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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154206/a-new-approach-in-separating-microplastics-from-environmental-samples-based-on-their-electrostatic-behavior
#1
Stefanie Felsing, Christian Kochleus, Sebastian Buchinger, Nicole Brennholt, Friederike Stock, Georg Reifferscheid
Numerous studies on microplastics (MPs; Ø < 5 mm) in the aquatic environment have been published, but knowledge about the occurrence and ecological risks of MPs is limited. This is in part because current data on the distribution of MPs are comparable only to a limited extent, due to the many different methods of investigation. In addition, sample preparation is often difficult such that standard procedures are lacking. The aim of this work was to simplify the preparation of different kinds of MP samples...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153519/invited-review-practical-feeding-management-recommendations-to-mitigate-the-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-cattle
#2
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152698/characterization-and-valorization-of-biomass-char-a-comparison-with-biomass-ash
#3
Nikhilesh S Trivedi, Sachin A Mandavgane, Ashish Chaurasia
Organic matter derived from living, or recently living plant and animal, which can be used as fuel is called as biomass. It includes wood and agricultural waste such as dead plant etc. In India, majority of population depends largely upon agriculture as their primary source of income. Following every harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. It is mostly discarded as "agro waste"; however, recently, several uses of biomass and its derivatives have been reported. Thermochemical processing of biomass in absence of oxygen produces biomass char and flue gases which are of economic importance...
November 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152630/noise-and-diffusion-of-a-vibrated-self-propelled-granular-particle
#4
Lee Walsh, Caleb G Wagner, Sarah Schlossberg, Christopher Olson, Aparna Baskaran, Narayanan Menon
Granular materials are an important physical realization of active matter. In vibration-fluidized granular matter, both diffusion and self-propulsion derive from the same collisional forcing, unlike many other active systems where there is a clean separation between the origin of single-particle mobility and the coupling to noise. Here we present experimental studies of single-particle motion in a vibrated granular monolayer, along with theoretical analysis that compares grain motion at short and long time scales to the assumptions and predictions, respectively, of the active Brownian particle (ABP) model...
November 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151350/tracking-of-fluorescently-labeled-polymer-particles-reveals-surface-effects-during-shear-controlled-aggregation
#5
Stefano Caimi, Alberto Cingolani, Baptiste Jaquet, Marc Siggel, Marco Lattuada, Massimo Morbidelli
Surface chemistry is believed to be the key parameter affecting the aggregation and breakage of colloidal suspensions when subjected to shear. To date, only a few works dealt with the understanding of the role of the physical and chemical properties of the particles' surface upon aggregation under shear. Previous studies suggested that surface modifications strongly affect polymer particles' adhesion, but it resulted very challenging to demonstrate this effect and monitor these alterations upon prolonged exposure to shear forces...
November 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150150/biocompatible-hollow-polymeric-particles-produced-by-a-mild-solvent-and-template-free-strategy
#6
Eustolia Rodríguez-Velázquez, Pablo Taboada, Manuel Alatorre-Meda
Macroscopic hollow polymeric particles are attractive materials for various applications such as surgery, food industry, agriculture, etc. However, protocols reporting their synthesis have hitherto made use of organic solvents and/or sacrificial templates, compromising the encapsulation of different bioactive compounds and the process yield. Here, millimeter-size, hollow polymeric particles were synthesized, for the first time, in a solvent- and template free manner onto superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The particles were produced upon assembly and double superficial crosslinking of liquid droplets of DNA and methacrylamide chitosan aqueous solutions (CH:MA), leading to liquid-core particles with a hardened hydrogel shell...
November 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149817/high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-dysfunction-and-future-of-hdl
#7
Sibel Ertek
Although high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely proportional to cardiovascular risk in many studies, recent pharmacological interventional studies with HDL-C raising strategies did not show a benefit in terms of vascular events. The HDL particle is heterogenous with anti-atherogenic functions and non-vascular effects. Many factors affect HDL components and may either cause compositional changes, post-translational modifications of proteins, or alter lipids and other cargo molecules; generally these factors cause more than one of these changes, resulting in functional differences...
November 16, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149812/architectures-and-mechanical-properties-of-drugs-and-complexes-of-surface-active-compounds-at-air-water-and-oil-water-interfaces
#8
Dipak K Sarker
BACKGROUND: Drugs can represents a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and the opposite a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149066/nanostructured-mno%C3%A2-as-electrode-materials-for-energy-storage
#9
REVIEW
Christian M Julien, Alain Mauger
Manganese dioxides, inorganic materials which have been used in industry for more than a century, now find great renewal of interest for storage and conversion of energy applications. In this review article, we report the properties of MnO₂ nanomaterials with different morphologies. Techniques used for the synthesis, structural, physical properties, and electrochemical performances of periodic and aperiodic frameworks are discussed. The effect of the morphology of nanosized MnO₂ particles on their fundamental features is evidenced...
November 17, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149065/calcined-chitosan-supported-layered-double-hydroxides-an-efficient-and-recyclable-adsorbent-for-the-removal-of-fluoride-from-an-aqueous-solution
#10
Hanjun Wu, Huali Zhang, Qingxue Yang, Dongsheng Wang, Weijun Zhang, Xiaofang Yang
In this work, calcined chitosan-supported layered double hydroxides (CSLDO) were synthesized through a co-precipitation method that restrained the particles' aggregation of LDHs and exhibited huge specific surface areas, which can enhance the fluoride adsorption capacity. CSLDOs were characterized by physical and chemical methods and used for fluoride adsorption in an aqueous solution. The results indicated that the nanoparticles were constructed first and then assembled to form a porous and layered structure, and chitosan-supported layered double hydroxides (CSLDHs) calcined at 400 °C (CSLDO400) showed the highest specific surface area of 116...
