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Peng Yu, Hui He, Yuanfang Luo, Demin Jia, Alain Dufresne
Novel hybrid elastomer/regenerated chitin (R-chitin) composites were developed, for the first time, by introducing chitin solution (dissolved in alkaline/urea aqueous solution at low temperature) into rubber latex, and then co-coagulating using ethanol as the co-coagulant. During the rapid co-precipitation process, the chitin solution showed rapid coagulant-induced gelation and a porous chitin phase was generated, while the rubber latex particles were synchronously demulsificated to form the rubbery phase. The two phases interlaced and interpenetrated simultaneously to form an Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) structure, which was evidenced by SEM observation...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Robin James Smith, Tom Hall
This article develops a situational approach to understanding urban public life and, in particular, the production of urban territories. Our aim is to examine the ways in which city space might be understood as comprising multiple, shifting, mobile and rhythmed territories. We argue that such territories are best understood through attending to their everyday production and negotiation, rather than handling territory as an a priori construct. We develop this argument from the particular case of the street-level politics of homelessness and street care...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
Christine Picard, Patrick Garrigue, Marie-Charlotte Tatry, Véronique Lapeyre, Serge Ravaine, Véronique Schmitt, Valerie Ravaine
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) microgels are soft and deformable particles, which can adsorb at liquid interfaces. In the present paper, we study the two-dimensional organization of charged and quasi-neutral microgels with different cross-linking densities, under compression at the air-water interface and the transfer of the microgel monolayer onto a solid substrate at different surface pressures. At low cross-linking densities, the microgels form highly ordered hexagonal lattices on the solid substrate over large areas, with a unique lattice parameter which decreases continuously as the surface pressure increases...
July 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Joshua B Ruebeck, Jie Lin, Arjendu K Pattanayak
We present an analysis of the entangling quantum kicked top focusing on the few qubit case and the initial condition dependence of the time-averaged entanglement S_{Q} for spin-coherent states. We show a very strong connection between the classical phase space and the initial condition dependence of S_{Q} even for the extreme case of two spin-1/2 qubits. This correlation is not related directly to chaos in the classical dynamics. We introduce a measure of the behavior of a classical trajectory which correlates far better with the entanglement and show that the maps of classical and quantum initial-condition dependence are both organized around the symmetry points of the Hamiltonian...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Vincenzo Alba
In recent years entanglement measures, such as the von Neumann and the Rényi entropies, provided a unique opportunity to access elusive features of quantum many-body systems. However, extracting entanglement properties analytically, experimentally, or in numerical simulations can be a formidable task. Here, by combining the replica trick and the Jarzynski equality we devise an alternative effective out-of-equilibrium protocol for measuring the equilibrium Rényi entropies. The key idea is to perform a quench in the geometry of the replicas...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Zhan Zheng, Hailong Wang, Bing Cheng, Jietai Jing
We investigate different kinds of entanglement in a four-wave mixing process with a degenerate pump. After analyses on means and quantum fluctuations of the three output beams (Stokes, anti-Stokes, and pump), we verify the existence of genuine tripartite entanglement, and quantify bipartite, two-mode, as well as tripartite entanglement with the covariance matrix. We find out that the input pump power and the nonlinear coupling strength are the physical origins to enhance entanglement at a given photon loss.
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Horacio Casini, Eduardo Testé, Gonzalo Torroba
We use strong subadditivity of entanglement entropy, Lorentz invariance, and the Markov property of the vacuum state of a conformal field theory to give new proof of the irreversibility of the renormalization group in d=4 space-time dimensions-the a theorem. This extends the proofs of the c and F theorems in dimensions d=2 and d=3 based on vacuum entanglement entropy, and gives a unified picture of all known irreversibility theorems in relativistic quantum field theory.
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
William Berdanier, Michael Kolodrubetz, Romain Vasseur, Joel E Moore
A quantum critical system described at low energy by a conformal field theory (CFT) and subjected to a time-periodic boundary drive displays multiple dynamical regimes, depending on the drive frequency. We compute the behavior of quantities including the entanglement entropy and Loschmidt echo, confirming analytic predictions from field theory by exact numerics on the transverse field Ising model and demonstrate universality by adding nonintegrable perturbations. The dynamics naturally separate into three regimes: a slow-driving limit, which has an interpretation as multiple quantum quenches with amplitude corrections from CFT; a fast-driving limit, in which the system behaves as though subject to a single quantum quench; and a crossover regime displaying heating...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Liping Yang, Yibin Zhou, Xiangyu Zheng, Haisong Wang, Naifu Wang
Optimization of the preparation of hydroxypropylated, phosphorylated and hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated glutinous rice starch was performed using a response surface methodology comprising three variables at three levels. Multi-linear regression was used to fit the degree of substitution and molar substitution against. Optimal reaction conditions were 9h, 42°C, 10% (hydroxypropylated), 148min, 150°C, 7% (phosphorylated) and 95min, 140°C, 7.8% (hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated). For hydroxypropylated, predicted optimal and experimental molar substitution values were found to be identical: 0...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shi-Qing Wang
Correction for 'Nonlinear rheology of entangled polymers at turning point' by Shi-Qing Wang et al., Soft Matter, 2015, 11, 1454-1458.
