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Jun Xin, Jian Qi, Jietai Jing
A maximal joint quadrature squeezing of -6.8±0.4  dB is experimentally obtained by a scheme of cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, which gives strong proof about the inseparability or entanglement between output of the twin beams from the system. Here joint quadrature is the difference between the two quadratures of the twin beam output from the cascaded FWM processes. This result is enhanced by about 3.1 dB, compared with the one of the single FWM process. We also study the gain dependence of the entanglement enhancement in this cascaded system...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Nuria Valverde Pérez
Argument This paper focuses on the uses of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in Mexico during their introductory decade from 1940 to 1950. Following Borck (2006), I argue that EEGs adapted to fit local circumstances and that this adjustment led to the consolidation of different ways of making science and the emergence of new objects of study and social types. I also maintain that the way EEGs were introduced into the institutional networks of Mexico entangled them in discussions about the objective and juridical definitions of social groups, thereby preempting concerns about their technical and epistemic limitations...
December 2016: Science in Context
Xiu-Bo Chen, Zhao Dou, Gang Xu, Xiao-Yu He, Yi-Xian Yang
Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Caterina Bartolacci, Cristina Andreani, Augusto Amici, Cristina Marchini
It is an acknowledged fact that health benefits are derived from fruit- and vegetables-enriched diets. In particular, polyphenols, compounds bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, are ascribed for most of such beneficial effects. Among them, resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in numerous plant species, and more notably in grapes, has widely piqued the interest of the scientific community by virtue of its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, evidence claiming resveratrol ability to hinder processes underlying all the three steps of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, progression and metastasization) has propelled an incredibly massive number of studies aimed at enquiring its eventual clinical potential in the fight against cancer...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jiyong Park, Yao Lu, Jaehak Lee, Yangchao Shen, Kuan Zhang, Shuaining Zhang, Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, Kihwan Kim, Hyunchul Nha
A standard method to obtain information on a quantum state is to measure marginal distributions along many different axes in phase space, which forms a basis of quantum-state tomography. We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a general framework to manifest nonclassicality by observing a single marginal distribution only, which provides a unique insight into nonclassicality and a practical applicability to various quantum systems. Our approach maps the 1D marginal distribution into a factorized 2D distribution by multiplying the measured distribution or the vacuum-state distribution along an orthogonal axis...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Laban Kashaija Musinguzi, Emmanueil Benon Turinawe, Jude T Rwemisisi, Daniel H de Vries, David K Mafigiri, Denis Muhangi, Marije de Groot, Achilles Katamba, Robert Pool
BACKGROUND: Community-based programmes, particularly community health workers (CHWs), have been portrayed as a cost-effective alternative to the shortage of health workers in low-income countries. Usually, literature emphasises how easily CHWs link and connect communities to formal health care services. There is little evidence in Uganda to support or dispute such claims. Drawing from linking social capital framework, this paper examines the claim that village health teams (VHTs), as an example of CHWs, link and connect communities with formal health care services...
January 11, 2017: Human Resources for Health
Giovanni Capranico, Jessica Marinello, Giovanni Chillemi
DNA topoisomerases constitute a large family of essential enzymes in all domains of life. Even though they share the general reaction chemistry and the ability to govern DNA topology and resolve strand entanglements during fundamental molecular processes, they are characterized by differences in structural organization, modes of enzymatic catalysis and biological functions. Moreover, hundreds of compounds are known to interfere with bacterial and/or eukaryotic enzymes, and some of them are effective drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancers...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jimmy Faivre, Buddha R Shrestha, Joanna Burdyńska, Guojun Xie, Florina Moldovan, Thierry Delair, Stéphane Benayoun, Laurent David, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Xavier Banquy
We describe the design of lubricating and wear protecting fluids based on synergistic mixtures of bottlebrushes (BB) and linear polymers solutions. To illustrate this concept we used hyaluronic acid (HA) - a naturally occurring linear polyelectrolyte, and a water soluble synthetic BB polymer. Individually, these two polymers exhibit poor wear protecting capabilities compared to saline solutions. Mixture of the two polymers in pure water or in saline allows to drastically increase wear protection of surfaces under a wide range of shearing conditions...
January 10, 2017: ACS Nano
Nosheen Masood, Azra Yasmin
Involvement of micro RNAs (miRNA) is currently the focus for cancer studies as they effect the post transcriptional expression of different genes. Let-7 family is among the firstly discovered miRNAs that play important role in cell proliferation and dysregulation leading to cell based diseases including cancer. Another family, miRNA-200 prevents transformation of cell to malignant form and tumor formation by interacting with epidermal mesenchymal transition (EMT). Similarly miRNA-125 controls apoptosis and proliferation by affecting multiple genes involved in transcription, immunological defense, resistance against viral and bacterial infections that ultimately leads to cell proliferation, metastasis and finally cancer...
