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Bartłomiej Czech, Lampros Lamprou, Samuel McCandlish, James Sully
The Berry connection describes transformations induced by adiabatically varying Hamiltonians. We study how zero modes of the modular Hamiltonian are affected by varying the region that supplies the modular Hamiltonian. In the vacuum of a 2D conformal field theory, global conformal symmetry singles out a unique modular Berry connection, which we compute directly and in the dual three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS_{3}) picture. In certain cases, Wilson loops of the modular Berry connection compute lengths of curves in AdS_{3}, reproducing the differential entropy formula...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Wei Qin, Adam Miranowicz, Peng-Bo Li, Xin-You Lü, J Q You, Franco Nori
We propose an experimentally feasible method for enhancing the atom-field coupling as well as the ratio between this coupling and dissipation (i.e., cooperativity) in an optical cavity. It exploits optical parametric amplification to exponentially enhance the atom-cavity interaction and, hence, the cooperativity of the system, with the squeezing-induced noise being completely eliminated. Consequently, the atom-cavity system can be driven from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling regime for modest squeezing parameters, and even can achieve an effective cooperativity much larger than 100...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
C Leroux, L C G Govia, A A Clerk
We present and analyze a method where parametric (two-photon) driving of a cavity is used to exponentially enhance the light-matter coupling in a generic cavity QED setup, with time-dependent control. Our method allows one to enhance weak-coupling systems, such that they enter the strong coupling regime (where the coupling exceeds dissipative rates) and even the ultrastrong coupling regime (where the coupling is comparable to the cavity frequency). As an example, we show how the scheme allows one to use a weak-coupling system to adiabatically prepare the highly entangled ground state of the ultrastrong coupling system...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ran Chen, Ying Lu, Zhiyong Jiang, Yongfeng Men
The poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) sample was used to investigate the cavitation induced stress-whitening phenomenon during stretching at different temperatures via the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. Two modes of cavitation were found that mode I cavitation activated around yield point followed by mode II cavitation generated in highly oriented state. The critical strain for initiating the mode II cavitation increases with the increase of stretching temperature whereas the critical stress grew steadily in the lower temperature regime (30~60oC) and reached a plateau at 70oC...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Matthieu Fumagalli, Julien Berriot, Benoit de Gaudemaris, Anne Veyland, Jean-Luc Putaux, Sonia Molina-Boisseau, Laurent Heux
Rubber materials with well-dispersed fillers and large mechanical reinforcement have been obtained by melt-processing a diene elastomer matrix and tailored nanocellulose powders having both a high specific surface area and a modified interface. Such filler powders with a specific surface area of 180 m2 g-1 and 100 m2 g-1 have been obtained by freeze-drying suspensions of short needle-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and entangled networks of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in tert-butanol/water, respectively...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Jin Yang, Yang Liu, Hongjie Liu, Heming Zheng, Xiaofeng Li, Lin Zhu, Zhe Wang
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the effects of maternal iodine status and thyroid diseases on adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 2347 pregnant women, who provided 2347 urinary samples tested for iodine, 1082 serum samples tested for thyroid function, and 2347 questionnaires about demographic information. Their pregnancy outcomes were recorded and compared between different urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid function groups...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Zorka Smedarchina, Willem Siebrand, Antonio Fernández-Ramos
