrewaere, Pieter Verboven, David Nuyttens
BACKGROUND: Apart from particle size, drift of abraded seed particles during sowing is mainly affected by two other physical properties viz. particle shape and envelope density. The impact of these abraded seed particles on the environment is highly dependable on their active ingredient content. In this study, the envelope density and chemical content of dust abraded from seeds was determined as a function of particle size for six seed species. RESULTS: Envelope density and active ingredient content both change as a of function of particle size...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094901/characteristics-of-dust-particles-abraded-from-pesticide-treated-seeds-1-size-distribution-using-different-measuring-techniques
#11
Dieter Foque, Ingrid Zwertvaegher, Wouter Devarrewaere, Pieter Verboven, David Nuyttens
BACKGROUND: Particle size is one of the most important properties affecting the driftability and behavior of dust particles abraded from pesticide dressed seeds during sowing. Three particle sizing techniques were used determine the particle size distribution of dust abraded from seeds from six different species. RESULTS: Important differences in dust particle size distribution between species were observed with the finest dust for rapeseed and the coarsest dust for barley...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094511/synthesis-of-carboxylated-graphenes-by-the-kolbe-schmitt-process
#12
Alex Yong Sheng Eng, Zdeněk Sofer, David Sedmidubský, Martin Pumera
Graphene oxide is an oxidized form of graphene containing a large variety of oxygen groups. Although past models have suggested carboxylic acids to be present in significant amounts, recent evidence has shown otherwise. Toward the production of carboxyl-graphene, a synthetic method is presented herein based on the Kolbe-Schmitt process. A modified procedure of heating graphite oxide in the presence of a KOH/CaO mixture results in up to 11 atom % of carboxylic groups. The graphite oxide starting material and reaction temperature were investigated as two important factors, where a crumpled morphology of graphite oxide flakes and a lower 220 °C temperature preferentially led to greater carboxyl functionalization...
January 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094243/linear-and-ultrafast-nonlinear-plasmonics-of-single-nano-objects
#13
Aurelien Crut, Paolo Maioli, Fabrice Vallee, Natalia Del Fatti
Single-particle optical investigations have greatly improved our understanding of the fundamental properties of nano-objects, avoiding the spurious inhomogeneous effects that affect ensemble experiments. Correlation with high-resolution imaging techniques providing morphological information (e.g., electron microscopy) allows a quantitative interpretation of the optical measurements by means of analytical models and numerical simulations. In this topical review, we first briefly recall the principles underlying some of the most commonly used single-particle optical techniques: near-field, dark-field, spatial modulation and photothermal microscopies/spectroscopies...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093584/phase-diagram-and-superconductivity-of-compressed-zirconium-hydrides
#14
Xiao-Feng Li, Zi-Yu Hu, Bing Huang
It is known that pressure can be applied to fundamentally alter the bonding patterns between the chemical elements. By employing an unbiased structure search method based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) methodology, the phase diagram and crystal structures of Zr-H compounds are systematically investigated at a high pressure up to 150 GPa. Interestingly, some unexpectedly stable compounds with unusual chemical and physical properties are predicted to be formed, for example, four stable and metallic species with stoichiometries of ZrH, ZrH2, ZrH3, and ZrH6 are identified for the first time...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089531/predicting-the-particle-size-distribution-of-eroded-sediment-using-artificial-neural-networks
#15
María Paz Lagos-Avid, Carlos A Bonilla
Water erosion causes soil degradation and nonpoint pollution. Pollutants are primarily transported on the surfaces of fine soil and sediment particles. Several soil loss models and empirical equations have been developed for the size distribution estimation of the sediment leaving the field, including the physically-based models and empirical equations. Usually, physically-based models require a large amount of data, sometimes exceeding the amount of available data in the modeled area. Conversely, empirical equations do not always predict the sediment composition associated with individual events and may require data that are not always available...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089270/coordinated-underground-measurements-of-gamma-ray-emitting-radionuclides-for-plasma-physics-research
#16
Faidra Tzika, Mikael Hult, András Fenyvesi, Iulian Bandac, Detlev Degering, Aldo Ianni, Matthias Laubenstein, Anne de Vismes-Ott, Gerd Marissens, Heiko Stroh, Guillaume Lutter, Soohyun Son, Suk-Ho Hong, Jun Young Kim, Junghee Kim, Mun Seung Cheon, Jungmin Jo, Mihály Braun, József Németh, Sándor Zoletnik, Georges Bonheure
Forty-eight samples made of CaF2, LiF and YVO4 were placed inside the KSTAR Tokamak and irradiated by neutrons and charged particles from eight plasma pulses. The aim was to provide information for plasma diagnostics. Due to the short pulse durations, the activities induced in the samples were low and therefore measurements were performed in five low-background underground laboratories. Details of the underground measurements, together with data on the quality control amongst the radiometric laboratories, are presented...
December 24, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088705/ultrasonic-compaction-of-granular-geological-materials
#17
Andrew Feeney, Sakalima Sikaneta, Patrick Harkness, Margaret Lucas
It has been shown that the compaction of granular materials for applications such as pharmaceutical tableting and plastic moulding can be enhanced by ultrasonic vibration of the compaction die. Ultrasonic vibrations can reduce the compaction pressure and increase particle fusion, leading to higher strength products. In this paper, the potential benefits of ultrasonics in the compaction of geological granular materials in downhole applications are explored, to gain insight into the effects of ultrasonic vibrations on compaction of different materials commonly encountered in sub-sea drilling...
January 5, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#18
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088549/redistribution-of-elements-between-wastes-and-organic-bearing-material-in-the-dispersion-train-of-gold-bearing-sulfide-tailings-part-i-geochemistry-and-mineralogy
#19
B Yu Saryg-Ool, I N Myagkaya, I S Kirichenko, M A Gustaytis, O V Shuvaeva, S M Zhmodik, E V Lazareva
Migration and redistribution of elements during prolonged interaction of cyanide wastes with the underlying natural organic-bearing material have been studied in two ~40cm deep cores that sample primary ores and their weathering profile (wastes I and II, respectively) in the dispersion train of gold-bearing sulfide tailings in Siberia. Analytical results of SR-XRF, whole-rock XRF, AAS, CHNS, and SEM measurements of core samples show high K, Sr, Ti, and Fe enrichments and correlation of P2O5 and Mn with LOI and Corg...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088501/a-review-of-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-laboratory-animals
#20
REVIEW
Makoto Ema, Hirokazu Okuda, Masashi Gamo, Kazumasa Honda
We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in laboratory animals. AgNPs showed testicular/sperm toxicity in males and ovarian and embryonic toxicity in females. Maternal injection of AgNPs delayed physical development and impaired cognitive behavior in offspring. Ag was accumulated in the testes after administration of AgNPs. AgNPs were identified in the visceral yolk sac after administration during early gestation in mice...
January 11, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
keyword
keyword
44081
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"