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Stefano Pirandola, Cosmo Lupo
We consider the estimation of noise parameters in a quantum channel, assuming the most general strategy allowed by quantum mechanics. This is based on the exploitation of unlimited entanglement and arbitrary quantum operations, so that the channel inputs may be interactively updated. In this general scenario, we draw a novel connection between quantum metrology and teleportation. In fact, for any teleportation-covariant channel (e.g., Pauli, erasure, or Gaussian channel), we find that adaptive noise estimation cannot beat the standard quantum limit, with the quantum Fisher information being determined by the channel's Choi matrix...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
M A Solís-Prosser, M F Fernandes, O Jiménez, A Delgado, L Neves
Quantum mechanics forbids perfect discrimination among nonorthogonal states through a single shot measurement. To optimize this task, many strategies were devised that later became fundamental tools for quantum information processing. Here, we address the pioneering minimum-error (ME) measurement and give the first experimental demonstration of its application for discriminating nonorthogonal states in high dimensions. Our scheme is designed to distinguish symmetric pure states encoded in the transverse spatial modes of an optical field; the optimal measurement is performed by a projection onto the Fourier transform basis of these modes...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Stefania Sciara, Rosario Lo Franco, Giuseppe Compagno
Schmidt decomposition is a widely employed tool of quantum theory which plays a key role for distinguishable particles in scenarios such as entanglement characterization, theory of measurement and state purification. Yet, its formulation for identical particles remains controversial, jeopardizing its application to analyze general many-body quantum systems. Here we prove, using a newly developed approach, a universal Schmidt decomposition which allows faithful quantification of the physical entanglement due to the identity of particles...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hao Cao, Wenping Ma
Quantum key agreement is an important topic that the shared key must be negotiated equally by all participants, and any nontrivial subset of participants cannot fully determine the shared key. To date, the embed modes of subkey in all the previously proposed quantum key agreement protocols are based on either BB84 or entangled states. The research of the quantum key agreement protocol based on quantum search algorithms is still blank. In this paper, on the basis of investigating the properties of quantum search algorithms, we propose the first quantum key agreement protocol whose embed mode of subkey is based on a quantum search algorithm known as Grover's algorithm...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ylva Ulfsdotter Eriksson, Karin Berg, Ulla Wide Boman, Magnus Hakeberg
In 2009 contract dental care was introduced into Sweden's Public Dental Service under a programme called Dental Care for Health (DCH). Previous research has revealed a possible dilemma whereby dental care professionals had the role of insurance agent foisted upon them, as they were assigned the task of 'selling contracts'. Using qualitative interviews, this study explores how these professionals make sense of contract dental care today. Drawing on the concepts of occupational and organisational professionalism, in combination with the institutional logics perspective, we discern that dental care professionals are entangled in multiple rationalities when reasoning about and dealing with DCH...
March 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
Carlos A Melo-Luna, Cristian E Susa, Andrés F Ducuara, Astrid Barreiro, John H Reina
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Naila El Kechai, Sandrine Geiger, Arianna Fallacara, Ingrid Cañero Infante, Valérie Nicolas, Evelyne Ferrary, Nicolas Huang, Amélie Bochot, Florence Agnely
Hyaluronic acid liposomal gels have previously demonstrated in vivo their great potential for drug delivery. Elucidating their phase behavior and structure would provide a better understanding of their use properties. This work evaluates the microstructure and the phase behavior of mixtures of hyaluronic acid (HA) and liposomes and their impact on the vesicle mobility. HA concentration and surface properties of liposomes (positively or negatively charged, neutral, with a polyethylene glycol corona) are varied while the liposome concentration remains constant...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
John Y Wang, Claryana Araújo-Wang
Direct observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. For very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. A long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. An adult female that was accompanied by a young calf sustained massive damage to several tissue types on her dorsal surface...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Brooklyn Ann Noble, C Mathew Mate, Bart Raeymaekers
Ultra-thin liquid films play a critical role in numerous engineering applications. Although crucial to the design and application of ultra-thin liquid films, the physical mechanisms that govern spreading on the molecular scale are not well-understood, and disagreement among experiments, simulations, and theory remains. We use molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the speed at which the edge of a polymer droplet advances on a flat substrate as a function of various environmental and design parameters. We explain the physical mechanisms that drive and inhibit spreading, identify different spreading regimes, and clarify transitions between spreading regimes...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
F A Cárdenas-López, S Allende, J C Retamal
Classical to quantum decoherence transition, an issue existing for incoherent superposition of Bell-diagonal states is studied for three dimensional bipartite AB mixed quantum systems. Depending on the initial conditions, the dynamics of classical and quantum correlations can exhibit a sudden transition between classical to quantum decoherence. This result is calculated numerically by using entropic and geometric measures of correlations. An alternative explanation for this effect could be obtained by extending the bipartite A ⊗ B qutrit system to a pure tripartite A ⊗ B ⊗ C system...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cedric Vancaeyzeele, Florian Olivier, Gwendoline Petroffe, Sebastien Peralta, Frederic Vidal
We capitalized herein the inherent tortuosity of bicontinuous microemulsion to conceive nanostructured drug delivery devices. First, we show that it is possible to synthesize bicontinuous materials with continuous hydrophilic domains of PNIPAM network entangled with continuous hydrophobic polymer domains, dual phase continuity being imposed by the bicontinuous microemulsions used as soft template. A particular attention is paid to the microemulsion formulations using a surfmer to preserve the one-to-one replication of the bicontinuous nanostructure after polymerization...