A theoretical study is reported of a system of two identical symmetric hydrogen bonds, weakly coupled such that the two mobile protons can move either separately (stepwise) or together (concerted). It is modeled by two equivalent quartic potentials interacting through dipolar and quadrupolar coupling terms. The tunneling Hamiltonian has two imaginary modes (reaction coordinates) and a potential with a single maximum that may turn into a saddle-point of second order and two sets of (inequivalent) minima. Diagonalization is achieved via a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nicklas Walldorf, Ciprian Padurariu, Antti-Pekka Jauho, Christian Flindt
Electron waiting times are an important concept in the analysis of quantum transport in nanoscale conductors. Here we show that the statistics of electron waiting times can be used to characterize Cooper pair splitters that create spatially separated spin-entangled electrons. A short waiting time between electrons tunneling into different leads is associated with the fast emission of a split Cooper pair, while long waiting times are governed by the slow injection of Cooper pairs from a superconductor. Experimentally, the waiting time distributions can be measured using real-time single-electron detectors in the regime of slow tunneling, where conventional current measurements are demanding...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Timothy J Proctor, Paul A Knott, Jacob A Dunningham
We introduce a general model for a network of quantum sensors, and we use this model to consider the following question: When can entanglement between the sensors, and/or global measurements, enhance the precision with which the network can measure a set of unknown parameters? We rigorously answer this question by presenting precise theorems proving that for a broad class of problems there is, at most, a very limited intrinsic advantage to using entangled states or global measurements. Moreover, for many estimation problems separable states and local measurements are optimal, and can achieve the ultimate quantum limit on the estimation uncertainty...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ken Xuan Wei, Chandrasekhar Ramanathan, Paola Cappellaro
Characterizing out-of-equilibrium many-body dynamics is a complex but crucial task for quantum applications and understanding fundamental phenomena. A central question is the role of localization in quenching thermalization in many-body systems and whether such localization survives in the presence of interactions. Probing this question in real systems necessitates the development of an experimentally measurable metric that can distinguish between different types of localization. While it is known that the localized phase of interacting systems [many-body localization (MBL)] exhibits a long-time logarithmic growth in entanglement entropy that distinguishes it from the noninteracting case of Anderson localization (AL), entanglement entropy is difficult to measure experimentally...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Philipp T Dumitrescu, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C Potter
We simulate the dynamics of a disordered interacting spin chain subject to a quasiperiodic time-dependent drive, corresponding to a stroboscopic Fibonacci sequence of two distinct Hamiltonians. Exploiting the recursive drive structure, we can efficiently simulate exponentially long times. After an initial transient, the system exhibits a long-lived glassy regime characterized by a logarithmically slow growth of entanglement and decay of correlations analogous to the dynamics at the many-body delocalization transition...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yan Yan, Yue Ding, Fenfei Leng, David Dunlap, Laura Finzi
Supercoiling can alter the form and base pairing of the double helix and directly impact protein binding. More indirectly, changes in protein binding and the stress of supercoiling also influence the thermodynamic stability of regulatory, protein-mediated loops and shift the equilibria of fundamental DNA/chromatin transactions. For example, supercoiling affects the hierarchical organization and function of chromatin in topologically associating domains (TADs) in both eukaryotes and bacteria. On the other hand, a protein-mediated loop in DNA can constrain supercoiling within a plectonemic structure...
