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C G Bendixsen
Agriculture is the most dangerous occupation in the United States for both workers and bystanders. Family farms highlight an intersection of domesticity and labor. Agrarian ethics of animal husbandry, land stewardship, and kinship are often conflated and constructed to accommodate unpredictable risks (e.g., weather, financial markets). Here, the right or good agricultural practice is assessed in light of an acute event. Risks of illness and injury are often relegated to the realm of acute unpredictability and accepted as intrinsic to desirable ways of life...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin, José J Ordaz-Ortiz, Camille Alvarado, Brigitte Bouchet, Sylvie Durand, Yves Verhertbruggen, Yves Barrière, Luc Saulnier
Cell walls are comprised of networks of entangled polymers that differ considerably between species, tissues and developmental stages. The cell walls of grasses, a family that encompasses major crops, contain specific polysaccharide structures such as xylans substituted with feruloylated arabinose residues. Ferulic acid is involved in the grass cell wall assembly by mediating linkages between xylan chains and between xylans and lignins. Ferulic acid contributes to the physical properties of cell walls, it is a hindrance to cell wall degradability (thus biomass conversion and silage digestibility) and may contribute to pest resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
David Dasenbrook, Christian Flindt
We propose a dynamical scheme for measuring the full-counting statistics in a mesoscopic conductor using an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The conductor couples capacitively to one arm of the interferometer and causes a phase shift which is proportional to the number of transferred charges. Importantly, the full-counting statistics can be obtained from average current measurements at the outputs of the interferometer. The counting field can be controlled by varying the time delay between two separate voltage signals applied to the conductor and the interferometer, respectively...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
E Shchukin, P van Loock
We present two results which combined enable one to reliably detect multimode, multipartite entanglement in the presence of measurement errors. The first result leads to a method to compute the best (approximated) physical covariance matrix given a measured nonphysical one assuming that no additional information about the measurement is available except the standard deviations from the mean values. The other result states that a widely used entanglement condition is a consequence of negativity of partial transposition...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Y Lin, J P Gaebler, F Reiter, T R Tan, R Bowler, Y Wan, A Keith, E Knill, S Glancy, K Coakley, A S Sørensen, D Leibfried, D J Wineland
We apply laser fields to trapped atomic ions to constrain the quantum dynamics from a simultaneously applied global microwave field to an initial product state and a target entangled state. This approach comes under what has become known in the literature as "quantum Zeno dynamics" and we use it to prepare entangled states of two and three ions. With two trapped ^{9}Be^{+} ions, we obtain Bell state fidelities up to 0.990_{-5}^{+2}; with three ions, a W-state fidelity of 0.910_{-7}^{+4} is obtained. Compared to other methods of producing entanglement in trapped ions, this procedure can be relatively insensitive to certain imperfections such as fluctuations in laser intensity...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
C F Ockeloen-Korppi, E Damskägg, J-M Pirkkalainen, A A Clerk, M J Woolley, M A Sillanpää
The standard quantum limit constrains the precision of an oscillator position measurement. It arises from a balance between the imprecision and the quantum backaction of the measurement. However, a measurement of only a single quadrature of the oscillator can evade the backaction and be made with arbitrary precision. Here we demonstrate quantum backaction evading measurements of a collective quadrature of two mechanical oscillators, both coupled to a common microwave cavity. The work allows for quantum state tomography of two mechanical oscillators, and provides a foundation for macroscopic mechanical entanglement and force sensing beyond conventional quantum limits...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
M Lungova, M Krutyeva, W Pyckhout-Hintzen, A Wischnewski, M Monkenbusch, J Allgaier, M Ohl, M Sharp, D Richter
We have studied the motion of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) arms immersed in PEG matrices of different molecular weight. Employing neutron spin echo spectroscopy in combination with pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR we found the following. (i) For entangled matrices the center of mass mean square displacement (MSD) of the PEG-POSS particles is subdiffusive following a t^{0.56} power law. (ii) The diffusion coefficient as well as the crossover to Fickian diffusion is independent of the matrix molecular weight and takes place as soon as the center of mass has moved a distance corresponding to the particle radius-this holds also for unentangled hosts...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
J Laulan
Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is one of the most controversial pain syndromes of the upper limbs. The controversies revolve around both the diagnosis and treatment of the non-specific or subjective subtypes. Their diagnosis rests on a combination of history, suggestive symptoms and clinical examination. Proximal pain is primarily muscular in origin, while distal symptoms may be the result of intermittent nerve compression and/or myofascial pain syndrome. Stringent clinical criteria are required to confirm the diagnosis of subjective TOS...