November 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148717/raman-spectroscopy-of-single-light-absorbing-carbonaceous-particles-levitated-in-air-using-an-annular-laser-beam
#11
Masaru Uraoka, Keisuke Maegawa, Shoji Ishizaka
A laser trapping technique is a powerful means to investigate the physical and chemical properties of single aerosol particles in a non-contact manner. However, optical trapping of strongly light-absorbing particles such as black carbon or soot is quite difficult because the repulsive force caused by heat is orders of magnitude larger than the attractive force of radiation pressure. In this study, a laser trapping and Raman microspectroscopy system using an annular laser beam was constructed to achieve non-contact levitation of single light-absorbing particles in air...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147146/relationships-between-short-and-fast-brain-timescales
#12
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147027/trapping-pinning-of-colloidal-microspheres-over-glass-substrate-using-surface-features
#13
Praneet Prakash, Manoj Varma
Suspensions of micro/nano particles made of Polystyrene, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Silicon dioxide etc. have been a standard model system to understand colloidal physics. These systems have proved useful insights into phenomena such as self-assembly. Colloidal model systems are also extensively used to simulate many condensed matter phenomena such as dynamics in a quenched disordered system and glass transition. A precise control of particles using optical or holographic tweezers is essential for such studies...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144733/a-mechanism-for-symmetry-breaking-and-shape-control-in-single-crystal-gold-nanorods
#14
Michael J Walsh, Wenming Tong, Hadas Katz-Boon, Paul Mulvaney, Joanne Etheridge, Alison M Funston
The phenomenon of symmetry breaking-in which the order of symmetry of a system is reduced despite manifest higher-order symmetry in the underlying fundamental laws-is pervasive throughout science and nature, playing a critical role in fields ranging from particle physics and quantum theory to cosmology and general relativity. For the growth of crystals, symmetry breaking is the crucial step required to generate a macroscopic shape that has fewer symmetry elements than the unit cell and/or seed crystal from which it grew...
November 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144529/driving-dynamic-colloidal-assembly-using-eccentric-self-propelled-colloids
#15
Zhan Ma, Qun-Li Lei, Ran Ni
Designing protocols to dynamically direct the self-assembly of colloidal particles has become an important direction in soft matter physics because of promising applications in the fabrication of dynamic responsive functional materials. Here, using computer simulations, we found that in the mixture of passive colloids and eccentric self-propelled active particles, when the eccentricity and self-propulsion of active particles are high enough, the eccentric active particles can push passive colloids to form a large dense dynamic cluster, and the system undergoes a novel dynamic demixing transition...
November 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143840/nonaffine-deformation-and-tunable-yielding-of-colloidal-assemblies-at-the-air-water-interface
#16
Armando Maestro, Alessio Zaccone
Silica nanoparticles trapped at the air-water interface form a 2D solid state with amorphous order. We propose a theoretical model to describe how this solid-like state deforms under a shear strain ramp up to and beyond a yielding point which leads to plastic flow. The model accounts for all the particle-level and many-body physics of the system: nonaffine displacements, local connectivity and its evolution in terms of cage-breaking, and interparticle interactions mediated by the particle chemistry and colloidal forces...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143785/waterborne-polyurethane-coatings-with-covalently-linked-black-dye-sudan-black-b
#17
Tao Wang, Wei Sun, Xingyuan Zhang, Haiyan Xu, Fei Xu
Colored waterborne polyurethanes have been widely used in paintings, leathers, textiles, and coatings. Here, a series of black waterborne polyurethanes (WPUs) with different ratios of black dye, Sudan Black B (SDB), were prepared by step-growth polymerization. WPU emulsions as obtained exhibit low particle sizes and remarkable storage stability at the same time. At different dye loadings, essential structural, statistical and thermal properties are characterized. FTIR (fourier transform infrared) spectra indicate that SDB is covalently linked into waterborne polyurethane chains...
October 28, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141107/metal-transformation-as-a-strategy-for-bacterial-detoxification-of-heavy-metals
#18
Ashraf M M Essa, Mohamed A Al Abboud, Sayeed I Khatib
Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140254/semiconductor-of-spinons-from-ising-band-insulator-to-orthogonal-band-insulator
#19
Tohid Farajollahpour, Seyed Akbar Jafari
We use ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) The insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139323/jaboticaba-plinia-peruviana-extract-nanoemulsions-development-stability-and-in-vitro-antioxidant-activity
#20
Letícia Mazzarino, Heloísa da Silva Pitz, Ana Paula Lorenzen Voytena, Adriana Carla Dias Trevisan, Rosa Maria Ribeiro-Do-Valle, Marcelo Maraschin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to develop and characterize nanoemulsions containing jaboticaba extract (Plinia peruviana) aiming pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. METHODS: Nanoemulsions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using different concentrations of components (oil, surfactant, and extract) and homogenization pressures, in order to optimize the preparation conditions. Both unloaded and extract-loaded nanoemulsions were characterized according their size, polydispersity, zeta potential, pH, morphology, and physical stability...
November 15, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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