March 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Takahiro Ohkuma, Kurt Kremer, Kostas Daoulas
Understanding properties of polymer alloys with computer simulations frequently requires equilibration of samples comprised of microscopically described long molecules. We present the extension of an efficient hierarchical backmapping strategy, initially developed for homopolymer melts, to equilibrate high-molecular-weight binary blends. These mixtures present significant interest for practical applications and fundamental polymer physics. In our approach, the blend is coarse-grained into models representing polymers as chains of soft blobs...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Zuzanna A Jagiello, Łukasz Dylewski, Dominika Winiarska, Katarzyna M Zolnierowicz, Marcin Tobolka
Birds have been using anthropogenic materials for nest construction for the past few decades. However, there is a trade-off between the use of new nesting material, which is often linked to greater breeding success, and the higher risk of nestling mortality due to entanglement or ingestion of debris. Here, we investigate the incorporation of anthropogenic materials into nests of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, based on a long-term study of a population in Western Poland. We recorded at least one item of debris in 50 and 42% of nests at the egg and nestling stages, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T Kissikov, R Sarkar, M Lawson, B T Bush, E I Timmons, M A Tanatar, R Prozorov, S L Bud'ko, P C Canfield, R M Fernandes, N J Curro
The iron-based high temperature superconductors exhibit a rich phase diagram reflecting a complex interplay between spin, lattice, and orbital degrees of freedom. The nematic state observed in these compounds epitomizes this complexity, by entangling a real-space anisotropy in the spin fluctuation spectrum with ferro-orbital order and an orthorhombic lattice distortion. A subtle and less-explored facet of the interplay between these degrees of freedom arises from the sizable spin-orbit coupling present in these systems, which translates anisotropies in real space into anisotropies in spin space...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Chunxiao Cai, Long Ma, Juan Li, Hui Guo, Kui Liu, Hengxin Sun, Jiangrui Gao
The continuous-variable (CV) orbital angular momentum (OAM) entanglement is very different to the traditional quadrature entanglement. The Stokes-operators directly reflect the character of OAM light. Here, we report the first direct experimental demonstration the Stokes-operator entanglement of continuous-variable OAM entanglement. Generated by transforming quadrature entanglement in the HG01 mode onto the orbital Stokes-operator basis, the entanglement is measured in the Stokes-operator basis using a self-designed detection scheme...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Xuewen Ni, Kai Wang, Kao Wu, Harold Corke, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Fatang Jiang
This study aims to investigate the stability, microstructure and rheological properties of konjac glucomannan (KGM)/zein mixed systems in different mixing ratios. A phase diagram was established by centrifugation and visual observation. KGM/zein could form a stable homogeneous dispersion with appropriate mixing formula, and the particle size in mixed systems increased with increasing zein content. During storage, zein particles increased in size but were homogeneously distributed in the continuous phase of KGM without flocculation as observed by confocal light scanning microscopy...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sai Wang, Yiyang Dong, Xingguo Liang
Although surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique and aptamer technology shows great potential in analytical and biological chemistry, direct capture and analysis of small molecules using SPR remains tough. Detection sensitivity of aptasensor and recognition ability of aptamer is limited, because direct immobilization of aptamer causes large steric hindrance and strand entanglement. Herein, we chose a typical small molecule-tetracycline (Mw. 444.4 g/mol) as a model, and combined aptamer technology, DNA nanostructure, and commercial Biacore T200 SPR instrument to develop a straightforward format SPR aptasensor...
February 27, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jianwei Wang, Stefano Paesani, Yunhong Ding, Raffaele Santagati, Paul Skrzypczyk, Alexia Salavrakos, Jordi Tura, Remigiusz Augusiak, Laura Mančinska, Davide Bacco, Damien Bonneau, Joshua W Silverstone, Qihuang Gong, Antonio Acín, Karsten Rottwitt, Leif K Oxenløwe, Jeremy L O'Brien, Anthony Laing, Mark G Thompson
The ability to control multidimensional quantum systems is key for the investigation of fundamental science and for the development of advanced quantum technologies. We demonstrate a multidimensional integrated quantum photonic platform able to generate, control and analyze high-dimensional entanglement. A programmable bipartite entangled system is realized with dimension up to 15 × 15 on a large-scale silicon-photonics quantum circuit. The device integrates more than 550 photonic components on a single chip, including 16 identical photon-pair sources...
March 8, 2018: Science
Sara Escorihuela, Alberto Tena, Sergey Shishatskiy, Sonia Escolástico, Torsten Brinkmann, Jose Manuel Serra, Volker Abetz
Novel selective ceramic-supported thin polyimide films produced in a single dip coating step are proposed for membrane applications at elevated temperatures. Layers of the polyimides P84® , Matrimid 5218® , and 6FDA-6FpDA were successfully deposited onto porous alumina supports. In order to tackle the poor compatibility between ceramic support and polymer, and to get defect-free thin films, the effect of the viscosity of the polymer solution was studied, giving the entanglement concentration (C*) for each polymer...
March 7, 2018: Membranes
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