Read by QxMD icon Read

Particle physics

B Silva, C Sánchez Muñoz, D Ballarini, A González-Tudela, M de Giorgi, G Gigli, K West, L Pfeiffer, E Del Valle, D Sanvitto, F P Laussy
The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Syed Muhammad Hassan Shah, Farhat Ullah, Shahzeb Khan, Syed Muhammad Mukarram Shah, Marcel de Matas, Zahid Hussain, Muhammad Usman Minhas, Naser M AbdEl-Salam, Khaled Hafez Assi, Mohammad Isreb
Artemether (ARTM) is a very effective antimalarial drug with poor solubility and consequently low bioavailability. Smart nanocrystals of ARTM with particle size of 161±1.5 nm and polydispersity index of 0.172±0.01 were produced in <1 hour using a wet milling technology, Dena(®) DM-100. The crystallinity of the processed ARTM was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. The saturation solubility of the ARTM nanocrystals was substantially increased to 900 µg/mL compared to the raw ARTM in water (145...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Alan L Myers, Yanping Zhang, Jitesh D Kawedia, Brandon R Shank, Melissa A Deaver, Mark A Kramer
PURPOSE: The chemical stability and physical compatibility of tacrolimus i.v. infusion solutions prepared in Excel bags and stored at 23 or 4 °C for up to nine days were studied. METHODS: Tacrolimus admixtures (2, 4, and 8 μg/mL) were prepared in Excel bags using 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23 °C without protection from light or at 4 °C in the dark. Test samples were withdrawn from triplicate bag solutions immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days)...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Karina I R Teixeira, Maria E Cortés, Robson A S Santos, Fábio de Oliveira, Ruben D Sinisterra
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of the KR12 peptide complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-βCd) in vitro. The KR12:Hp-βCd composition was evaluated for particle size and its zeta (ζ)-potential in the presence and absence of cells. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis for the peptide alone or associated was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
Chih-Chia Cheng, Mei-Chih Liang, Zhi-Sheng Liao, Jyun-Jie Huang, Duu-Jong Lee
Simple construction and manipulation of low-molecular-weight supramolecular nanogels, based on the introduction of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions, with the desired physical properties to achieve effective and safe delivery of drugs for cancer therapy remain highly challenging. Herein, a novel supramolecular oligomer cytosine (Cy)-polypropylene glycol containing self-complementary multiple hydrogen-bonded Cy moieties is developed, which undergoes spontaneous self-assembly to form nanosized particles in an aqueous environment...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Timothy Z Chang, Samantha S Stadmiller, Erika Staskevicius, Julie A Champion
Nanoparticle vaccine delivery platforms are a promising technology for enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. Protein nanoparticles (PNPs), made entirely from antigen, have been shown to induce protective immune responses against influenza. However, the fundamental mechanisms by which PNPs enhance component protein immunogenicity are not understood. Here, we investigate the role of size and coating of model ovalbumin (OVA) PNPs on particle uptake and trafficking, as well as on inflammation and maturation factor expression in dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro...
December 5, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Ngoc Q Vuong, Patrick Goegan, Francesco De Rose, Dalibor Breznan, Errol M Thomson, Julie S O'Brien, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Andrew Williams, Renaud Vincent, Premkumari Kumarathasan
In this study, we used cytotoxicity assays, proteomic and gene expression analyses to examine the difference in response of A549 cells to two silica particles that differ in physical properties, namely cristobalite (CR) and α-quartz (Min-U-Sil 5, MI). Cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase release, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and cellular ATP showed that both silica particles could cause cell death, decreased cell proliferation and metabolism in the A549 human lung epithelial cells. While cytotoxicity assays revealed little difference between CR and MI exposures, proteomic and gene expression analyses unveiled both similar and unique molecular changes in A549 cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
S Vijayakumar, B Vaseeharan, B Malaikozhundan, N Gopi, P Ekambaram, R Pachaiappan, P Velusamy, K Murugan, G Benelli, R Suresh Kumar, M Suriyanarayanamoorthy
Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) by green approach following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranged within 50 nm...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yantao Liang, Yongyu Zhang, Yao Zhang, Tingwei Luo, Richard B Rivkin, Nianzhi Jiao
Virio- and pico-plankton mediate important biogeochemical processes and the environmental factors which regulates their dynamics and the virus-host interactions are incompletely known, especially in the deep sea. Here we report on their distributions and relationships with environmental factors at 21 stations covering a latitudinal range (2-23(o) N) in the Western Pacific Ocean. This region is characterized by a complex western boundary current system. Synechococcus, autotrophic picoeukaryotes, heterotrophic prokaryotes and virus-like particles (VLPs) were high (<2...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Gokul Paramasivam, Namitharan Kayambu, Arul Maximus Rabel, Ashok K Sundramoorthy, Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy
Anisotropic nanoparticles have fascinated scientists and engineering communities for over a century because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, continuous advances in design and fabrication of anisotropic nanoparticles have opened new avenues for application in various areas of biology, chemistry and physics. Anisotropic nanoparticles have the plasmon absorption in the visible as well as near-infrared (NIR) region, which enable them to be used for crucial applications such as biological imaging, medical diagnostics and therapy ("theranostics")...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Tsair-Chuan Lin, Kainam Thomas Wong, Macario O Cordel, Joel Paz Ilao