June 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
L Chotorlishvili, M Azimi, S Stagraczyński, Z Toklikishvili, M Schüler, J Berakdar
A quantum thermodynamic cycle with a chiral multiferroic working substance such as LiCu_{2}O_{2} is presented. Shortcuts to adiabaticity are employed to achieve an efficient, finite-time quantum thermodynamic cycle, which is found to depend on the spin ordering. The emergent electric polarization associated with the chiral spin order, i.e., the magnetoelectric coupling, renders possible steering of the spin order by an external electric field and hence renders possible an electric-field control of the cycle...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jaya Kumar Alageshan, Yashodhan Hatwalne, Murugappan Muthukumar
When an entangled interpenetrating collection of long flexible polymer chains dispersed in a suitable solvent is cooled to low enough temperatures, thin lamellar crystals form. Remarkably, these lamellae are sectored, with several growth sectors that have differing melting temperatures and growth kinetics, eluding so far an understanding of their origins. We present a theoretical model to explain this six-decade-old challenge by addressing the elasticity of fold surfaces of finite-sized lamella in the presence of disclination-type topological defects arising from anisotropic line tension...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
A Sipahigil, R E Evans, D D Sukachev, M J Burek, J Borregaard, M K Bhaskar, C T Nguyen, J L Pacheco, H A Atikian, C Meuwly, R M Camacho, F Jelezko, E Bielejec, H Park, M Lončar, M D Lukin
Efficient interfaces between photons and quantum emitters form the basis for quantum networks and enable optical nonlinearities at the single-photon level. We demonstrate an integrated platform for scalable quantum nanophotonics based on silicon-vacancy (SiV) color centers coupled to diamond nanodevices. By placing SiV centers inside diamond photonic crystal cavities, we realize a quantum-optical switch controlled by a single color center. We control the switch using SiV metastable states and observe optical switching at the single-photon level...
October 13, 2016: Science
Paula Villa Martín, Jorge Hidalgo, Rafael Rubio de Casas, Miguel A Muñoz
Evolutionary and ecosystem dynamics are often treated as different processes -operating at separate timescales- even if evidence reveals that rapid evolutionary changes can feed back into ecological interactions. A recent long-term field experiment has explicitly shown that communities of competing plant species can experience very fast phenotypic diversification, and that this gives rise to enhanced complementarity in resource exploitation and to enlarged ecosystem-level productivity. Here, we build on progress made in recent years in the integration of eco-evolutionary dynamics, and present a computational approach aimed at describing these empirical findings in detail...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
C H Lee, S M Sapuan, J H Lee, M R Hassan
A study of the melt volume flow rate (MVR) and the melt flow rate (MFR) of kenaf fibre (KF) reinforced Floreon (FLO) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) biocomposites under different temperatures (160-180 °C) and weight loadings (2.16, 5, 10 kg) is presented in this paper. FLO has the lowest values of MFR and MVR. The increment of the melt flow properties (MVR and MFR) has been found for KF or MH insertion due to the hydrolytic degradation of the polylactic acid in FLO. Deterioration of the entanglement density at high temperature, shear thinning and wall slip velocity were the possible causes for the higher melt flow properties...