July 13, 2017: Soft Matter
Shiwang Cheng, Yuyuan Lu, Gengxin Liu, Shi-Qing Wang
Correction for 'Finite cohesion due to chain entanglement in polymer melts' by Shiwang Cheng et al., Soft Matter, 2016, 12, 3340-3351.
July 13, 2017: Soft Matter
A M Zheltikov
Phase matching is shown to provide a tunable gate that helps discriminate entangled states of light generated by four-wave mixing (FWM) in optical fibers against uncorrelated photons originating from Raman scattering. Two types of such gates are discussed. Phase-matching gates of the first type are possible in the normal dispersion regime, where FWM sidebands can be widely tuned by high-order dispersion management, enhancing the ratio of the entangled-photon output to the Raman noise. The photon-entanglement gates of the second type are created by dual-pump cross-phase-modulation-induced FWM sideband generation and can be tuned by group-velocity mismatch of the pump fields...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christoffer B Møller, Rodrigo A Thomas, Georgios Vasilakis, Emil Zeuthen, Yeghishe Tsaturyan, Mikhail Balabas, Kasper Jensen, Albert Schliesser, Klemens Hammerer, Eugene S Polzik
Quantum mechanics dictates that a continuous measurement of the position of an object imposes a random quantum back-action (QBA) perturbation on its momentum. This randomness translates with time into position uncertainty, thus leading to the well known uncertainty on the measurement of motion. As a consequence of this randomness, and in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the QBA puts a limitation-the so-called standard quantum limit-on the precision of sensing of position, velocity and acceleration...
July 12, 2017: Nature
Chaw Keong Yong, Andrew J Musser, Sam L Bayliss, Steven Lukman, Hiroyuki Tamura, Olga Bubnova, Rawad K Hallani, Aurélie Meneau, Roland Resel, Munetaka Maruyama, Shu Hotta, Laura M Herz, David Beljonne, John E Anthony, Jenny Clark, Henning Sirringhaus
Entanglement of states is one of the most surprising and counter-intuitive consequences of quantum mechanics, with potent applications in cryptography and computing. In organic materials, one particularly significant manifestation is the spin-entangled triplet-pair state, which mediates the spin-conserving fission of one spin-0 singlet exciton into two spin-1 triplet excitons. Despite long theoretical and experimental exploration, the nature of the triplet-pair state and inter-triplet interactions have proved elusive...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Vincenzo Alba, Pasquale Calabrese
Entanglement and entropy are key concepts standing at the foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics. Recently, the study of quantum quenches revealed that these concepts are intricately intertwined. Although the unitary time evolution ensuing from a pure state maintains the system at zero entropy, local properties at long times are captured by a statistical ensemble with nonzero thermodynamic entropy, which is the entanglement accumulated during the dynamics. Therefore, understanding the entanglement evolution unveils how thermodynamics emerges in isolated systems...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
X L Liu, J Aho, S Baldursdottir, A Bohr, H Qu, L P Christensen, J Rantanen, M Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer molecular structure on the electrospinnability and mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous mats (EFMs). Polymers with similar molecular weight but different composition ratios (lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA)) were dissolved in binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF). The intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of polymer solutions were investigated prior to electrospinning. The morphology and mechanical properties of the resulting EFMs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hyunsoo Lee, Jae-Hyeon Ko, Jin Sik Choi, Jin Heui Hwang, Yong-Hyun Kim, Miquel B Salmeron, Jeong Young Park
Common experience shows that friction converts mechanical energy into heat. The first part of this process is the vibrational excitation of the atoms at the interface between the rubbing bodies. The second and necessary part is the effective removal of this vibration energy by transfer from the contact region to the bulk substrate. A fundamental understanding of these phenomena is important for the design of improved tribological contact; however, this is difficult because excitation and dissipation are usually intimately entangled processes...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
I V Inlek, C Crocker, M Lichtman, K Sosnova, C Monroe
Trapped atomic ions are a leading platform for quantum information networks, with long-lived identical qubit memories that can be locally entangled through their Coulomb interaction and remotely entangled through photonic channels. However, performing both local and remote operations in a single node of a quantum network requires extreme isolation between spectator qubit memories and qubits associated with the photonic interface. We achieve this isolation by cotrapping ^{171}Yb^{+} and ^{138}Ba^{+} qubits. We further demonstrate the ingredients of a scalable ion trap network node with two distinct experiments that consist of entangling the mixed species qubit pair through their collective motion and entangling a ^{138}Ba^{+} qubit with an emitted visible photon...
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Mario Krenn, Armin Hochrainer, Mayukh Lahiri, Anton Zeilinger
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.080401.
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
M Müller, H Vural, C Schneider, A Rastelli, O G Schmidt, S Höfling, P Michler
Multiphoton entangled states such as "N00N states" have attracted a lot of attention because of their possible application in high-precision, quantum enhanced phase determination. So far, N00N states have been generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes and by mixing quantum and classical light on a beam splitter. Here, in contrast, we demonstrate superresolving phase measurements based on two-photon N00N states generated by quantum dot single-photon sources making use of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect on a beam splitter...
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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