A "triaxial velocity sensor" consists of three uniaxial velocity sensors, which are nominally identical, orthogonally oriented among themselves, and co-centered at one point in space. A triaxial velocity sensor measures the acoustic particle velocity vector, by its three Cartesian components, individually component-by-component, thereby offering azimuth-elevation two-dimensional spatial directivity, despite the physical compactness that comes with the collocation of its three components. This sensing system's azimuth-elevation beam-pattern has been much analyzed in the open literature, but only for an idealized case of the three uniaxial velocity sensors being exactly identical in gain...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Xiang Luo, Yanyan Zhou, Long Bai, Fuguo Liu, Yihui Deng, David Julian McClements
A considerable research effort is focused on developing effective delivery systems for hydrophobic nutraceuticals. β-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid, requires encapsulation to improve its water dispersibility and chemical stability in foods. In this study, β-carotene was encapsulated in oil-in-water nanoemulsions fabricated using high-pressure dual-channel microfluidization. Two types of natural emulsifier, quillaja saponins (Q-Naturale) and whey protein isolate (WPI), were capable of producing nanoemulsions (d32=0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hanna Salminen, Thrandur Helgason, Bjarki Kristinsson, Kristberg Kristbergsson, Jochen Weiss
HYPOTHESIS: This study demonstrates that tuning the shell thickness of lipid particles can modulate their oxidative stability. We hypothesized that a thick crystallized shell around the incorporated fish oil would improve the oxidative stability due to the reduced diffusion of prooxidants and oxygen. EXPERIMENTS: We prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (5%w/w lipid phase, 1.5%w/w surfactant, pH 7) by using different ratios of tristearin as carrier lipid and ω-3 fish oil as incorporated liquid lipid stabilized by high- or low-melting lecithin...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Edwin Barnes, J J Heremans, Djordje Minic
Weyl semimetals are predicted to realize the three-dimensional axial anomaly first discussed in particle physics. The anomaly leads to unusual transport phenomena such as the chiral magnetic effect in which an applied magnetic field induces a current parallel to the field. Here we investigate diagnostics of the axial anomaly based on the fundamental equations of axion electrodynamics. We find that materials with Weyl nodes of opposite chirality and finite energy separation immersed in a uniform magnetic field exhibit an anomaly-induced oscillatory magnetic field with a period set by the chemical potential difference of the nodes...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Stepan Stehlik, Marian Varga, Martin Ledinsky, Daria Miliaieva, Halyna Kozak, Viera Skakalova, Clemens Mangler, Timothy J Pennycook, Jannik C Meyer, Alexander Kromka, Bohuslav Rezek
Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) with a typical size of 5 nm have attracted broad interest in science and technology. Further size reduction of DNDs would bring these nanoparticles to the molecular-size level and open new prospects for research and applications in various fields, ranging from quantum physics to biomedicine. Here we show a controllable size reduction of the DND mean size down to 1.4 nm without significant particle loss and with additional disintegration of DND core agglutinates by air annealing, leading to a significantly narrowed size distribution (±0...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Nocente, D Rigamonti, V Perseo, M Tardocchi, G Boltruczyk, A Broslawski, A Cremona, G Croci, M Gosk, V Kiptily, S Korolczuk, M Mazzocco, A Muraro, E Strano, I Zychor, G Gorini
Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates have been carried out, for the first time, with a compact spectrometer based on a LaBr3 scintillator and silicon photomultipliers. The instrument, which is also insensitive to magnetic fields, has been developed in view of the upgrade of the gamma-ray camera diagnostic for α particle measurements in deuterium-tritium plasmas of the Joint European Torus. Spectra were measured up to 2.9 MHz with a projected energy resolution of 3%-4% in the 3-5 MeV range, of interest for fast ion physics studies in fusion plasmas...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Osmar Dos Reis Antunes Junior, Emilli Antônio, Rubiana Mara Mainardes, Najeh Maissar Khalil
In this study, we developed, characterized and evaluated the antioxidant activity of poly (lactic acid) nanoparticles containing diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release profile, physical stability, polymer-drug interactions and thermal properties. Also, the antioxidant activity of nanoparticles on hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was assessed. Nanoparticles presented a mean size of 210nm, had low polydispersity, zeta potential of -24mV, and an encapsulation efficiency over 90%...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Fernanda Villegas, Gloria Bäckström, Nina Tilly, Anders Ahnesjö
PURPOSE: To explore the use of the frequency of the energy deposition (ED) clusters of different sizes (cluster order, CO) as a surrogate (instead of, e.g., LET) classification of the physical characteristics of ionizing radiation at a nanometer scale, to construct a framework for the calculation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with cell survival as endpoint. METHODS: The frequency of cluster order fCO is calculated by sorting the ED sites generated with the Monte Carlo track structure code LIonTrack into clusters based on a single parameter called the cluster distance dC being the maximum allowed distance between two neighboring EDs belonging to a cluster...
December 2016: Medical Physics
Karina I R Teixeira, Maria E Cortés, Robson A S Santos, Flávio Oliveira, Ruben D Sinisterra
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of the KR12 peptide complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-βCd) in vitro. The KR12:Hp-βCd composition was evaluated for particle size and its zeta (ζ)-potential in the presence and absence of cells. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis for the peptide alone or associated was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"