January 9, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Julie van der Hoop, Peter Corkeron, Michael Moore
Individuals store energy to balance deficits in natural cycles; however, unnatural events can also lead to unbalanced energy budgets. Entanglement in fishing gear is one example of an unnatural but relatively common circumstance that imposes energetic demands of a similar order of magnitude and duration of life-history events such as migration and pregnancy in large whales. We present two complementary bioenergetic approaches to estimate the energy associated with entanglement in North Atlantic right whales, and compare these estimates to the natural energetic life history of individual whales...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Mario Krenn, Mehul Malik, Manuel Erhard, Anton Zeilinger
The identification of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a fundamental property of a beam of light nearly 25 years ago has led to an extensive body of research around this topic. The possibility that single photons can carry OAM has made this degree of freedom an ideal candidate for the investigation of complex quantum phenomena and their applications. Research in this direction has ranged from experiments on complex forms of quantum entanglement to the interaction between light and quantum states of matter...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Hima Bindu Ruttala, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Beom Soo Shin, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
Although protein-bound paclitaxel (PTX, Abraxane(®)) has been established as a standard PTX-based therapy against multiple cancers, its clinical success is limited by unfavorable pharmacokinetics, suboptimal biodistribution, and acute toxicities. In the present study, we aimed to apply the principles of a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique to improve the poor colloidal stability and pharmacokinetic pattern of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX). LbL-based nab-PTX was successfully fabricated by the alternate deposition of polyarginine (pARG) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly (L-aspartic acid) (PEG-b-PLD) onto an albumin conjugate...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Joseph Knapik, Ryan Steelman
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and analyze articles in which the authors examined risk factors for soldiers during military static-line airborne operations. DATA SOURCES:  We searched for articles in PubMed, the Defense Technical Information Center, reference lists, and other sources using the key words airborne, parachuting, parachutes, paratrooper, injuries, wounds, trauma, and musculoskeletal. STUDY SELECTION:  The search identified 17 684 potential studies...
November 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
John Y Wang, Kimberly N Riehl, Shih Chu Yang, Claryana Araújo-Wang
The Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis) is endemic to inshore and estuarine waters of central western Taiwan. It numbers fewer than 75 individuals, is declining and faces a myriad of human threats. Data from a long-term photo-identification program on these dolphins allowed major injuries to be examined quantitatively. A large proportion (57.7%) of individuals had suffered major human-induced injuries that likely compromised their health, survivorship or reproductive potential and thus, the future of this subspecies...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Abelardo Ramírez-Hernández, Brandon L Peters, Ludwig Schneider, Marat Andreev, Jay D Schieber, Marcus Müller, Juan J de Pablo
Coarse grained simulation approaches provide powerful tools for the prediction of the equilibrium properties of polymeric systems. Recent efforts have sought to develop coarse-graining strategies capable of predicting the non-equilibrium behavior of entangled polymeric materials. Slip-link and slip-spring models, in particular, have been shown to be capable of reproducing several key aspects of the linear response and rheology of polymer melts. In this work, we extend a previously proposed multi-chain slip-spring model in a way that correctly incorporates the effects of the fluctuating environment in which polymer segments are immersed...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
F Giovannercole, C Mérigoux, C Zamparelli, D Verzili, G Grassini, M Buckle, P Vachette, D De Biase
Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (EcGad) is a homohexameric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. It is the structural component of the major acid resistance system that protects E. coli from strong acid stress (pH < 3), typically encountered in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. In fact EcGad consumes one proton/catalytic cycle while yielding γ-aminobutyrate and carbon dioxide from the decarboxylation of l-glutamate. Two isoforms of Gad occur in E. coli (GadA and GadB) that are 99% identical in sequence...
January 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Esteban S Gómez, Santiago Gómez, Pablo González, Gustavo Cañas, Johanna F Barra, Aldo Delgado, Guilherme B Xavier, Adán Cabello, Matthias Kleinmann, Tamás Vértesi, Gustavo Lima
Quantum measurements on a two-level system can have more than two independent outcomes, and in this case, the measurement cannot be projective. Measurements of this general type are essential to an operational approach to quantum theory, but so far, the nonprojective character of a measurement can only be verified experimentally by already assuming a specific quantum model of parts of the experimental setup. Here, we overcome this restriction by using a device-independent approach. In an experiment on pairs of polarization-entangled photonic qubits we violate by more than 8 standard deviations a Bell-like correlation inequality that is valid for all sets of two-outcome measurements in any dimension...
December 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
P-L De Assis, M A D Carvalho, L P Berruezo, J Ferraz, S Pádua
Qudits, d-level quantum systems, have been shown to provide a better resource for quantum key distribution and other Quantum Information protocols. It is customary to generate photonic qudits using more than one degree of freedom of the same photon. In much the same way, multi-qubit states are generated using only a pair of photons and ingenious ways to manipulate more than one degree of freedom independently. In contrast to such costly implementations in terms of quantum resources, we present the controlled generation of two copies of two-qudit states using four photons and a single degree of freedom, transverse momentum...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
Ilya A Fedorov, Alexander E Ulanov, Yury V Kurochkin, A I Lvovsky
We propose and implement a new scheme of generating the optical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state. Parametric down-conversion in two nonlinear crystals, positioned back-to-back in the waist of a pump beam, produces single-mode squeezed vacuum states in orthogonal polarization modes; a subsequent beam splitting entangles them and generates the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state. The technique takes advantage of the strong nonlinearity associated with type-0 phase-matching configuration while, at the same time, eliminating the need for actively stabilizing the optical phase between the two single-mode squeezers...
January 1, 2017: Optics Letters
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