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Particle physics

Johannes Gooth, Anna C Niemann, Tobias Meng, Adolfo G Grushin, Karl Landsteiner, Bernd Gotsmann, Fabian Menges, Marcus Schmidt, Chandra Shekhar, Vicky Süß, Ruben Hühne, Bernd Rellinghaus, Claudia Felser, Binghai Yan, Kornelius Nielsch
The conservation laws, such as those of charge, energy and momentum, have a central role in physics. In some special cases, classical conservation laws are broken at the quantum level by quantum fluctuations, in which case the theory is said to have quantum anomalies. One of the most prominent examples is the chiral anomaly, which involves massless chiral fermions. These particles have their spin, or internal angular momentum, aligned either parallel or antiparallel with their linear momentum, labelled as left and right chirality, respectively...
July 19, 2017: Nature
Marie-Paule Pileni
The spontaneous assembly of uniform-sized globular entities into ordered arrays is a universal phenomenon observed for objects with diameters spanning a broad range of length scales. These extend from the atomic scale (10(-8) cm), through molecular and macromolecular scales with proteins, synthetic low polymers, and colloidal crystals (∼10(-6) cm), to the wavelength of visible light (∼10(-5) cm). The associated concepts of sphere packing have had an influence in diverse fields ranging from pure geometrical analysis to architectural models or ideals...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Bao Ngoc Tran, Hanh Thuy Nguyen, Jong Oh Kim, Chul Soon Yong, Chien Ngoc Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: Paclitaxel (PTX) has been indicated for treatment of a variety of solid tumors, while artesunate (ART) has been reported to have the potential for use in combination chemotherapy. In this study, the combination of ART and PTX was prepared in nanoparticle to induce the synergic effect and improve therapeutic efficiency in treatment of breast cancer Methods: Dual anti-cancer agents (PTX and ART) were loaded into Poly-D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP) by solvent evaporation technique from oil in water emulsion, stabilized with Tween 80...
July 20, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Jeongan Choi, Seung Chan Hong, Woojin Kim, Jae Hee Jung
We report a novel microfluidic technique for sampling of aerosols into liquids. The two-phase fluid, sampling air and collecting liquid, forms a stratified flow in the curved microchannel. By passing fluids through the curved region, the particles are transferred from air into the liquid phase by the particle centrifugal and drag forces. This microfluidic-based aerosol-into-liquid sampling system, called the MicroSampler, is driven by particle inertial differences. To evaluate the physical particle collection efficiency of the MicroSampler, we used standard polystyrene-latex (PSL) particles ranging in size from 0...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
Ion Mitxelena, Mario Piris, Mauricio Antonio Rodríguez Mayorga
Strongly correlated materials are now under intense development, and Natural Orbital Functional (NOF) methods seem to be able to capture the physics of these systems. We present a benchmark based on the Hubbard model for a class of commonly used NOF approximations (also known as reduced density matrix functional approximations). Our findings highlight the importance of imposing ensemble N -representability conditions in order to obtain consistent results in systems with either weak or strong electronic correlation, such as the Hubbard system with a varying two-particle interaction parameter...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ming Li, Shlomo Magdassi, Yanfeng Gao, Yi Long
Vanadium dioxide (VO2 ) is a widely studied inorganic phase change material, which has a reversible phase transition from semiconducting monoclinic to metallic rutile phase at a critical temperature of τc ≈ 68 °C. The abrupt decrease of infrared transmittance in the metallic phase makes VO2 a potential candidate for thermochromic energy efficient windows to cut down building energy consumption. However, there are three long-standing issues that hindered its application in energy efficient windows: high τc , low luminous transmittance (Tlum ), and undesirable solar modulation ability (ΔTsol )...
July 19, 2017: Small
Liesbeth M C Janssen, Andreas Kaiser, Hartmut Löwen
The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel non-equilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We establish the state diagram and find that short active rods at sufficiently high density exhibit a glass transition toward a disordered state characterized by persistent self-spinning motion. By periodically melting and revitrifying the spherical spinning glass, we observe clear signatures of time-dependent aging and rejuvenation physics...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maxim Verstraeten, Daan Van Hauwermeiren, Kai Lee, Neil Turnbull, David Wilsdon, Mary Am Ende, Pankaj Doshi, Chris Vervaet, Davinia Brouckaert, Séverine T F C Mortier, Ingmar Nopens, Thomas De Beer
Twin-screw wet granulation is gaining increasing interest within the pharmaceutical industry for the continuous manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. However, limited prior fundamental physical understanding has been generated relating to the granule formation mechanisms and kinetics along the internal compartmental length of a twin-screw granulator barrel, and about how process settings, barrel screw configuration and formulation properties such as particle size, density and surface properties influence these mechanisms...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Richard Graves, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal, Yashoda V Pramar
Spironolactone (Aldactone) is a potassium-sparing diuretic used to treat hypertension and heart failure and may also be used to treat edema resulting from kidney disease, low potassium levels, or excess aldosterone. No commercial liquid dosage form of spironolactone exists. An extemporaneously compounded suspension from pure drug powder or commercial tablets would provide an alternative option to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of spironolactone in the PCCA base SuspendIt...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Peng Yu, Hui He, Yuanfang Luo, Demin Jia, Alain Dufresne
Novel hybrid elastomer/regenerated chitin (R-chitin) composites were developed, for the first time, by introducing chitin solution (dissolved in alkaline/urea aqueous solution at low temperature) into rubber latex, and then co-coagulating using ethanol as the co-coagulant. During the rapid co-precipitation process, the chitin solution showed rapid coagulant-induced gelation and a porous chitin phase was generated, while the rubber latex particles were synchronously demulsificated to form the rubbery phase. The two phases interlaced and interpenetrated simultaneously to form an Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) structure, which was evidenced by SEM observation...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dirk Dietzel, Ján Brndiar, Ivan Štich, André Schirmeisen
Structural superlubricity describes the state of virtually frictionless sliding if two atomically flat interfaces are incommensurate, that is, they share no common periodicity. Despite the exciting prospects of this low friction phenomenon, there are physical limitations to the existence of this state. Theory predicts that the contact size is one fundamental limit, where the critical size threshold mainly depends on the interplay between lateral contact compliance and interface interaction energies. Here we provide experimental evidence for this size threshold by measuring the sliding friction force of differently sized antimony particles on MoS2...