2016: SpringerPlus
Zehua Tian, Jieci Wang, Jiliang Jing, Andrzej Dragan
Casimir-Polder interaction arises from the vacuum fluctuations of quantum field that depend on spacetime curvature and thus is spacetime-dependent. Here we show how to use the resonance Casimir-Polder interaction (RCPI) between two entangled atoms to detect spacetime curvature. We find that the RCPI of two static entangled atoms in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum depends on the de Sitter spacetime curvature relevant to the temperature felt by the static observer. It is characterized by a 1/L(2) power law decay when beyond a characteristic length scale associated to the breakdown of a local inertial description of the two-atom system...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
U S Dinesh Kumar, Shyam Prasad Shetty, K R Sujay, Murugesh Wali
Left ventricular (LV) mass is a rare condition, of which the most common is thrombus. Echocardiography is a very useful modality of investigation to evaluate the LV mass. We are reporting a case of LV mass presenting with neurological symptom. The diagnosis of this mass was dilemma as the echocardiographic features were favoring tumor as well as thrombi. Mass (a) measuring 3.8 cm × 1.9 cm attached to the left ventricle apex appeared to be pedunculated tumor and mass (b) measuring 2.4 cm × 1.8 cm attached to the chordae of anterior mitral leaflet resembled a thrombus or an embolized tumor entangled in the chordae...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Nicholas Sen, Joanne Leonard, Raul Torres, Jonay Garcia-Luis, Gloria Palou-Marin, Luis Aragón
Sister chromatid intertwines (SCIs), or catenanes, are topological links between replicated chromatids that interfere with chromosome segregation. The formation of SCIs is thought to be a consequence of fork swiveling during DNA replication, and their removal is thought to occur because of the intrinsic feature of type II topoisomerases (Top2) to simplify DNA topology. Here, we report that SCIs are also formed independently of DNA replication during G2/M by Top2-dependent concatenation of cohesed chromatids due to their physical proximity...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Cell
Karel Van Acoleyen, Nick Bultinck, Jutho Haegeman, Michael Marien, Volkher B Scholz, Frank Verstraete
We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
George Zardalidis, Julian Mars, Jürgen Allgaier, Markus Mezger, Dieter Richter, George Floudas
The absence of entanglements, the more compact structure and the faster diffusion in melts of cyclic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains have consequences on their crystallization behavior at the lamellar and spherulitic length scales. Rings with molecular weight below the entanglement molecular weight (M < Me), attain the equilibrium configuration composed from twice-folded chains with a lamellar periodicity that is half of the corresponding linear chains. Rings with M > Me undergo distinct step-like conformational changes to a crystalline lamellar with the equilibrium configuration...
October 4, 2016: Soft Matter
Pauline Valois, Emilie Verneuil, Francois Lequeux, Laurence Talini
When a dry soluble polymer is put in contact with a large quantity of solvent, it swells and forms a transient gel, and eventually, yields a dilute solution of polymers. Everyday lab experience shows that when the molar mass is large, namely tens of times larger than entanglement mass, this dissolution process is slow and difficult and may require stirring. Here, in agreement with previous results, we found that the time needed to turn a dry grain into a dilute solution is not limited by water diffusion in the glassy or semi-crystalline dry polymer, but rather by the life-time of the transient gel made of entangled chains...
October 4, 2016: Soft Matter
Do-Kyun Kwon, Su Jeong Lee, Jae-Min Myoung
In this work, vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod (NR)-based flexible ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were successfully fabricated on a polyimide (PI) substrate with a copper (Cu) nanowire (NW) electrode. To enhance the flexibility and sensing properties, the entangled networks of Cu NWs were applied to UV photodetectors as a flexible electrode. Here, Cu NWs have a high conductivity with a low cost compared to other metals to achieve a Schottky contact with ZnO NRs. Moreover, because of forming a network structure, the surface of the sensing material has a large contact area with oxygen molecules, resulting in a faster response time...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
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