March 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cuicui Ding, Ronghui Shi, Zhigong Zheng, Min Zhang
The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the fibril formation of collagen in vitro was studied by turbidity measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The kinetics curves of fibril formation indicated that the rate of collagen fibrillogenesis was decreased with the addition of CMC, meanwhile the final turbidity was obviously increased as the ratio of CMC/collagen reached 30%. The AFM images of collagen-CMC solutions showed that the number of nucleation sites of collagen fibrillogenesis was significantly increased with the presence of CMC, while the diameter of immature collagen fibrils was obviously decreased...
March 16, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
Ivan B Coulamy, Andreia Saguia, Marcelo S Sarandy
We investigate the excitation dynamics at a first-order quantum phase transition (QPT). More specifically, we consider the quench-induced QPT in the quantum search algorithm, which aims at finding out a marked element in an unstructured list. We begin by deriving the exact dynamics of the model, which is shown to obey a Riccati differential equation. Then, we discuss the probabilities of success by adopting either global or local adiabaticity strategies. Moreover, we determine the disturbance of the quantum criticality as a function of the system size...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Tatsuhiko N Ikeda, Takashi Mori, Eriko Kaminishi, Masahito Ueda
Entanglement prethermalization (EP) refers to a quasi-stationary nonequilibrium state of a composite system in which each individual subsystem looks thermal but the entire system remains nonthermal due to quantum entanglement between subsystems. We theoretically study the dynamics of EP following a coherent split of a one-dimensional harmonic potential in which two interacting bosons are confined. This problem is equivalent to that of an interaction quench between two harmonic oscillators. We show that this simple model captures the bare essentials of EP; that is, each subsystem relaxes to an approximate thermal equilibrium, whereas the total system remains entangled...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Phoom Chairatana, Elizabeth M Nolan
Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). HD6 exhibits unprecedented self-assembly properties, which confer an unusual host-defense function...
March 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xiaowei Deng, Caixing Tian, Xiaolong Su, Changde Xie
A quantum communication network can be constructed by distributing a multipartite entangled state to space-separated nodes. Entangled optical beams with highest flying speed and measurable brightness can be used as carriers to convey information in quantum communication networks. Losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy entanglement. The phenomenon of disentanglement will result in the complete failure of quantum communication. Here, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disentanglement and the entanglement revival of tripartite entangled optical beams used in a quantum network...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
E Kermarrec, J Gaudet, K Fritsch, R Khasanov, Z Guguchia, C Ritter, K A Ross, H A Dabkowska, B D Gaulin
A quantum spin liquid is a state of matter characterized by quantum entanglement and the absence of any broken symmetry. In condensed matter, the frustrated rare-earth pyrochlore magnets Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, so-called spin ices, exhibit a classical spin liquid state with fractionalized thermal excitations (magnetic monopoles). Evidence for a quantum spin ice, in which the magnetic monopoles become long range entangled and an emergent quantum electrodynamics arises, seems within reach. The magnetic properties of the quantum spin ice candidate Yb2Ti2O7 have eluded a global understanding and even the presence or absence of static magnetic order at low temperatures is controversial...
March 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Eivind Engebretsen, Tony Joakim Sandset, John Ødemark
BACKGROUND: Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. DISCUSSION: We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences...
March 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
Boyce Tsang, Zachary E Dell, Lingxiang Jiang, Kenneth S Schweizer, Steve Granick
Entanglement in polymer and biological physics involves a state in which linear interthreaded macromolecules in isotropic liquids diffuse in a spatially anisotropic manner beyond a characteristic mesoscopic time and length scale (tube diameter). The physical reason is that linear macromolecules become transiently localized in directions transverse to their backbone but diffuse with relative ease parallel to it. Within the resulting broad spectrum of relaxation times there is an extended period before the longest relaxation time when filaments occupy a time-averaged cylindrical space of near-constant density...
March 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nuriye Buyukkayaci Duman, Senay Topuz, Mehmet Omer Bostanci, Umit Gorkem, Derya Yuksel Kocak, Cihan Togrul, Tayfun Gungor
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed at determining prognostic factors that paved the way for umbilical cord entanglement (UCE) and the effects of UCE upon labor management and fetal health. METHODS: Sixty women who gave term birth with head presentation and received UCE diagnosis following birth composed the case group while another 60 women with the same characteristics who were selected with randomized sampling method and who did not develop UCE comprised the control group...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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