July 17, 2017: ACS Nano
Caiyun Yang, Qi Wang, Paulina N Simon, Jinyu Liu, Lincong Liu, Xianzhu Dai, Xiaohui Zhang, Jialiang Kuang, Yasuo Igarashi, Xuejun Pan, Feng Luo
Particle-associated bacteria (PAB) and free-living bacteria (FLB) from aquatic environments during phytoplankton blooms differ in their physical distance from algae. Both the interactions within PAB and FLB community fractions and their relationship with the surrounding environmental properties are largely unknown. Here, by using high-throughput sequencing and network-based analyses, we compared the community and network characteristics of PAB and FLB from a plateau lake during a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
B Yohannes, M Gonzalez, A Abebe, O Sprockel, F Nikfar, S Kiang, A M Cuitiño
A mechanistic particle scale model is proposed for bilayer tablet compaction. Making bilayer tablets involves the application of first layer compaction pressure on the first layer powder and a second layer compaction pressure on entire powder bed. The bonding formed between the first layer and the second layer particles is crucial for the mechanical strength of the bilayer tablet. The bonding and the contact forces between particles of the first layer and second layer are affected by the deformation and rearrangement of particles due to the compaction pressures...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
P J García-Nieto, E García-Gonzalo, J R Alonso Fernández, C Díaz Muñiz
Eutrophication is a water enrichment in nutrients (mainly phosphorus) that generally leads to symptomatic changes and deterioration of water quality and all its uses in general, when the production of algae and other aquatic vegetations are increased. In this sense, eutrophication has caused a variety of impacts, such as high levels of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a). Consequently, anticipate its presence is a matter of importance to prevent future risks. The aim of this study was to obtain a predictive model able to perform an early detection of the eutrophication in water bodies such as lakes...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Linling Miao, Charles D Young, Charles E Sing
Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations are a standard tool for understanding the dynamics of polymers in and out of equilibrium. Quantitative comparison can be made to rheological measurements of dilute polymer solutions, as well as direct visual observations of fluorescently labeled DNA. The primary computational challenge with BD is the expensive calculation of hydrodynamic interactions (HI), which are necessary to capture physically realistic dynamics. The full HI calculation, performed via a Cholesky decomposition every time step, scales with the length of the polymer as O(N(3))...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mariachiara Pastore, Xavier Assfeld, Edoardo Mosconi, Antonio Monari, Thibaud Etienne
We report a theoretical study on the analysis of the relaxed one-particle difference density matrix characterizing the passage from the ground to the excited state of a molecular system, as obtained from time-dependent density functional theory. In particular, this work aims at using the physics contained in the so-called Z-vector, which differentiates between unrelaxed and relaxed difference density matrices to analyze excited states' nature. For this purpose, we introduce novel quantum-mechanical quantities, based on the detachment/attachment methodology, for analysing the Z-vector transformation for different molecules and density functional theory functionals...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
M Hubert, M Labousse, S Perrard
We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We reveal the existence of a sharp transition in the external force field whereby the amplitude dramatically increases. This corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, as would be expected for any type of repulsive force field. We use this approach to rationalize the results obtained by Eddi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240401 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Paul C Bressloff, Sean D Lawley
A fundamental issue in analyzing diffusion in heterogeneous media is interpreting the space dependence of the associated diffusion coefficient. This reflects the well-known Ito-Stratonovich dilemma for continuous stochastic processes with multiplicative noise. In order to resolve this dilemma it is necessary to introduce additional constraints regarding the underlying physical system. Here we introduce a mechanism for generating nonlinear Brownian motion based on a form of temporal disorder. Motivated by switching processes in molecular biology, we consider a Brownian particle that randomly switches between two distinct conformational states with different diffusivities...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Ting Ye, Nhan Phan-Thien, Chwee Teck Lim, Lina Peng, Huixin Shi
In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. The smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a particle-based method, is one of the easy and flexible methods to model such complex structure fluids. It couples the best features of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), with parameters having specific physical meaning (coming from SPH discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations), combined with thermal fluctuations in a mesoscale simulation, in a similar manner to the DPD...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Vladislav V Sorokin, Inna A Belyaeva, Mikhail Shamonin, Elena Yu Kramarenko
The dynamic shear modulus of magnetoactive elastomers containing 70 and 80 mass % of carbonyl iron microparticles is measured as a function of strain amplitude via dynamic torsion oscillations in various magnetic fields. The results are presented in terms of the mechanical energy density and considered in the framework of the conventional Kraus model. The form exponent of the Kraus model is further related to a physical model of Huber et al. [Huber et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 8, 409 (1996)10.1088/0953-8984/8/29/003] that uses a realistic representation for the cluster network possessing fractal structure...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
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